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By January 2020 UNSW Embryology reached a landmark of more than 5,600 content pages and more than 16,000 uploaded files.

Current total number of topic pages - 6,455

This current page contains links to content pages that have been recently updated or added to this site. Please note the Editor is currently on leave and not all site updates are logged on this current page.

UNSW Embryology has now been available online and continuously updated for 23 years!

Since software updated to MediaWiki 1.26.2 the total number of page views magicword is no longer supported. Therefore I cannot continue to provide view count updates from 2016 onwards. Individual pages will also no longer show "number of views" in the footer. 10 Popular Pages below is based upon pre-2016 data.

10 Popular Pages  
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OK these are not my rankings, but by you the viewer.

These are the top ten popular pages based upon page views.

I have excluded the Main page, student projects and undergraduate course pages. Note, this data has not been updated since 1 January 2016, when page visit logs were removed.

1 January 2016 (EST)
  1. Embryonic Development‏‎ (399,216 views)
  2. Placenta Development‏‎ (183,296 views)
  3. Timeline human development‏‎ (154,106 views)
  4. Neural System Development‏‎ (116,916 views)
  5. Mouse Development‏‎ (115,361 views)
  6. Respiratory System Development‏‎ (112,977 views)
  7. Placenta - Abnormalities‏‎ (111,887 views)
  8. Implantation‏‎ (111,620 views)
  9. Fetal Development‏‎ (97,150 views)
  10. Chicken Development‏‎ (89,201 views)
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Saved [525 times between August 21, 2004 and August 22, 2023. The Wayback Machine is an initiative of the Internet Archive, a 501(c)(3) non-profit, building a digital library of Internet sites and other cultural artifacts in digital form.

No changes during the given period match these criteria.


Student Projects 2023: 1 Patterning neural border and NC | 2 NPB NEUcrest | 3 EMT and NC | 4 miRNA and NC | 5 Adrenal Gland and NC | 6 Melanocyte & Melanoma | 7 Neurocristopathies | Neural Crest
These projects are the sole work of undergraduate science students and may contain errors in fact or descriptions.


2020 New References (Expand to see list) 
Mark Hill (talk) 15:48, 8 January 2020 (AEDT) Added this new page to capture updated references added throughout the site in the "Some Recent Findings". Entries are listed alphabetically by topic page. Note that not all new references may be added to this current list. (More? New)
birth weight | birth
  • New Australian Birthweight Centiles[1] "All singleton births in Australia of 23-42 completed weeks' gestation and with spontaneous onset of labour, 2004-2013. Births initiated by obstetric intervention were excluded to minimise the influence of decisions to deliver small for gestational age babies before term. Current birthweight centile charts probably underestimate the incidence of intra-uterine growth restriction because obstetric interventions for delivering pre-term small for gestational age babies depress the curves at earlier gestational ages. Our curves circumvent this problem by excluding intervention-initiated births; they also incorporate more recent population data. These updated centile curves could facilitate more accurate diagnosis of small for gestational age babies in Australia."
blood | Template:Stem cell
  • CHD7 and Runx1 interaction provides a braking mechanism for hematopoietic differentiationPNAS "Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) formation and lineage differentiation involve gene expression programs orchestrated by transcription factors and epigenetic regulators. Genetic disruption of the chromatin remodeler chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 7 (CHD7) expanded phenotypic HSPCs, erythroid, and myeloid lineages in zebrafish and mouse embryos. CHD7 acts to suppress hematopoietic differentiation. Binding motifs for RUNX and other hematopoietic transcription factors are enriched at sites occupied by CHD7, and decreased RUNX1 occupancy correlated with loss of CHD7 localization. CHD7 physically interacts with RUNX1 and suppresses RUNX1-induced expansion of HSPCs during development through modulation of RUNX1 activity. Consequently, the RUNX1:CHD7 axis provides proper timing and function of HSPCs as they emerge during hematopoietic development or mature in adults, representing a distinct and evolutionarily conserved control mechanism to ensure accurate hematopoietic lineage differentiation." OMIM - CHD7 | OMIM - RUNX1
cerebellum | second trimester
  • Morphometric development of the human fetal cerebellum during the early second trimester[2] "The protracted nature of development makes the cerebellum vulnerable to a broad spectrum of pathologic conditions, especially during the early fetal period. This study aims to characterize normal cerebellar growth in human fetuses during the early second trimester. We manually segmented the fetal cerebellum using 7.0-T high-resolution MR images obtained in 35 specimens with gestational ages ranging from 15 to 22 weeks. Volume measurements and shape analysis were performed to quantitatively evaluate global and regional cerebellar growth. The absolute volume of the fetal cerebellum showed a quadratic growth with increasing gestational age, while the pattern of relative volume changes revealed that the cerebellum grew at a greater pace than the cerebrum after 17 gestational weeks. Shape analysis was used to examine the distinctive development of subregions of the cerebellum. The extreme lateral portions of both cerebellar hemispheres showed the lowest rate of growth. The anterior lobe grew faster than most of the posterior lobe. These findings expand our understanding of the early growth pattern of the human cerebellum and could be further used to assess the developmental conditions of the fetal brain."
  • The genetic architecture of the human cerebral cortex[3] "The cerebral cortex underlies our complex cognitive capabilities, yet little is known about the specific genetic loci that influence human cortical structure. To identify genetic variants that affect cortical structure, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 51,665 individuals. We analyzed the surface area and average thickness of the whole cortex and 34 regions with known functional specializations. We identified 199 significant loci and found significant enrichment for loci influencing total surface area within regulatory elements that are active during prenatal cortical development, supporting the radial unit hypothesis. Loci that affect regional surface area cluster near genes in Wnt signaling pathways, which influence progenitor expansion and areal identity. Variation in cortical structure is genetically correlated with cognitive function, Parkinson's disease, insomnia, depression, neuroticism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder."
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
  • Chronic Binge Alcohol Exposure During Pregnancy Alters mTOR System in Rat Fetal hippocampus[4] "We conclude that chronic binge alcohol exposure during pregnancy alters mTORC1 signaling pathway in the fetal hippocampus. We conjecture that this dysregulation of mTOR protein expression, its activity, and downstream proteins may play a critical role in FASD neurobiological phenotypes."
  • In utero MRI identifies consequences of early-gestation alcohol drinking on fetal brain development in rhesus macaques[5] "Early diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is necessary for initiating early therapy, and is the most effective way to reduce risk of long-term adverse outcomes. This study utilized a nonhuman primate model of FASD, and is the first to exploit in utero MRI to detect the effects of early-pregnancy drinking on the fetal brain. Alterations in motor-related brain regions become detectable with in utero MRI at the beginning of the third trimester equivalent in human pregnancy. Follow-up electrophysiological measurements demonstrated that the MRI-identified brain abnormalities are associated with aberrant brain function. These findings demonstrate the sensitivity of in utero MRI, and inform future clinical studies on the timing and brain region of greatest sensitivity to early ethanol exposure."
fly | molecular
  • Multimodal transcriptional control of pattern formation in embryonic development[6] "Predicting how interactions between transcription factors and regulatory DNA sequence dictate rates of transcription and, ultimately, drive developmental outcomes remains an open challenge in physical biology. Using stripe 2 of the even-skipped gene in Drosophila embryos as a case study, we dissect the regulatory forces underpinning a key step along the developmental decision-making cascade: the generation of cytoplasmic mRNA patterns via the control of transcription in individual cells. Using live imaging and computational approaches, we found that the transcriptional burst frequency is modulated across the stripe to control the mRNA production rate. However, we discovered that bursting alone cannot quantitatively recapitulate the formation of the stripe and that control of the window of time over which each nucleus transcribes even-skipped plays a critical role in stripe formation. Theoretical modeling revealed that these regulatory strategies (bursting and the time window) respond in different ways to input transcription factor concentrations, suggesting that the stripe is shaped by the interplay of 2 distinct underlying molecular processes."
gestational diabetes | tooth
  • Gestational diabetes mellitus affects odontoblastic differentiation of dental papilla cells via Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in offspring[7] "Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an important factor involved in the pathogenesis of organ development in the offspring. Here, we analyzed the effects of GDM on odontoblastic differentiation of dental papilla cells (DPCs) and dentin formation in offspring and investigated their underlying mechanisms. A GDM rat model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin and offspring were collected. The results showed that GDM significantly affected odontoblast differentiation and dentin formation in offspring tooth. GDM activated the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB) signaling pathway and inhibited SMAD1/5/9 signaling to modulate the odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs in offspring. Inhibition of TLR4 signaling by treated with TAK-242 significantly reverses the suppression of odonto-differentiation of DPCs in diabetic offspring. Taken together, these data indicate GDM activated the offspring DPCs TLR4/NF-ĸB signaling, which suppressed the SMAD1/5/9 phosphorylation and then inhibited odontoblasts differentiation and dentin formation." tooth
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 7 CDK7 regulates organ size and tumor growth by safeguarding the Hippo pathway effector Yki/Yap/Taz in the nucleus[8] "Hippo signaling controls organ size and tumor progression through a conserved pathway leading to nuclear translocation of the transcriptional effector Yki/Yap/Taz. Most of our understanding of Hippo signaling pertains to its cytoplasmic regulation, but how the pathway is controlled in the nucleus remains poorly understood. Here we uncover an evolutionarily conserved mechanism by which CDK7 promotes Yki/Yap/Taz stabilization in the nucleus to sustain Hippo pathway outputs. We found that a modular E3 ubiquitin ligase complex CRL4DCAF12 binds and targets Yki/Yap/Taz for ubiquitination and degradation, whereas CDK7 phosphorylates Yki/Yap/Taz at S169/S128/S90 to inhibit CRL4DCAF12 recruitment, leading to Yki/Yap/Taz stabilization. As a consequence, inactivation of CDK7 reduced organ size and inhibited tumor growth, which could be reversed by restoring Yki/Yap activity. Our study identifies an unanticipated layer of Hippo pathway regulation, defines a novel mechanism by which CDK7 regulates tissue growth, and implies CDK7 as a drug target for Yap/Taz-driven cancer." OMIM - CDK7
limb | Hox
  • The formation of the thumb requires direct modulation of Gli3 transcription by Hoxa13[9] "In the tetrapod limb, the digits (fingers or toes) are the elements most subject to morphological diversification in response to functional adaptations. However, despite their functional importance, the mechanisms controlling digit morphology remain poorly understood. Here we have focused on understanding the special morphology of the thumb (digit 1), the acquisition of which was an important adaptation of the human hand. To this end, we have studied the limbs of the Hoxa13 mouse mutant that specifically fail to form digit 1. We show that, consistent with the role of Hoxa13 in Hoxd transcriptional regulation, the expression of Hoxd13 in Hoxa13 mutant limbs does not extend into the presumptive digit 1 territory, which is therefore devoid of distal Hox transcripts, a circumstance that can explain its agenesis. The loss of Hoxd13 expression, exclusively in digit 1 territory, correlates with increased Gli3 repressor activity, a Hoxd negative regulator, resulting from increased Gli3 transcription that, in turn, is due to the release from the negative modulation exerted by Hox13 paralogs on Gli3 regulatory sequences. Our results indicate that Hoxa13 acts hierarchically to initiate the formation of digit 1 by reducing Gli3 transcription and by enabling expansion of the 5'Hoxd second expression phase, thereby establishing anterior-posterior asymmetry in the handplate. Our work uncovers a mutual antagonism between Gli3 and Hox13 paralogs that has important implications for Hox and Gli3 gene regulation in the context of development and evolution." limb
inner ear
  • Characterization of the development of the mouse cochlear epithelium at the single cell level[10] "Mammalian hearing requires the development of the organ of Corti, a sensory epithelium comprising unique cell types. The limited number of each of these cell types, combined with their close proximity, has prevented characterization of individual cell types and/or their developmental progression. To examine cochlear development more closely, we transcriptionally profile approximately 30,000 isolated mouse cochlear cells collected at four developmental time points. Here we report on the analysis of those cells including the identification of both known and unknown cell types. Trajectory analysis for OHCs indicates four phases of gene expression while fate mapping of progenitor cells suggests that OHCs and their surrounding supporting cells arise from a distinct (lateral) progenitor pool. Tgfβr1 is identified as being expressed in lateral progenitor cells and a Tgfβr1 antagonist inhibits OHC development."
  • Malaria in Pregnancy and Adverse Birth Outcomes: New Mechanisms and Therapeutic Opportunities[11] "malaria infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we discuss the impact of malaria in pregnancy on three pathways that are important regulators of healthy pregnancy outcomes: L-arginine-nitric oxide biogenesis, complement activation, and the heme axis. These pathways are not mutually exclusive, and they collectively create a proinflammatory, antiangiogenic milieu at the maternal-fetal interface that interferes with placental function and development. We hypothesize that targeting these host-response pathways would mitigate the burden of adverse birth outcomes attributable to malaria in pregnancy."
mammary gland
  • Fry Is Required for mammary gland Development During Pregnant Periods and Affects the Morphology and Growth of Breast Cancer Cells[12] "The Fry gene, located on chromosome 13, is an evolutionarily conserved large protein from yeast to human. Our previous study genetically linked the Fry gene with differential susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis, but whether Fry affects mammary gland development and function, as well as the growth of breast cancer cells, is largely unknown. To define the consequences of Fry loss in the mammary glands, we have generated mice conditionally deficient of the Fry gene in the mammary glands using the Cre-loxP recombination system. We examined multiple phenotypes with male and female homozygous Fry conditional knockout mice (Mfry) and control mice (WT), including body weight, preliminary observations (health and neurological flexes), open field locomotion, sensory abilities, auditory threshold, and glucose metabolism. The loss of Fry in the mammary glands didn't cause a significant difference in these genotypes between Mfry and WT mice. However, our data showed that Fry was required during pregnancy, while it was functionally dispensable in virgin mammary gland development. Loss of Fry led to more lateral buds, and the lobuloalveoli were smaller and showed undistended morphology in mammary glands during late pregnancy. in vitro experiment, ectopic expression of FRY could alter the morphology and significantly suppress the growth and proliferation of the breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 (ER-/PR-/HER2-, Basal-like) and BT474 (ER+/PR+/HER2+, Luminal B). The following genome-wide transcriptomic analysis of these cells suggested that FRY interacted with protein kinases relevant signaling pathways and induced massive changes in gene expression, including the activation of the Hippo/Yap pathway. Together, our data suggest that the FRY is required for mammary glands developments during pregnant periods, and affects breast cancer cell growth and proliferation."
menstrual cycle | hippocampus,
  • Human menstrual cycle variation in subcortical functional brain connectivity: a multimodal analysis approach[13] "Increasing evidence suggests that endogenous sex steroid changes affect human brain functional connectivity, which could be obtained by resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI). Nevertheless, RS studies on the menstrual cycle (MC) are underrepresented and yield inconsistent results. We attribute these inconsistencies to the use of various methods in exploratory approaches and small sample sizes. Hormonal fluctuations along the MC likely elicit subtle changes that, however, may still have profound impact on network dynamics when affecting key brain nodes. To address these issues, we propose a ROI-based multimodal analysis approach focusing on areas of high functional relevance to adequately capture these changes. To that end, sixty naturally cycling women underwent RS-fMRI in three different cycle phases and we performed the following analyses: (1) group-independent component analyses to identify intrinsic connectivity networks, (2) eigenvector centrality (EC) as a measure of centrality in the global connectivity hierarchy, (3) amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) as a measure of oscillatory activity and (4) seed-based analyses to investigate functional connectivity from the ROIs. For (2)-(4), we applied a hypothesis-driven ROI approach in the hippocampus, caudate and putamen. In the luteal phase, we found (1) decreased intrinsic connectivity of the right angular gyrus with the default mode network, (2) heightened EC for the hippocampus, and (3) increased ALFF for the caudate. Furthermore, we observed (4) stronger putamen-thalamic connectivity during the luteal phase and stronger fronto-striatal connectivity during the pre-ovulatory phase. This hormonal modulation of connectivity dynamics may underlie behavioural, emotional and sensorimotor changes along the MC."
  • A practical guide to the stereological assessment of glomerular number, size, and cellular composition[14] "The evaluation of a range of measures in the kidneys, such as developmental stage, rate and success, injury, and disease processes, relies on obtaining information on the three-dimensional structure of the renal corpuscles, and in particular the glomerular capillary tufts. To do this in the most accurate, comprehensive, and unbiased manner depends on a knowledge of stereological methods. In this article, we provide a practical guide for researchers on how to quantitate a number of structures in the kidneys, including the estimation of total glomerular number, glomerular capillary length and filtration surface area, and the cellular composition of individual glomeruli. Guidance is also provided on how to apply these methods to kidneys at different sizes and levels of maturity."
somitogenesis | mesoderm
  • In vitro characterization of the human segmentation clock[15] "The segmental organization of the vertebral column is established early in embryogenesis, when pairs of somites are rhythmically produced by the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). The tempo of somite formation is controlled by a molecular oscillator known as the segmentation clock. Although this oscillator has been well-characterized in model organisms1,2, whether a similar oscillator exists in humans remains unknown. Genetic analyses of patients with severe spine segmentation defects have implicated several human orthologues of cyclic genes that are associated with the mouse segmentation clock, suggesting that this oscillator might be conserved in humans. Here we show that human PSM cells derived in vitro-as well as those of the mouse4-recapitulate the oscillations of the segmentation clock. Human PSM cells oscillate with a period two times longer than that of mouse cells (5 h versus 2.5 h), but are similarly regulated by FGF, WNT, Notch and YAP signalling5. Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals that mouse and human PSM cells in vitro follow a developmental trajectory similar to that of mouse PSM in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate that FGF signalling controls the phase and period of oscillations, expanding the role of this pathway beyond its classical interpretation in 'clock and wavefront' models1. Our work identifying the human segmentation clock represents an important milestone in understanding human developmental biology."
  • Coupling delay controls synchronized oscillation in the segmentation clock[16] "Individual cellular activities fluctuate but are constantly coordinated at the population level via cell-cell coupling. A notable example is the somite segmentation clock, in which the expression of clock genes (such as Hes7) oscillates in synchrony between the cells that comprise the presomitic mesoderm (PSM)1,2. This synchronization depends on the Notch signalling pathway; inhibiting this pathway desynchronizes oscillations, leading to somite fusion3-7. However, how Notch signalling regulates the synchronicity of HES7 oscillations is unknown. Here we establish a live-imaging system using a new fluorescent reporter (Achilles), which we fuse with HES7 to monitor synchronous oscillations in HES7 expression in the mouse PSM at a single-cell resolution. Wild-type cells can rapidly correct for phase fluctuations in HES7 oscillations, whereas the absence of the Notch modulator gene lunatic fringe (Lfng) leads to a loss of synchrony between PSM cells. Furthermore, HES7 oscillations are severely dampened in individual cells of Lfng-null PSM. However, when Lfng-null PSM cells were completely dissociated, the amplitude and periodicity of HES7 oscillations were almost normal, which suggests that LFNG is involved mostly in cell-cell coupling. Mixed cultures of control and Lfng-null PSM cells, and an optogenetic Notch signalling reporter assay, revealed that LFNG delays the signal-sending process of intercellular Notch signalling transmission. These results-together with mathematical modelling-raised the possibility that Lfng-null PSM cells shorten the coupling delay, thereby approaching a condition known as the oscillation or amplitude death of coupled oscillators8. Indeed, a small compound that lengthens the coupling delay partially rescues the amplitude and synchrony of HES7 oscillations in Lfng-null PSM cells. Our study reveals a delay control mechanism of the oscillatory networks involved in somite segmentation, and indicates that intercellular coupling with the correct delay is essential for synchronized oscillation."
  • Conserved Genoarchitecture of the Basal Hypothalamus in zebrafish Embryos[17] "Analyses of genoarchitecture recently stimulated substantial revisions of anatomical models for the developing hypothalamus‎ in mammalian and other vertebrate systems. The prosomeric model proposes the hypothalamus to be derived from the secondary prosencephalon, and to consist of alar and basal regions. The basal hypothalamus can further be subdivided into tuberal and mamillary regions, each with distinct subregions. ...Our comparison of gene expression patterns reveals that the genoarchitecture of the basal hypothalamus in zebrafish embryos 48 hours post fertilization is highly similar to mouse embryos at E13.5. We found the tuberal hypothalamus in zebrafish embryos to be relatively large and to comprise previously ill-defined regions around the posterior hypothalamic recess. The mamillary hypothalamus is smaller and concentrates to rather medial areas in proximity to the anterior end of the neural tube floor plate. Within the basal hypothalamus we identified longitudinal and transverse tuberal and mamillary subregions topologically equivalent to those previously described in other vertebrates. However, the hypothalamic diencephalic boundary region and the posterior tuberculum still provide a challenge."
  1. Joseph FA, Hyett JA, Schluter PJ, McLennan A, Gordon A, Chambers GM, Hilder L, Choi SK & de Vries B. (2020). New Australian birthweight centiles. Med. J. Aust. , , . PMID: 32608051 DOI.
  2. Xu F, Ge X, Shi Y, Zhang Z, Tang Y, Lin X, Teng G, Zang F, Gao N, Liu H, Toga AW & Liu S. (2020). Morphometric development of the human fetal cerebellum during the early second trimester. Neuroimage , 207, 116372. PMID: 31751665 DOI.
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  4. Lee J, Lunde-Young R, Naik V, Ramirez J, Orzabal M & Ramadoss J. (2020). Chronic Binge Alcohol Exposure During Pregnancy Alters mTOR System in Rat Fetal Hippocampus. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. , , . PMID: 32333810 DOI.
  5. Wang X, Cuzon Carlson VC, Studholme C, Newman N, Ford MM, Grant KA & Kroenke CD. (2020). In utero MRI identifies consequences of early-gestation alcohol drinking on fetal brain development in rhesus macaques. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , 117, 10035-10044. PMID: 32312804 DOI.
  6. Lammers NC, Galstyan V, Reimer A, Medin SA, Wiggins CH & Garcia HG. (2020). Multimodal transcriptional control of pattern formation in embryonic development. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , 117, 836-847. PMID: 31882445 DOI.
  7. Lyu Y, Jia S, Wang S, Wang T, Tian W & Chen G. (2020). Gestational diabetes mellitus affects odontoblastic differentiation of dental papilla cells via Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in offspring. J. Cell. Physiol. , 235, 3519-3528. PMID: 31595494 DOI.
  8. Cho YS, Li S, Wang X, Zhu J, Zhuo S, Han Y, Yue T, Yang Y & Jiang J. (2020). CDK7 regulates organ size and tumor growth by safeguarding the Hippo pathway effector Yki/Yap/Taz in the nucleus. Genes Dev. , 34, 53-71. PMID: 31857346 DOI.
  9. Bastida MF, Pérez-Gómez R, Trofka A, Zhu J, Rada-Iglesias A, Sheth R, Stadler HS, Mackem S & Ros MA. (2020). The formation of the thumb requires direct modulation of Gli3 transcription by Hoxa13. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , 117, 1090-1096. PMID: 31896583 DOI.
  10. Kolla L, Kelly MC, Mann ZF, Anaya-Rocha A, Ellis K, Lemons A, Palermo AT, So KS, Mays JC, Orvis J, Burns JC, Hertzano R, Driver EC & Kelley MW. (2020). Characterization of the development of the mouse cochlear epithelium at the single cell level. Nat Commun , 11, 2389. PMID: 32404924 DOI.
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  12. Liu Y, Chen X, Gong Z, Zhang H, Fei F, Tang X, Wang J, Xu P, Zarbl H & Ren X. (2019). Fry Is Required for Mammary Gland Development During Pregnant Periods and Affects the Morphology and Growth of Breast Cancer Cells. Front Oncol , 9, 1279. PMID: 31824855 DOI.
  13. Hidalgo-Lopez E, Mueller K, Harris T, Aichhorn M, Sacher J & Pletzer B. (2020). Human menstrual cycle variation in subcortical functional brain connectivity: a multimodal analysis approach. Brain Struct Funct , , . PMID: 31894405 DOI.
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Mark Hill (talk) 10:56, 13 September 2020 (AEST) Updated placenta, epithelial mesenchymal transition, mesenchymal epithelial transition, morphodynamics | tube formation and apoptosis page reference.


Mark Hill (talk) 05:20, 28 August 2020 (AEST) Updated axolotl and worm current research articles and links.

Mark Hill (talk) 10:39, 27 August 2020 (AEST) Updated enteric nervous system with new information on mouse neural development.

Mark Hill (talk) 11:12, 19 August 2020 (AEST) Updated growth charts page with new references.

Mark Hill (talk) 08:33, 19 August 2020 (AEST) Updated ovary page with new information on mouse follicle development. Updated cerebellum page with new information on medulloblastoma.

Mark Hill (talk) 13:44, 11 August 2020 (AEST) Added draft historic papers from Volume II Contributions to Embryology (1915).

Mark Hill (talk) 11:45, 9 August 2020 (AEST) Updated extraocular muscle page with new references and innervation information.


Mark Hill (talk) 11:04, 28 July 2020 (AEST) Updates stillbirth and perinatal death page with latest (2017) Australian data.

Mark Hill (talk) 11:04, 26 July 2020 (AEST) Generate redirects for historic Endocrine papers that now include year of publication in page title.

Mark Hill (talk) 11:54, 23 July 2020 (AEST) Updated Guthrie test and Placental Cord Blood pages with historic vignette and new references.

Mark Hill (talk) 22:20, 16 July 2020 (AEST) Updated trophoblast page with Rauber's Layer information.


Mark Hill (talk) 14:32, 29 June 2020 (AEST) Updated herbal drugs page with new references and additional information for some drugs.

Mark Hill (talk) 10:49, 29 June 2020 (AEST) Updated BMP page with Formation of primary germ layer–like cells in a micropattern platform orchestrated by BMP signaling.

Mark Hill (talk) 11:32, 25 June 2020 (AEST) Updated George Corner page.


Mark Hill (talk) 10:39, 26 May 2020 (AEST) Updated Medicine practical pages.

Mark Hill (talk) 11:50, 25 May 2020 (AEST) Updated ultrasound page references and intestine page content.

A personal message from Dr Mark Hill (May 2020)  
Mark Hill.jpg
I have decided to take early retirement in September 2020. During the many years online I have received wonderful feedback from many readers, researchers and students interested in human embryology. I especially thank my research collaborators and contributors to the site. The good news is Embryology will remain online and I will continue my association with UNSW Australia. I look forward to updating and including the many exciting new discoveries in Embryology!

Mark Hill (talk) 11:46, 19 May 2020 (AEST) Updated inner ear development with new molecular and historic studies.

Mark Hill (talk) 10:21, 14 May 2020 (AEST) Added sensorimotor cortex timeline table to cortex and timeline pages.


Mark Hill (talk) 11:44, 30 April 2020 (AEST) Updated gastrulation, morphodynamics and fly pages with new morphological concepts in Drosophila gastrulation.

Mark Hill (talk) 12:19, 27 April 2020 (AEST) Updated primordial germ cell and Prenatal Diagnosis pages with new research findings.

Mark Hill (talk) 11:28, 23 April 2020 (AEST) Updated epithelial mesenchymal transition page with new references, figures and molecular information.

Mark Hill (talk) 11:33, 16 April 2020 (AEST) Updated Historic Terminology page layout, content and PubMed links.

Mark Hill (talk) 12:40, 15 April 2020 (AEST) Updated birth weight with Z-score information and also added description to birth terms table.

Mark Hill (talk) 12:38, 7 April 2020 (AEST) Updated genital links with separate female and male sections.


Mark Hill (talk) 09:56, 25 March 2020 (AEDT) Added summary of AIHW Web report (25 Mar 2020) Incidence of insulin-treated diabetes in Australia to Australian Statistics page.

Mark Hill (talk) 11:41, 18 March 2020 (AEDT) Updated main page News section with information on coronavirus.

Mark Hill (talk) 13:26, 16 March 2020 (AEDT) Updated limb development page with new Limb Links table.

Mark Hill (talk) 02:49, 10 March 2020 (AEDT) Updated Ultrasound - Abnormal page.

Mark Hill (talk) 12:11, 5 March 2020 (AEDT) Updated ovary development and ART pages with recent information on ovarian reserve.


Mark Hill (talk) 12:25, 25 February 2020 (AEDT) Updated lymphatic page with addition of Florence Sabin historic vignette. Updated meninges page with information about dura mater lymphatics. Updated ventricular system page with anatomy term links and references.

Mark Hill (talk) 09:31, 21 February 2020 (AEDT) Updated cerebellum with recent research on second trimester development.

Mark Hill (talk) 09:44, 17 February 2020 (AEDT) Replaced site content of historic 1988 NHMRC recommendations with the current NHMRC Guidelines with references to the Clinical Practice Guidelines - Pregnancy Care (2019).

Mark Hill (talk) 00:51, 14 February 2020 (AEDT) Updated temporomandibular joint development on the joint page.

Mark Hill (talk) 15:52, 11 February 2020 (AEDT) Updated pig embryology page.

Mark Hill (talk) 10:58, 2 February 2020 (AEDT) Updated Germany Statistics with important historic embryologist images and links.


Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) electron micrograph
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) electron micrograph (image CDC)

Mark Hill (talk) 12:00, 24 January 2020 (AEDT) Updated renal abnormalities page with information on Nephrotic syndrome.

Mark Hill (talk) 17:27, 21 January 2020 (AEDT) Updated Term Links, there are currently 889 term links.

Mark Hill (talk) 01:27, 21 January 2020 (AEDT) Updated viral infection page with information on coronavirus and Zika virus page with new references.

Mark Hill (talk) 12:25, 17 January 2020 (AEDT) Updated basal ganglia page and hippocampus development with timeline of mouse cortex and hippocampus migration.

Mark Hill (talk) 12:45, 16 January 2020 (AEDT) Updated hair development with information on {{sebaceous gland)).


2019 New References 

Mark Hill (talk) 12:23, 16 June 2019 (AEST) Added this new page to capture updated references added throughout the site in the "Some Recent Findings". Entries are listed alphabetically by topic page. Note that not all new references may be added to this current list. (More? New)

axial skeleton

  • Evolutionary selection and morphological integration in the vertebral column of modern humans[1] "The main objective is to quantify integration, modularity, and response to selection in the presacral vertebral column of modern humans. Seventeen linear variables on each presacral vertebra were collected in 108 modern humans producing a total of ~39,000 measurements. Then, we studied patterns and magnitudes of integration at regional, vertebral, and intra-vertebral levels. Additionally, we calculated the ability of vertebrae to respond to selection by quantifying differences in evolvability, flexibility, and constraint throughout the spine. The results indicate that caudal vertebrae are more evolvable than those located more cranially in the presacral vertebral column, following an increasing pattern of evolvability from the cervical to the lumbar region. Additionally, the atlas and fifth lumbar vertebra show the lowest values of integration, while central thoracic vertebrae display the highest magnitudes of integration. These results could be related to three main factors: body plan organization expressed by the Hox genes, the strong developmental constraints that determine the number of mammalian vertebrae, and, finally, the functional requirements of an adaptation to bipedal locomotion in the human lineage."

blood vessel

  • Review - Molecular identity of arteries, veins, and lymphatics[2] "Arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels are distinguished by structural differences that correspond to their different functions. Each of these vessels is also defined by specific molecular markers that persist throughout adult life; these markers are some of the molecular determinants that control the differentiation of embryonic undifferentiated cells into arteries, veins, or lymphatics. The Eph-B4 receptor and its ligand, ephrin-B2, are critical molecular determinants of vessel identity, arising on endothelial cells early in embryonic development. Eph-B4 and ephrin-B2 continue to be expressed on adult vessels and mark vessel identity. However, after vascular surgery, vessel identity can change and is marked by altered Eph-B4 and ephrin-B2 expression. Vein grafts show loss of venous identity, with less Eph-B4 expression. Arteriovenous fistulas show gain of dual arterial-venous identity, with both Eph-B4 and ephrin-B2 expression, and manipulation of Eph-B4 improves arteriovenous fistula patency. Patches used to close arteries and veins exhibit context-dependent gain of identity, that is, patches in the arterial environment gain arterial identity, whereas patches in the venous environment gain venous identity; these results show the importance of the host infiltrating cells in determining vascular identity after vascular surgery."


  • BMP controls dorsoventral and neural patterning in indirect-developing hemichordates providing insight into a possible origin of chordates[3] "A defining feature of chordates is the unique presence of a dorsal hollow neural tube that forms by internalization of the ectodermal neural plate specified via inhibition of BMP signaling during gastrulation. While BMP controls dorsoventral (DV) patterning across diverse bilaterians, the BMP-active side is ventral in chordates and dorsal in many other bilaterians. How this phylum-specific DV inversion occurs and whether it is coupled to the emergence of the dorsal neural plate are unknown. Here we explore these questions by investigating an indirect-developing enteropneust from the hemichordate phylum, which together with echinoderms form a sister group of the chordates. We found that in the hemichordate larva, BMP signaling is required for DV patterning and is sufficient to repress neurogenesis. We also found that transient overactivation of BMP signaling during gastrulation concomitantly blocked mouth formation and centralized the nervous system to the ventral ectoderm in both hemichordate and sea urchin larvae. Moreover, this mouthless, neurogenic ventral ectoderm displayed a medial-to-lateral organization similar to that of the chordate neural plate. Thus, indirect-developing deuterostomes use BMP signaling in DV and neural patterning, and an elevated BMP level during gastrulation drives pronounced morphological changes reminiscent of a DV inversion. These findings provide a mechanistic basis to support the hypothesis that an inverse chordate body plan emerged from an indirect-developing ancestor by tinkering with BMP signaling."


  • L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel CaV1.2 regulates chondrogenesis during limb development{{#pmid:31591237|PMID31591237}} "All cells, including nonexcitable cells, maintain a discrete transmembrane potential (V mem), and have the capacity to modulate V mem and respond to their own and neighbors' changes in V mem Spatiotemporal variations have been described in developing embryonic tissues and in some cases have been implicated in influencing developmental processes. Yet, how such changes in V mem are converted into intracellular inputs that in turn regulate developmental gene expression and coordinate patterned tissue formation, has remained elusive. Here we document that the V mem of limb mesenchyme switches from a hyperpolarized to depolarized state during early chondrocyte differentiation. This change in V mem increases intracellular Ca2+ signaling through Ca2+ influx, via CaV1.2, 1 of L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs). We find that CaV1.2 activity is essential for chondrogenesis in the developing limbs. Pharmacological inhibition by an L-type VGCC specific blocker, or limb-specific deletion of CaV1.2, down-regulates expression of genes essential for chondrocyte differentiation, including Sox9, Col2a1, and Agc1, and thus disturbs proper cartilage formation. The Ca2+-dependent transcription factor NFATc1, which is a known major transducer of intracellular Ca2+ signaling, partly rescues Sox9 expression. These data reveal instructive roles of CaV1.2 in limb development, and more generally expand our understanding of how modulation of membrane potential is used as a mechanism of developmental regulation."


  • Fetal Growth Restriction Alters Cerebellar Development in Fetal and Neonatal sheep[4] "Fetal growth restriction (FGR) complicates 5-10% of pregnancies and is associated with increased risks of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The development of cerebellar neuropathology in utero, in response to chronic fetal hypoxia, and over the period of high risk for preterm birth, has not been previously studied. ... FGR lambs demonstrated neuropathology within the cerebellum after birth, with a significant, ~18% decrease in the number of granule cell bodies (NeuN+ immunoreactivity) within the internal granular layer (IGL) and an ~80% reduction in neuronal extension and branching (MAP+ immunoreactivity) within the molecular layer (ML). Oxidative stress (8-OHdG+ immunoreactivity) was significantly higher in FGR lambs within the ML and the white matter (WM) compared to control lambs. The structural integrity of neurons was already aberrant in the FGR cerebellum at 115 d GA, and by 124 d GA, inflammatory cells (Iba-1+ immunoreactivity) were significantly upregulated and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was compromised (Pearls, albumin, and GFAP+ immunoreactivity). We confirm that cerebellar injuries develop antenatally in FGR, and therefore, interventions to prevent long-term motor and coordination deficits should be implemented either antenatally or perinatally, thereby targeting neuroinflammatory and oxidative stress pathways."


  • Review - A mechanism for the effect of endocrine disrupting chemicals on placentation[5] "Numerous recent studies have shown that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the body of pregnant women can pass through the placenta and be exposed to the fetus, leading to fetal development and cognitive impairment. Placentation through invasion of trophoblast cells and vascular remodeling is essential to maintaining maternal and fetal health throughout the pregnancy. Abnormal placentation can lead to pregnancy disorders such as preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). However, many studies have not been conducted on whether EDCs can inhibit the development and function of the placenta. Isolating placental tissues to analyze the effect of EDCs on placentation has several limitations. In this review, we discussed the types of EDCs that can pass through the placental barrier and accumulate in the placenta with relative outcome. EDCs can be released from a variety of products including plasticizers, pesticides, and retardant. We also discussed the development and dysfunction of the placenta when EDCs were treated on trophoblast cells or pregnant rodent models. The effects of EDCs on the placenta of livestock are also discussed, together with the molecular mechanism of EDCs acting in trophoblast cells. We describe how EDCs cross the membrane of trophoblasts to regulate signaling pathways, causing genetic and epigenetic changes that lead to changes in cell viability and invasiveness. Further studies on the effects of EDCs on placenta may draw attention to the correct use of products containing EDCs during pregnancy."
  • Toxicokinetics of bisphenol A, bisphenol S, and bisphenol F in a pregnancy sheep model[6] "Bisphenol A (BPA), S (BPS), and F (BPF) are among the most abundant bisphenols detected in humans, yet pregnancy toxicokinetics for BPS or BPF remain unknown. Because gestational BPS can disrupt placental function and result in reproductive and metabolic disorders in the progeny, the aim of the study was to investigate BPS and BPF toxicokinetics during pregnancy using an in vivo approach. ... We observed significant differences in half-life, maximum concentration, and total body clearance in maternal circulation among bisphenols. Longer half-lives were observed in fetal vs. maternal circulation for all bisphenols. Fetal toxicokinetics differed among bisphenols with BPS having the longest fetal half-life. All bisphenols reached basal levels at 48 h in maternal plasma, but were still detectable in amniotic fluid, fetal urine, and fetal plasma at 72 h. In this first pregnancy toxicokinetic study of BPS and BPF we have demonstrated maternal and fetal toxicokinetic differences among all three bisphenols. Higher BPS persistence in the fetal compartment warrants studies into progeny adverse outcomes following gestational exposure. Additionally, toxicokinetic differences among bisphenols call for a more careful approach when extrapolating kinetic information from one bisphenol chemical to another."


  • Survey of cellular immune responses to human cytomegalovirus infection in the microenvironment of the uterine-placental interface[7] "Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is a leading cause of birth defects, yet there are no established treatments for preventing maternal-fetal transmission. During first trimester, HCMV replicates in basal decidua that functions as a reservoir for virus and source of transmission to the attached placenta and fetal hemiallograft but also contains immune cells, including natural killer cells, macrophages, and T cell subsets, that respond to pathogens, protecting the placenta and fetus. However, the specific cellular and cytokine responses to infection are unknown, nor are the immune correlates of protection that guide development of therapeutic strategies. Here we survey immune cell phenotypes in intact explants of basal decidua infected with a clinical pathogenic HCMV strain ex vivo and identify specific changes occurring in response to infection in the tissue environment. Using 4-color immunofluorescence microscopy, we found that at 3 days postinfection, virus replicates in decidual stromal cells and epithelial cells of endometrial glands. Infected cells and effector memory CD8+ T cells (TEM) in contact with them make IFN-γ. CD8+ TEM cells produce granulysin and cluster at sites of infection in decidua and the epithelium of endometrial glands. Quantification indicated expansion of two immune cell subtypes-CD8+ TEM cells and, to a lesser extent, iNKT cells. Approximately 20% of immune cells were found in pairs in both control and infected decidua, suggesting frequent cross-talk in the microenvironment of decidua. Our findings indicate a complex immune microenvironment in basal decidua and suggest CD8+ TEM cells play a role in early responses to decidual infection in seropositive women."

ductus deferens

  • SLC9A3 Affects Vas Deferens Development and Associates with Taiwanese Congenital Bilateral Absence of the Vas Deferens[8] "The pathophysiology of Taiwanese congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) is different from that in Caucasians. In particular, major cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutations and cystic fibrosis are absent in the former. DISCUSSION: Our findings build upon previous data associated with CBAVD pathogenesis. Here, we now report for the first time an association between CBAVD and loss of SLC9A3 and propose that specific defects in the reproductive duct due to SLC9A3 variants drive CBAVD development. CONCLUSION: The data implicate loss of SLC9A3 as a basis of Taiwanese CBAVD and highlight SLC9A3 function in reproduction." OMIM - SLC9A3

epithelial mesenchymal transition

  • p120-catenin regulates WNT signaling and EMT in the mouse embryo.[9] "epithelial mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) require a complete reorganization of cadherin-based cell-cell junctions. p120-catenin binds to the cytoplasmic juxtamembrane domain of classical cadherins and regulates their stability, suggesting that p120-catenin may play an important role in EMTs. Here, we describe the role of p120-catenin in mouse gastrulation, an EMT that can be imaged at cellular resolution and is accessible to genetic manipulation. Mouse embryos that lack all p120-catenin, or that lack p120-catenin in the embryo proper, survive to midgestation. However, mutants have specific defects in gastrulation, including a high rate of p53-dependent cell death, a bifurcation of the posterior axis, and defects in the migration of mesoderm; all are associated with abnormalities in the primitive streak, the site of the EMT. In embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5) mutants, the domain of expression of the streak marker Brachyury (T) expands more than 3-fold, from a narrow strip of posterior cells to encompass more than one-quarter of the embryo. After E7.5, the enlarged T+ domain splits in 2, separated by a mass of mesoderm cells. Brachyury is a direct target of canonical WNT signaling, and the domain of WNT response in p120-catenin mutant embryos, like the T domain, is first expanded, and then split, and high levels of nuclear β-catenin levels are present in the cells of the posterior embryo that are exposed to high levels of WNT ligand. The data suggest that p120-catenin stabilizes the membrane association of β-catenin, thereby preventing accumulation of nuclear β-catenin and excessive activation of the WNT pathway during EMT."

fetal growth restriction

  • Outcomes in patients with early-onset fetal growth restriction without fetal or genetic anomalies[10] "Early-onset fetal growth restriction is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, but frequently is due to fetal structural or chromosomal abnormalities. The objective of this study was to determine outcomes in patients with early-onset fetal growth restriction without diagnosed fetal or genetic anomalies and to identify additional risk factors for poor outcomes in these patients. This was retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies in women with early-onset growth restriction defined as a sonographic estimated fetal weight <10% diagnosed between 16-28 weeks' gestation. We excluded all women with a fetal structural or chromosomal abnormality diagnosed prenatally. Data on pregnancy characteristics and outcomes were collected and analyzed for estimated fetal weight <10% and ≤5%. A nested case-control study within the cohort of patients with ongoing pregnancies was then performed to identify risk factors associated with poor pregnancy outcome using chi-squared test. One hundred forty-two patients were identified who met inclusion and exclusion criteria and 20 patients were found to have fetal structural or chromosomal abnormalities. In the remaining 122 patients, the incidence of intrauterine fetal demise was 5.7% and there were high rates of preterm birth <37 weeks (20%), birth weight <10% (59.3%), and gestational hypertension (14.1%). Later gestational age at diagnosis and the presence of echogenic bowel and abnormal initial umbilical artery Dopplers were associated with poor pregnancy outcome (22.56 versus 20.86 weeks, p = .046), (17.4 versus 2.2%, OR 9.68, 95%CI 1.65-56.73), and (35.3 versus 0%, OR 4.46, 95%CI 2.65-7.50) respectively. Patients with early-onset fetal growth restriction with no fetal structural or genetic abnormality have a high risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Gestational age at diagnosis and certain ultrasound findings are associated with poor pregnancy outcome."


  • A single-cell molecular map of mouse gastrulation and early organogenesis[11] "Across the animal kingdom, gastrulation represents a key developmental event during which embryonic pluripotent cells diversify into lineage-specific precursors that will generate the adult organism. Here we report the transcriptional profiles of 116,312 single cells from mouse embryos collected at nine sequential time points ranging from E6.5 to E8.5 days post-fertilization. We construct a molecular map of cellular differentiation from pluripotency towards all major embryonic lineages, and explore the complex events involved in the convergence of visceral and primitive streak-derived endoderm. Furthermore, we use single-cell profiling to show that Tal1-/- chimeric embryos display defects in early mesoderm diversification, and we thus demonstrate how combining temporal and transcriptional information can illuminate gene function."


  • Bmp4 is an essential growth factor for the initiation of genital tubercle (GT) outgrowth[12] "The external genitalia are appendage organs outgrowing from the posterior body trunk. Murine genital tubercle (GT), anlage of external genitalia, initiates its outgrowth from embryonic day (E) E10.5 as a bud structure. Several growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF), Wnt and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) are essential for the GT outgrowth. However, the mechanisms of initiation of GT outgrowth are poorly understood. We previously identified bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling as a negative regulator for GT outgrowth. We show here novel aspects of Bmp4 functions for GT outgrowth. We identified the Bmp4 was already expressed in cloaca region at E9.5, before GT outgrowth. To analyze the function of Bmp4 at early stage for the initiation of GT outgrowth, we utilized the Hoxa3-Cre driver and Bmp4 flox/flox mouse lines. Hoxa3 Cre/+ ; Bmp4 flox/flox mutant mice showed the hypoplasia of GT with reduced expression of outgrowth promoting genes such as Wnt5a, Hoxd13 and p63, whereas Shh expression was not affected. Formation of distal urethral epithelium (DUE) marked by the Fgf8 expression is essential for controlling mesenchymal genes expression in GT and subsequent its outgrowth. Furthermore, Fgf8 expression was dramatically reduced in such mutant mice indicating the defective DUE formation. Hence, current results indicate that Bmp4 is an essential growth factor for the initiation of GT outgrowth independent of Shh signaling. Thus, Bmp4 positively regulates for the formation of DUE. The current study provides new insights into the function of Bmp signaling at early stage for the initiation of GT outgrowth." BMP


  • Hox genes in the pharyngeal region: how Hoxa3 controls early embryonic development of the pharyngeal organs[13] "The pharyngeal organs, namely the thyroid, thymus, parathyroids, and ultimobranchial bodies, derive from the pharyngeal endoderm during embryonic development. The pharyngeal region is a segmented structure comprised of a series of reiterated structures: the pharyngeal arches on the exterior surface, the pharyngeal pouches on the interior, and a mesenchymal core. It is well known that Hox genes control spatial identity along the anterior-posterior axis of the developing vertebrate embryo, and nowhere is this is more evident than in the pharyngeal region. Each of the distinct segmented regions has a unique pattern of Hox expression, which conveys crucial positional information to the cells and tissues within it. In the context of pharyngeal organ development, molecular data suggest that HOXA3 is responsible for specifying organ identity within the third pharyngeal pouch, and in its absence, thymus and parathyroid organogenesis fails to proceed normally"


  • Development of the Basal Hypothalamus through Anisotropic Growth[14] "The adult hypothalamus is subdivided into distinct domains: pre-optic, anterior, tuberal and mammillary. Each domain harbours an array of neurons that act together to regulate homeostasis. The embryonic origins and development of hypothalamic neurons, however, remains enigmatic. Here we summarise recent studies in model organisms that challenge current views of hypothalamic development, which traditionally have attempted to map adult domains to correspondingly-located embryonic domains that expand isotropically. Instead, new studies indicate that hypothalamic neurons arise from progenitor cells that undergo anisotropic growth in different dimensions. Here we describe how a multipotent Shh/ Fgf10-expressing progenitor population gives rise to progenitors that grow anisotropically, expanding to a greater extent than other progenitors and giving rise to cells throughout the basal hypothalamus. Further, Shh/Fgf10+ive -derived progenitors grow sequentially in different directions from the multipotent Shh/ Fgf10 population: first, a subset displaced rostrally give rise to anterior-ventral/tuberal neuronal progenitors, then a subset displaced caudally give rise to mammillary neuronal progenitors; finally, a subset(s) displaced ventrally give rise to tuberal infundibular glial progenitors. As this occurs, stable populations of Shh+ive and Fgf10+ive progenitors form. We describe current understanding of the mechanisms that induce Shh/Fgf10+ive progenitors, and begin to direct their differentiation to anterior-ventral/tuberal neuronal progenitors, mammillary neuronal progenitors and tuberal infundibular progenitors. Together these studies suggest a new model for hypothalamic development that we term the Anisotropic growth model. We discuss the implications of the model for understanding the origins of adult hypothalamic neurons."

implantation - trophoblast

  • Dynamics of trophoblast differentiation in peri-implantation-stage human embryos[15] "Single-cell RNA sequencing of cells from cultured human blastocysts has enabled us to define the transcriptomic landscape of placental trophoblast (TB) that surrounds the epiblast and associated embryonic tissues during the enigmatic day 8 (D8) to D12 peri-implantation period before the villous placenta forms. We analyzed the transcriptomes of 3 early placental cell types, cytoTB (CTB), syncytioTB (STB), and migratoryTB (MTB), picked manually from cultured embryos dissociated with trypsin and were able to follow sublineages that emerged from proliferating CTB at the periphery of the conceptus. A unique form of CTB with some features of STB was detectable at D8, while mature STB was at its zenith at D10. A form of MTB with a mixed MTB/CTB phenotype arose around D10. By D12, STB generation was in decline, CTB had entered a new phase of proliferation, and mature MTB cells had begun to move from the main body of the conceptus. Notably, the MTB transcriptome at D12 indicated enrichment of transcripts associated with IFN signaling, migration, and invasion and up-regulation of HLA-C, HLA-E, and HLA-G. The STB, which is distinct from the STB of later villous STB, had a phenotype consistent with intense protein export and placental hormone production, as well as migration and invasion. The studies show that TB associated with human embryos is in rapid developmental flux during peri-implantation period when it must invade, signal robustly to the mother to ensure that the pregnancy continues, and make first contact with the maternal immune system."

Template:Induced stem cells

  • Directing differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells toward androgen-producing Leydig cells rather than adrenal cells[16] "Reduced serum testosterone (T), or hypogonadism, affects millions of men and is associated with many pathologies, including infertility, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, and decreased libido and sexual function. Administering T-replacement therapy (TRT) reverses many of the symptoms associated with low T levels. However, TRT is linked to side effects such as infertility and increased risk of prostate cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, there is a need to obtain T-producing cells that could be used to treat hypogonadism via transplantation and reestablishment of T-producing cell lineages in the body. T is synthesized by Leydig cells (LCs), proposed to derive from mesenchymal cells of mesonephric origin. Although mesenchymal cells have been successfully induced into LCs, the limited source and possible trauma to donors hinders their application to clinical therapies. Alternatively, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), which are expandable in culture and have the potential to differentiate into all somatic cell types, have become the emerging source of autologous cell therapies. We have successfully induced the differentiation of hiPSCs into either human Leydig-like (hLLCs) or adrenal-like cells (hALCs) using chemically defined culture conditions. Factors critical for the development of LCs were added to both culture systems. hLLCs expressed all steroidogenic genes and proteins important for T biosynthesis, synthesized T rather than cortisol, secreted steroid hormones in response to dibutyryl-cAMP and 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol, and displayed ultrastructural features resembling LCs. By contrast, hALCs synthesized cortisol rather than T. The success in generating hiPSC-derived hLLCs with broad human LC (hLC) features supports the potential for hiPSC-based hLC regeneration."


  • Analysis of a limb-specific regulatory element in the promoter of the link protein gene[17] "Link protein is encoded by the Hapln1 gene and is a prototypical protein found in the cartilage matrix. It acts as an important component of the endochondral skeleton during early development. To study its transcriptional regulation, promoter fragments derived from the link protein gene were coupled to the β-galactosidase reporter and used to study in vivo transgene expression in mice. In day 15.5 mouse embryos, a link promoter fragment spanning -1020 to +40 nucleotides demonstrated highly specific β-galactosidase staining of skeletal structures, including the appendicular and axial cartilaginous tissues. Two shorter promoter fragments, spanning -690 to +40 and -315 to +40 nucleotides, demonstrated limb- and genitalia-specific expression resembling that of homeodomain-regulated tissues. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a highly conserved, Hox-like binding site (HLBS) at approximately -220 bp of the promoter, shared by both constructs, which contained the Hox-core consensus sequence TAATTA. Electromobility shift assays demonstrated binding of Hox-B4 recombinant protein to the HLBS, which was eliminated with nucleotide substitutions within the core-binding element. Co-transfection analysis of the HLBS demonstrated a 22-fold transcriptional activation by HoxA9 expression, which was ablated with a substitution within the core HLBS element. Together these findings establish promoter regions within the link protein gene that are important for in vivo expression and identify the potential role of homeodomain-containing proteins in controlling cartilage and limb gene expression."


  • A human liver cell atlas reveals heterogeneity and epithelial progenitors[18] "The human liver is an essential multifunctional organ. The incidence of liver diseases is rising and there are limited treatment options. However, the cellular composition of the liver remains poorly understood. Here we performed single-cell RNA sequencing of about 10,000 cells from normal liver tissue from nine human donors to construct a human liver cell atlas. Our analysis identified previously unknown subtypes of endothelial cells, Kupffer cells, and hepatocytes, with transcriptome-wide zonation of some of these populations. We show that the EPCAM+ population is heterogeneous, comprising hepatocyte-biased and cholangiocyte populations as well as a TROP2int progenitor population with strong potential to form bipotent liver organoids. As a proof-of-principle, we used our atlas to unravel the phenotypic changes that occur in hepatocellular carcinoma cells and in human hepatocytes and liver endothelial cells engrafted into a mouse liver. Our human liver cell atlas provides a powerful resource to enable the discovery of previously unknown cell types in normal and diseased livers."
  • The contributions of mesoderm-derived cells in liver development[19] "The liver is an indispensable organ for metabolism and drug detoxification. The liver consists of endoderm-derived hepatobiliary lineages and various mesoderm-derived cells, and interacts with the surrounding tissues and organs through the ventral mesentery. Liver development, from hepatic specification to liver maturation, requires close interactions with mesoderm-derived cells, such as mesothelial cells, hepatic stellate cells, mesenchymal cells, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and hematopoietic cells. These cells affect liver development through precise signaling events and even direct physical contact. Through the use of new techniques, emerging studies have recently led to a deeper understanding of liver development and its related mechanisms, especially the roles of mesodermal cells in liver development. Based on these developments, the current protocols for in vitro hepatocyte-like cell induction and liver-like tissue construction have been optimized and are of great importance for the treatment of liver diseases. Here, we review the roles of mesoderm-derived cells in the processes of liver development, hepatocyte-like cell induction and liver-like tissue construction."


  • Egg incubation temperature influences the growth and foraging behaviour of juvenile lizards[20] "After laying their eggs, oviparous reptiles are reliant on the external environment to provide the required incubation conditions for successful embryonic development. Egg incubation temperature can impact the behaviour of various species of reptiles, but previous experiments have focused on the impact of incubation environment on hatchlings, with only a limited number of studies focussing on the longer-term behavioural consequences of incubation environment. This study investigated the effects of developmental environment on bearded dragon lizards (Pogona vitticeps) that were incubated at different temperatures within the natural range; half of them were incubated at a 'hot' temperature (30 ± 3 °C) and half at a 'cold' temperature (27 ± 3 °C). The growth and foraging behaviour of the lizards was then compared over 18 weeks of development. Although the lizards incubated at a cool temperatures grew more quickly, those incubated at the hotter temperature completed the foraging task more often and had significantly faster running speeds. These results show that egg incubation temperature impacts the foraging behaviour of juvenile lizards and suggest a potential trade-off between growth and foraging speed, which could influence an animal's life history trajectory." DOHAD

maternal diabetes

  • Maternal diabetes induces autism-like behavior by hyperglycemia-mediated persistent oxidative stress and suppression of superoxide dismutase 2Wang X, Lu J, Xie W, Lu X, Liang Y, Li M, Wang Z, Huang X, Tang M, Pfaff DW, Tang YP & Yao P. (2019). Maternal diabetes induces autism-like behavior by hyperglycemia-mediated persistent oxidative stress and suppression of superoxide dismutase 2. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , , . PMID: 31685635 DOI. "Epidemiological studies show that maternal diabetes is associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), although the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. The present study aims to investigate the potential effect of maternal diabetes on autism-like behavior in offspring. The results of in vitro study showed that transient hyperglycemia induces persistent reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation with suppressed superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) expression. Additionally, we found that SOD2 suppression is due to oxidative stress-mediated histone methylation and the subsequent dissociation of early growth response 1 (Egr1) on the SOD2 promoter. Furthermore, in vivo rat experiments showed that maternal diabetes induces SOD2 suppression in the amygdala, resulting in autism-like behavior in offspring. SOD2 overexpression restores, while SOD2 knockdown mimics, this effect, indicating that oxidative stress and SOD2 expression play important roles in maternal diabetes-induced autism-like behavior in offspring, while prenatal and postnatal treatment using antioxidants permeable to the blood-brain barrier partly ameliorated this effect. We conclude that maternal diabetes induces autism-like behavior through hyperglycemia-mediated persistent oxidative stress and SOD2 suppression. Here we report a potential mechanism for maternal diabetes-induced ASD."


  • Molecular recording of mammalian embryogenesis[21] "Ontogeny describes the emergence of complex multicellular organisms from single totipotent cells. This field is particularly challenging in mammals, owing to the indeterminate relationship between self-renewal and differentiation, variation in progenitor field sizes, and internal gestation in these animals. Here we present a flexible, high-information, multi-channel molecular recorder with a single-cell readout and apply it as an evolving lineage tracer to assemble mouse cell-fate maps from fertilization through gastrulation. By combining lineage information with single-cell RNA sequencing profiles, we recapitulate canonical developmental relationships between different tissue types and reveal the nearly complete transcriptional convergence of endodermal cells of extra-embryonic and embryonic origins. Finally, we apply our cell-fate maps to estimate the number of embryonic progenitor cells and their degree of asymmetric partitioning during specification. Our approach enables massively parallel, high-resolution recording of lineage and other information in mammalian systems, which will facilitate the construction of a quantitative framework for understanding developmental processes."

neural | fly

  • N-cadherin orchestrates self-organization of neurons within a columnar unit in the Drosophila medulla[22] "The columnar structure is a basic unit of the brain, but its developmental mechanism remains unknown. The medulla, the largest ganglion of the fly visual center, provides a unique opportunity to reveal the mechanisms of three-dimensional organization of the columns. We reveal that column formation is initiated by three core neurons that establish distinct concentric domains within a column. We demonstrate the in vivo evidence of N-cadherin-dependent differential adhesion among the core columnar neurons within a column along a two-dimensional layer in the larval medulla. The two-dimensional larval columns evolve to form three distinct layers in the pupal medulla. We propose the presence of mutual interactions among the three layers during formation of the three-dimensional structures of the medulla columns."

neural postnatal | smell

  • Dynamic changes in ultrastructure of the primary cilium in migrating neuroblasts in the postnatal brain[23] "New neurons, referred to as neuroblasts, are continuously generated in the ventricular-subventricular zone of the brain throughout an animal's life. These neuroblasts are characterized by their unique potential for proliferation, formation of chain-like cell aggregates, and long-distance and high-speed migration through the rostral migratory stream (RMS) toward the olfactory bulb (OB), where they decelerate and differentiate into mature interneurons. ... Together, our results highlight a close mutual relationship between spatiotemporal regulation of the primary cilium and efficient chain migration of neuroblasts in the postnatal brain. Immature neurons (neuroblasts) generated in the postnatal brain have a mitotic potential and migrate in chain-like cell aggregates toward the olfactory bulb. Here we report that migrating neuroblasts possess a tiny cellular protrusion called a primary cilium. Immunohistochemical studies with zebrafish, mouse, and monkey brains suggest that the presence of the primary cilium in migrating neuroblasts is evolutionarily conserved. Ciliogenesis in migrating neuroblasts in the RMS is suppressed during mitosis and promoted after cell cycle exit. Moreover, live imaging and three-dimensional electron microscopy revealed that ciliary localization and orientation change during saltatory movement of neuroblasts. Our results reveal highly organized dynamics in maturation and positioning of the primary cilium during neuroblast migration that underlie saltatory movement of postnatal-born neuroblasts."

neural crest

  • Review - Hirschsprung disease - Insights on genes, penetrance, and prenatal diagnosis[24] "The objective of this mini-review is to provide insights on the advances in the understanding of the genetic variants associated with different manifestations of Hirschsprung disease, which may present with a range of denervation from a short segment of colon to total colonic and small bowel or extensive aganglionosis. A recent article in this journal documented potential gene variants involved in long-segment Hirschsprung disease in 23 patients. Gene variants were identified using a 31-gene panel of genes related to Hirschsprung disease or enteric neural crest cell development, as previously reported in the literature. The study identified potentially harmful variants in eight genes across 13 patients, with a detection rate of 56.5% (13/23 patients). Five patients had pathologic variants in RET, NRG1, and L1CAM, and the remainder were considered variants of unknown significance. The authors attempted prenatal diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease utilizing an amniocentesis sample obtained for advanced maternal age in a family with a known deleterious RET mutation, manifested in the father (long-segment Hirschsprung disease) and older daughter (total colonic aganglionosis). The fetus had the same RET variant but, after several years of follow-up, has not developed any symptoms of Hirschsprung disease, supporting the conclusion that this RET mutation is an autosomal dominant gene with incomplete penetrance. This experience suggests that genetic counseling is appropriate to carefully assess the justification of prenatal testing, especially, when the phenotype of long-segment Hirschsprung disease is so variable and the disease is potentially curable with surgery."


  • Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing to detect chromosome aneuploidies in 57,204 pregnancies[25] "Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) has been widely used to detect common fetal chromosome aneuploidies, such as trisomy 13, 18, and 21 (T13, T18, and T21), and has expanded to sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) during recent years, but few studies have reported NIPT detection of rare fetal chromosome aneuploidies (RCAs). In this study, we evaluated the clinical practical performance of NIPT to analyze all 24 chromosome aneuploidies among 57,204 pregnancies in the Suzhou area of China. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected NIPT data from two next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms (Illumina and Proton) obtained from The Affiliated Suzhou Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. NIPT results were validated by karyotyping or clinical follow-up. RESULTS: NIPT using the Illumina platform identified 586 positive cases; fetal karyotyping and follow-up results validated 178 T21 cases, 49 T18 cases, 4 T13 cases, and 52 SCAs. On the Proton platform, 270 cases were positive during NIPT. Follow-up confirmed 85 T21 cases, 17 T18 cases, 4 T13 cases, 28 SCAs, and 1 fetal chromosome 22 aneuploidy case as true positives. There were 5 false-negative results, including 4 T21 and 1 T18 cases. The NGS platforms showed similar sensitivities and positive predictive values (PPVs) in detecting T21, T18, T13 and SCAs (p > 0.01). However, the Proton platform showed better specificity in detecting 45, X and the Illumina platform had better specificity in detecting T13 (p < 0.01). The major factor contributing to NIPT false-positives on the Illumina platform was false SCAs cases (65.11%). Maternal chromosome aneuploidies, maternal cancers, and confined placental mosaicism caused discordant results between fetal karyotyping and NIPT. CONCLUSION: NIPT with NGS showed good performance for detecting T13, T18, and T21. The Proton platform had better performance for detecting SCAs, but the NIPT accuracy rate for detecting RCAs was insufficient."

preterm birth

  • Risk of spontaneous preterm birth and fetal growth associates with fetal SLIT2[26] "Spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) is the leading cause of neonatal death and morbidity worldwide. Both maternal and fetal genetic factors likely contribute to SPTB. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on a population of Finnish origin that included 247 infants with SPTB (gestational age [GA] < 36 weeks) and 419 term controls (GA 38-41 weeks). The strongest signal came within the gene encoding slit guidance ligand 2 (SLIT2; rs116461311, minor allele frequency 0.05, p = 1.6×10-6). ... Our results show that the fetal SLIT2 variant and both SLIT2 and ROBO1 expression in placenta and trophoblast cells may be correlated with susceptibility to SPTB. SLIT2-ROBO1 signaling was linked with regulation of genes involved in inflammation, PSG genes, decidualization and fetal growth. We propose that this receptor-ligand couple is a component of the signaling network that promotes SPTB." OMIM - SLIT2 | OMIM - ROBO1


  • XY oocytes of sex-reversed females with a Sry mutation deviate from the normal developmental process beyond the mitotic stage[27] "The fertility of sex-reversed XY female mice is severely impaired by a massive loss of oocytes and failure of meiotic progression. This phenomenon remains an outstanding mystery. We sought to determine the molecular etiology of XY oocyte dysfunction by generating sex-reversed females that bear genetic ablation of Sry, a vital sex determination gene, on an inbred C57BL/6 background. These mutant mice, termed XYsry- mutants, showed severe attrition of germ cells during fetal development, resulting in the depletion of ovarian germ cells prior to sexual maturation. Comprehensive transcriptome analyses of primordial germ cells (PGCs) and postnatal oocytes demonstrated that XYsry- females had deviated significantly from normal developmental processes during the stages of mitotic proliferation. The impaired proliferation of XYsry- PGCs was associated with aberrant β-catenin signaling and the excessive expression of transposable elements. Upon entry to the meiotic stage, XYsry- oocytes demonstrated extensive defects, including the impairment of crossover formation, the failure of primordial follicle maintenance, and no capacity for embryo development. Together, these results suggest potential molecular causes for germ cell disruption in sex-reversed female mice, thereby providing insights into disorders of sex differentiation in humans, such as "Swyer syndrome," in which patients with an XY karyotype present as typical females and are infertile."

Trisomy 21

  • First trimester uterine artery pulsatility index levels in euploid and aneuploid pregnancies[28] "To examine whether the uterine artery PI is different in aneuploid and euploid pregnancies. METHODS: Retrospective case-matched study at the department of prenatal medicine at the University of Tuebingen, Germany. The study involved patients with complete data on first trimester screening for trisomies and preeclampsia except PlGF. For each case with trisomy 21 we randomly selected 50 cases with a euploid fetus where complete data on screening for aneuploidy and preeclampsia were also available. The uterine artery pulsatility index and the corresponding MoM values of euploid and the aneuploid population were compared with a Man-Whitney U test. RESULTS: The dataset consisted of 4591 singleton pregnancies. The karyotype was normal in 4500 cases and was abnormal in the remaining 91 pregnancies. There were 50 pregnancies with trisomy 21, 31 with trisomy 18 and 13, and 10 with triploidy. In the group with euploid fetuses, median uterine artery PI was 1.55 (0.99 MoM). In the group with trisomy 21, the median PI (1.42) and MoM (0.89) levels were both significantly lower than in the euploid (p < 0.001). However, the measurements in the trisomy 18 and 13 [1.61 (0.93 MoM)] and in the triploidy [1.99 (1.13 MoM)] groups were not significantly different from those in the euploid group (p = 0.468 and p = 0.632, respectively). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, uterine artery PI levels in the first trimester are slightly lower in pregnancies with trisomy 21. This knowledge may prove to be useful in cases where a low PAPP-A level is seen on the first trimester maternal serum biochemical evaluation to differentiate whether the more likely cause for this finding is placental dysfunction or aneuploidy, specifically trisomy 21."


  • VACTERL Association in a Female pig (Sus scrofa domesticus)[29] "VACTERL/VATER association is a condition defined by the presence of at least three of the following congenital malformations: vertebral defects (V), anal atresia (A), cardiac defects (C), tracheo-oesophageal fistula (TE), renal anomalies (R) and limb abnormalities (L). We describe a stillborn female piglet with cardiac anomalies, renal defects, vertebral anomalies, anal atresia and a single umbilical artery (SUA), which are the main features of VACTERL association. In addition, the piglet had a unilateral abdominal wall defect. This was the only affected animal in a litter of 16 piglets. The molecular inductive mechanisms of this disorder are discussed, as well as the comparative and embryological implications."


  • Venous Collateral Pathways in Superior Thoracic Inlet Obstruction: A Systematic Analysis of Anatomy, Embryology, and Resulting Patterns[30] "For this study, we reviewed 56 standard-of-care CT examinations over a timespan of 2 years from patients with superior thoracic inlet venous obstruction and identified eight thoracic collateral pathways for venous blood return to the right heart. We evaluated each pathway individually from an anatomic and a pathophysiologic perspective for a better understanding of how such pathways form and what patterns can be expected. ... Recognizing imaging findings associated with venous collateral pathways may prevent misdiagnosis or unnecessary follow-up examinations. Furthermore, knowledge of these collateral pathways and an understanding of the underlying cause can support interventional radiologists and vascular surgeons in planning interventional procedures and revascularization procedures."

X inactivation

  • The bipartite TAD organization of the X-inactivation center ensures opposing developmental regulation of Tsix and Xist[31] "The mouse X-inactivation center (Xic) locus represents a powerful model for understanding the links between genome architecture and gene regulation, with the non-coding genes Xist and Tsix showing opposite developmental expression patterns while being organized as an overlapping sense/antisense unit. The Xic is organized into two topologically associating domains (TADs) but the role of this architecture in orchestrating cis-regulatory information remains elusive. To explore this, we generated genomic inversions that swap the Xist/Tsix transcriptional unit and place their promoters in each other's TAD. We found that this led to a switch in their expression dynamics: Xist became precociously and ectopically upregulated, both in male and female pluripotent cells, while Tsix expression aberrantly persisted during differentiation. The topological partitioning of the Xic is thus critical to ensure proper developmental timing of X inactivation. Our study illustrates how the genomic architecture of cis-regulatory landscapes can affect the regulation of mammalian developmental processes."


  • Pleomorphic Adenoma Gene 1 Is Needed For Timely Zygotic Genome Activation and Early Embryo Development[32] "Pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) is a transcription factor involved in cancer and growth. We discovered a de novo DNA motif containing a PLAG1 binding site in the promoters of genes activated during zygotic genome activation (ZGA) in human embryos. This motif was located within an Alu element in a region that was conserved in the murine B1 element. We show that maternally provided Plag1 is needed for timely mouse preimplantation embryo development. Heterozygous mouse embryos lacking maternal Plag1 showed disrupted regulation of 1,089 genes, spent significantly longer time in the 2-cell stage, and started expressing Plag1 ectopically from the paternal allele. The de novo PLAG1 motif was enriched in the promoters of the genes whose activation was delayed in the absence of Plag1. Further, these mouse genes showed a significant overlap with genes upregulated during human ZGA that also contain the motif. By gene ontology, the mouse and human ZGA genes with de novo PLAG1 motifs were involved in ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis. Collectively, our data suggest that PLAG1 affects embryo development in mice and humans through a conserved DNA motif within Alu/B1 elements located in the promoters of a subset of ZGA genes."


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NSW Mothers and Babies 2018
NSW Mothers and Babies 2018

Mark Hill (talk) 11:06, 24 December 2019 (AEDT) Updated Term Links, there are currently 874 term links.

Mark Hill (talk) 10:17, 22 December 2019 (AEDT) Updated Australian Statistics with NSW Mothers and Babies 2018 information.

Mark Hill (talk) 12:13, 13 December 2019 (AEDT) Updated Human System Development page with tables of Adult Human Cell Types, Ectoderm Cell Types, Mesoderm Cell Types and Endoderm Cell Types.

Mark Hill (talk) 11:36, 12 December 2019 (AEDT) Updated smell development page with reference information about migrating neuroblasts in the postnatal brain.

Mark Hill (talk) 11:44, 3 December 2019 (AEDT) Updated neural crest introductory page, chicken development and Developmental Origins of Health and Disease pages.


Australia Congenital heart disease 2016–17
Australia Congenital heart disease 2016–17

Mark Hill (talk) 10:56, 14 November 2019 (AEDT) Updated Hox page with human classification table.

Mark Hill (talk) 9:11, 7 November 2019 (AEDT) Updated Australian Statistics with Congenital heart disease in Australia Report (07 Nov 2019)[1]


The Editor is in Barcelona and Madrid as part of the Digital Embryology Consortium research project.

Digital Embryology Consortium information

Mark and AxioScanZ1.jpg

University of Madrid Sep2019 01.jpg University of Madrid Sep2019 02.jpg


  1. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2019. Congenital heart disease in Australia. Cat. no. CDK 14. Canberra: AIHW.

Update Archive 1997-2019

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1997 Links: Hill MA. Embryology (electronic resource): an interactive tutorial and reference resource. (1997) School of Anatomy, University of New South Wales. NLA holding | Internet Archive CD

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