|Embryology - 22 Jul 2017 Expand to Translate|
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- 1 Introduction
- 2 Chicken Stages
- 3 Some Recent Findings
- 4 Gallus gallus
- 5 Chicken Movies
- 6 Other Chicken Atlases
- 7 Bird Evolution
- 8 Chicken Genomics
- 9 Chicken Sex Determination
- 10 Chicken Heart
- 11 Chicken Somitogenesis
- 12 Chicken Limb
- 13 Head
- 14 Historic Studies
- 15 References
- 16 Additional Images
- 17 External Links
- 18 Glossary Links
Introduction, which allowed specifc developmental landmarks to be seen and correlated with experimental manipulations of development. This much cited paper included images of all key stages and was more recently republished in the journal Developmental Dynamics (1993), for a new generation of avian researchers. Probably just as important has been the recent chicken genome sequencing, providing a resource to extend our knowledge of this excellent developmental model.
Fertilized eggs can be easily maintained in humidified incubators and during early stages of development the embryo floats on to of the egg yolk that it is using for nutrition. As the embryo grows it sinks into, or below the, yolk. The regular appearance of somites allowed early experimenters to acurately stage the embryo. The embryo was accessible and easy to manipulate (limb grafts/removal etc) that were informative about developmental processes. Chicken cells and tissues (neural ganglia/fragments) are also easy to grow in tissue culture. The discovery that quail cells have a different nuclear appearance meant that transplanted cells (chick/quail chimeras) could be tracked during development. For example, LeDourian's studies showed how neural crest cells migrate widely throughout the embryo.
|This collapsible and sortable table compares the chicken incubation period with other bird species.|
|Chicken Links: Introduction | Chicken stages | Hamburger Hamilton Stages | Witschi Stages | Placodes | Category:Chicken|
Chicken stages - Hamburger & Hamilton staged the chicken embryo in 1951. The original paper had approx 25 citations between 1955 - 59, while in the year 1991 alone there were over 300 citations. Series of Embryonic Chicken Growth. J. Morphology, 88 49 - 92 (1951). Atlas recently republished by J.R. Sanes in Developmental Dynamics 195 229-275 (1993).
The Hamburger Hamilton Stages are most commonly used series for chicken staging. Note that there was also an earlier Witschi staging, and a 1900 staging series by Franz Keibel and Karl Abraham, and an earlier (1883) series by Foster, Balfour, Sedgwick, and Heape.
- Links: Chicken Stages | Hamburger Hamilton | Witschi | 1900 | 1883 | PDF Poster- Hamburger Hamilton Stages | 2006 reproduction of the original paper
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Ahmed Orabi, Ashraf Hussein, Ayman A Saleh, Mohammed Abu El-Magd, Muhammad Munir Evolutionary insights into the fusion protein of Newcastle disease virus isolated from vaccinated chickens in 2016 in Egypt. Arch. Virol.: 2017; PubMed 28689234
Cynthia Faux, Daniel J Field Distinct developmental pathways underlie independent losses of flight in ratites. Biol. Lett.: 2017, 13(7); PubMed 28679696
Dovilė Kavaliauskaitė, Donatas Stakišaitis, Justė Martinkutė, Lina Šlekienė, Arūnas Kazlauskas, Ingrida Balnytė, Vaiva Lesauskaitė, Angelija Valančiūtė The Effect of Sodium Valproate on the Glioblastoma U87 Cell Line Tumor Development on the Chicken Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane and on EZH2 and p53 Expression. Biomed Res Int: 2017, 2017;6326053 PubMed 28642877
Joachim C Manning, Gabriel García Caballero, Clemens Knospe, Herbert Kaltner, Hans-Joachim Gabius Network analysis of adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins and their binding sites in adult chicken retina and choroid. J. Anat.: 2017; PubMed 28425099
Xiaoyu Wang, Hui Hong, David H Brown, Jason Tait Sanchez, Yuan Wang Distinct Neural Properties in the Low-Frequency Region of the Chicken Cochlear Nucleus Magnocellularis. eNeuro: 2017, 4(2); PubMed 28413822
Taxonomy Id: 9031
Preferred common name: chicken
Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard) Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 2
Other names: dwarf Leghorn chickens (includes), red jungle fowl (includes), chickens (common name), Gallus domestics (misnomer), Gallus galls domesticus (misnomer)
Lineage (abbreviated ): Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Archosauria; Aves; Neognathae; Galliformes; Phasianidae; Phasianinae; Gallus
|Neural crest migration Chicken Head (movies overview)|
- Links: Movies
Other Chicken Atlases
Vertebrate and Invertebrate Embryos (7th Edition) G.C. Schoenwolf, Prentice Hall, New Jersey
An Atlas of Embryology (1975) W.H. Freeman and B. Bracegirdle, Heinemann Educational Books, UK.
This is an ATLAS (no description of development) , basically reprinted from the original 1963 edition.
Photos with labelled diagrams covering Amphioxus (worm) Frog, Chicken.
An Atlas for Staging Mammalian and Chick Embryos (1987) H. Bultler and B.H. Juurlink, CRC Press Inc., Florida
This ATLAS is not a complete series of development but has interesting comparisons of species.
Mostly photos of embryos with a few drawn diagrams and a series of staging correlation graphs.
The first draft of the chicken genome was publicly released in March, 2004. There are a number of sites that have begun looking into establishing chicken genomics partly due to its powerful history as a model of vertebrate development that is easy to observe, manipulate and is also cheap. (see also NIH Proposal for Chicken Genomics | NCBI Chicken Genome Resources)
A summary of chicken genome resources has recently been identified in a review in Developmental Dynamics by Antin PB and Konieczka JH.
Chicken Sex Determination
In chicken development sex determination depends on a ZZ male/ZW female mechanism.
This differs from mammalian sex determination which is based upon testis expression of an Sry gene in somatic supporting Sertoli cells.
In the gonad, the coelomic epithelium contributes only to non-steroidogenic interstitial cells and nephrogenous mesenchyme contributes both Sertoli cells and steroidogenic cells.
Primordial Germ Cell Migration Model
|HH12–13 - yolk sac circulation courses in loop (red arrows) to enter the embryo via the heart. The majority of PGCs (green dots) localized axially at the border between the area opaca and pellucida, where the sinus terminalis converged in the anterior vitelline veins.||HH14–16 - PGCs (green dots) circulated effectively towards the embryo via the sinus terminalis and the anterior vitelline veins towards the heart. Then PGCs traffic via the aorta to the caudal part of the embryo and become lodged in the genital ridges.|
Chicken Cardiac Stages
From review </pubmed>
- HH 8 (26–29 HOURS, 4–6 SOMITES)
- HH 9 (29–33 hours, 7–9 somites) - Cardiac neural crest cells begin the process of EMT and emigrate from the neural tube.
- HH 10–11 (33–45 hours, 10–15 somites) - Primary heart tube
- HH 12-13- (45–49 hours, 16–19 somites) - dextral-looping phase of looping completed at stage 12.
- HH 13+ (50–52 hours, 20–21 somites) - c-shaped heart loop transformed into the s-shaped heart loop. Cardiac neural crest has stopped producing cells.
|Gene expression||Somite timing|
Chick somitogenesis oscillator
Chicken body elongation model
Limb Hairy2 Expression Model
Hairy2 is a "molecular oscillator" involved in both somite and limb development.
Chicken stage 21 to 27 wing bud Tbx2 and Tbx3 expression
The following gene expression data is from a study of different head regions during development.
- Frontonasal Prominence - CASH1/ASCL1, POSTN, OGN, CYP26A1, NR2E1, and SCARA5.
- Olfactory epithelium SP8, EYA2, and SIX3
- Maxillary/Trigeminal Ganglion - SOX10, TAGLN3.
- Mandibular - DLX1, HAND2 (highest), LHX8, MSX2, PITX2, and TWIST2.
- Mandibular/maxillary prominences differentially expressed - BETA3, HAND2, and MSX2.
The Elements of Embryology - Volume 1 by Foster, M., Balfour, F. M., Sedgwick, A., & Heape, W. (1883)
The History of the Chick: Egg structure and incubation beginning | Summary whole incubation | First day | Second day - first half | Second day - second half | Third day | Fourth day | Fifth day | Sixth day to incubation end
- V Hamburger, H L Hamilton A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. 1951. Dev. Dyn.: 1992, 195(4);231-72 PubMed 1304821
- Keibel F. and Abraham K. Normal Plates of the Development of the Chicken Embryo (Gallus domesticus). (1900) Vol. 2 in series by Keibel F. Normal plates of the development of vertebrates (Normentafeln zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbelthiere) Fisher, Jena., Germany.
- Foster M. Balfour FM. Sedgwick A. and Heape W. The Elements of Embryology (1883) Vol. 1. (2nd ed.). London: Macmillan and Co.
- Yuji Atsuta, Yoshiko Takahashi FGF8 coordinates tissue elongation and cell epithelialization during early kidney tubulogenesis. Development: 2015, 142(13);2329-37 PubMed 26130757
- Christie A Canaria, Rusty Lansford 4D fluorescent imaging of embryonic quail development. Cold Spring Harb Protoc: 2011, 2011(11);1291-4 PubMed 22046043
- Julia Clarke, Kevin Middleton Bird evolution. Curr. Biol.: 2006, 16(10);R350-4 PubMed 16713939
- Bent E K Lindow, Gareth J Dyke Bird evolution in the Eocene: climate change in Europe and a Danish fossil fauna. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc: 2006, 81(4);483-99 PubMed 16893476
- Parker B Antin, Jay H Konieczka Genomic resources for chicken. Dev. Dyn.: 2005, 232(4);877-82 PubMed 15739221 | Developmental Dynamics
- Ana De Melo Bernardo, Kaylee Sprenkels, Gabriela Rodrigues, Toshiaki Noce, Susana M Chuva De Sousa Lopes Chicken primordial germ cells use the anterior vitelline veins to enter the embryonic circulation. Biol Open: 2012, 1(11);1146-52 PubMed 23213395 | PMC3507194 | Biol Open
- Isabel Olivera-Martinez, Hidekiyo Harada, Pamela A Halley, Kate G Storey Loss of FGF-dependent mesoderm identity and rise of endogenous retinoid signalling determine cessation of body axis elongation. PLoS Biol.: 2012, 10(10);e1001415 PubMed 23118616 | PLoS Biol.
- Caroline J Sheeba, Raquel P Andrade, Isabel Palmeirim Joint interpretation of AER/FGF and ZPA/SHH over time and space underlies hairy2 expression in the chick limb. Biol Open: 2012, 1(11);1102-10 PubMed 23213390 | PMC3507187 | Biol Open
- Malcolm Fisher, Helen Downie, Monique C M Welten, Irene Delgado, Andrew Bain, Thorsten Planzer, Adrian Sherman, Helen Sang, Cheryll Tickle Comparative analysis of 3D expression patterns of transcription factor genes and digit fate maps in the developing chick wing. PLoS ONE: 2011, 6(4);e18661 PubMed 21526123 | PLoS One.
- Marcela Buchtová, Winston Patrick Kuo, Suresh Nimmagadda, Shari L Benson, Poongodi Geetha-Loganathan, Cairine Logan, Timothy Au-Yeung, Eric Chiang, Katherine Fu, Joy M Richman Whole genome microarray analysis of chicken embryo facial prominences. Dev. Dyn.: 2010, 239(2);574-91 PubMed 19941351
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Chicken Development. Retrieved July 22, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Chicken_Development