Germany Statistics

From Embryology



This page links to the current online resources available to explore German population and birth data.

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| Category:Germany


  • Otto Leonhardt Heubner (1843-1926) was appointed to the first professorship in Germany exclusively devoted to pediatrics at the Charité Children's Clinic of Berlin University. He studied internal medicine in Leipzig under Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich and Ernst Leberecht Wagner, his early research involved anatomical studies of the circulation of the brain, from which he described syphilitic endarteritis (Heubner's disease) and the medial striate artery (recurrent artery of Heubner). He then with the Max Rubner, studied energy metabolism in infancy, creating the notion of the nutrition quotient.[1]

Some Recent Findings

  • Variations of sex development: The first German interdisciplinary consensus paper[2] "The term variations of sex development subsumes a large number of congenital conditions including chromosomal mosaics and variations of chromosomal, gonadal, and phenotypic sex. A situation of this nature may cause severe distress to both, parents and affected persons. One of the reasons for this is the binary form of gender classification in the society. In the past, because of a fear of possible stigmatization and an inability to cope with complex situations, it has been medical policy and practice for newborns to undergo early, mostly 'feminizing' elective surgery with the aim of achieving an outer genital appearance that is unambiguously male or female. Protests by advocacy groups for the most part as well as the results of outcome studies have shown that the development of affected persons may be very different to what has been expected and often does not result in the intended clear female or male gender identity as had been intended. CONCLUSION: The introduction of the consensus paper reflects on the emerging paradigm shift and the necessity for a more open view of gender within society. The paper is intended to aid the performance of appropriate diagnostics in DSD-affected newborns and especially to help parents and affected persons cope with the biological and social consequences of DSD. With regard to medical or surgical therapy, it gives information about the most recent treatment trends." genital abnormalities
  • DEGUM, ÖGUM, SGUM and FMF Germany Recommendations for the Implementation of First-Trimester Screening, Detailed Ultrasound, Cell-Free DNA Screening and Diagnostic Procedures[3] " First-trimester screening between 11 + 0 and 13 + 6 weeks with qualified prenatal counseling, detailed ultrasound, biochemical markers and maternal factors has become the basis for decisions about further examinations. It detects numerous structural and genetic anomalies. The inclusion of uterine artery Doppler and PlGF screens for preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Low-dose aspirin significantly reduces the prevalence of severe preterm eclampsia. Cut-off values define groups of high, intermediate and low probability. Prenatal counseling uses detection and false-positive rates to work out the individual need profile and the corresponding decision: no further diagnosis/screening - cell-free DNA screening - diagnostic procedure and genetic analysis. In pre-test counseling it must be recognized that the prevalence of Trisomy 21, 18 or 13 is low in younger women, as in submicroscopic anomalies in every maternal age. Even with high specificities, the positive predictive values of screening tests for rare anomalies are low. In the general population trisomies and sex chromosome aneuploidies account for approximately 70 % of anomalies recognizable by conventional genetic analysis. Screen positive results of cfDNA tests have to be proven by diagnostic procedure and genetic diagnosis. In cases of inconclusive results a higher rate of genetic anomalies is detected. Procedure-related fetal loss rates after chorionic biopsy and amniocentesis performed by experts are lower than 1 to 2 in 1000. Counseling should include the possible detection of submicroscopic anomalies by comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). At present, existing studies about screening for microdeletions and duplications do not provide reliable data to calculate sensitivities, false-positive rates and positive predictive values." ultrasound
Older papers  
These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.

See also the Discussion Page for other references listed by year and References on this current page.

  • Stillbirths in Germany 2003 - 2011[4] "Searches in the international peer-reviewed literature, retrospective data collection of 168 stillbirths in 8 hospitals, (in the area of Bonn) with subsequent statistical evaluation (descriptive statistics, t-test and binominal test) were undertaken. This study shows considerable deficits in data documentation, interdisciplinary communication and postmortal examination. Only in 51.8% (87/168) of the cases was a certain or uncertain cause of death found (42.3% placental, 1.2% foetal, 3.6% chromosomal, 4.8% umbilical cord abnormalities). Severe foetal growth restriction (<5(th) percentile) was observed in 29.2%; 44.9% (22/49) of them died at the age of ≥36+0 weeks of gestation." Birth - Stillbirth and Perinatal Death

Germany - Total Fertility Rate

Germany fertility rate graph.jpg

Mean Age of Mothers

Mean age of mothers at the birth of live-born children (2006-9)
Specification Unit 2006 2007 2008 2009
Total Age 30.1 30.3 30.4 30.4

Married mothers (Referring to children from the present marriage)

Total Age 31.1 31.2 31.3 31.4
At birth of first child Age 29.8 29.9 30.1 30,2
At birth of second child Age 31.5 31.6 31.8 31,9
At birth of third child Age 32.9 33.0 33.2 33.3
Unmarried mothers Age 28.0 28.2 28.3 28.5
Data Source: German Statistics

   Links: Germany Statistics | maternal age

General Statistics

  • 80,457,737 (July 2018 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 19

Age structure

(2011 est.)

  • 0-14 years: 13.3% (male 5,569,390/female 5,282,245)
  • 15-64 years: 66.1% (male 27,227,487/female 26,617,915)
  • 65 years and over: 20.6% (male 7,217,163/female 9,557,634)

Median age

(2011 est.)

  • total: 44.9 years
  • male: 43.7 years
  • female: 46 years

Population growth rate

  • -0.208% (2011 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 212

Birth rate

  • 8.3 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 219

Death rate

  • 10.92 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 39

Sex ratio

  • at birth: 1.055 male(s)/female
  • under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  • 15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  • 65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
  • total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Infant mortality rate

  • total: 3.54 deaths/1,000 live births
  • country comparison to the world: 208
  • male: 3.84 deaths/1,000 live births
  • female: 3.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

  • total population: 80.07 years
  • country comparison to the world: 27
  • male: 77.82 years
  • female: 82.44 years (2011 est.)

Total fertility rate

  • 1.41 children born/woman (2011 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 198


  • 0.1% (2009 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 131

people living with HIV/AIDS:

  • 67,000 (2009 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 51


  • fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 73

Ethnic groups

Data: The World Factbook Germany


  1. Haroun RI, Rigamonti D & Tamargo RJ. (2000). Recurrent artery of Heubner: Otto Heubner's description of the artery and his influence on pediatrics in Germany. J. Neurosurg. , 93, 1084-8. PMID: 11117858 DOI.
  2. Krege S, Eckoldt F, Richter-Unruh A, Köhler B, Leuschner I, Menzel HJ, Moss A, Schweizer K, Stein R, Werner-Rosen K, Wieacker P, Wiesemann C, Wünsch L & Richter-Appelt H. (2018). Variations of sex development: The first German interdisciplinary consensus paper. J Pediatr Urol , , . PMID: 30713084 DOI.
  3. Kozlowski P, Burkhardt T, Gembruch U, Gonser M, Kähler C, Kagan KO, von Kaisenberg C, Klaritsch P, Merz E, Steiner H, Tercanli S, Vetter K & Schramm T. (2018). DEGUM, ÖGUM, SGUM and FMF Germany Recommendations for the Implementation of First-Trimester Screening, Detailed Ultrasound, Cell-Free DNA Screening and Diagnostic Procedures. Ultraschall Med , , . PMID: 30001568 DOI.
  4. Hübner J, Gast AS, Müller AM, Bartmann P & Gembruch U. (2015). [Stillbirths in Germany: Retrospective Analysis of 168 Cases between 2003 and 2011]. Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol , 219, 73-80. PMID: 25901868 DOI.

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2024, April 22) Embryology Germany Statistics. Retrieved from

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© Dr Mark Hill 2024, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G