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Glossary Links

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Jacobson's organ
Jacobson's organ (vomeronasal organ)

Jacobson's organ

(vomeronasal organ, VNO) A neural structure forming part of olfactory system that functions in the detection of pheromones. Named after Ludwig Lewin Jacobson (1783 – 1843) a Danish surgeon who identified it in 1813.
(More? Sensory - Smell Development)


ligand for the Notch cell surface receptor. Has an important role in blood vessel development. Signal activation leads to cleavage of the intracellular part of the Notch receptor from the membrane which translocates to the nucleus and activate s transcription factors.
(More? Blood Vessel Development | OMIM - Jagged1 | PMID 18245384)


acronym for "just another kinase" a kinase family involved in signal transduction.
(More? Molecular Development)


Yellow colouration of the skin caused by high levels of bilirubin in the body. Present to some extent in most newborns due mainly to the time taken for the newborn liver to develop and functionally process bilirubin. Jaundice can also occur with normally with breast feeding (breastfeeding jaundice) and abnormally as a sign of a range of newborn abnormalities (conditions increasing red blood cell number or interference with bilirubin processing/removal).
(More? Neonatal Development | Medline Plus - Newborn jaundice | Neonatal Jaundice, NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 98)


acronym for "Joints Abnormal With Splitting" a protein in mouse musculoskeletal development which coordinates cartilage formation and synovial joint positioning.
(More? Joint Development | Molecular Development)
Jejunum and ileum cartoon
Jejunum and ileum


(Latin, jejunus = empty of food) Gastrointestinal tract forming the second region (adult 1.4 m length) of the small intestine lying between the duodenum and the ileum. Originally named because it was found empty of any contents in cadavers.
Small intestine: duodenum - jejunum - ileum
(More? Intestine Development | Gastrointestinal Tract Development | Lecture - Gastrointestinal Development)

Joints Abnormal With Splitting

(JAWS) A protein identified in mouse musculoskeletal development, which coordinates cartilage formation and synovial joint positioning identified in digit formation.
(More? Mouse Development | Joint Development | Molecular Development)

Johnsen score

Clinical score (1-10) for assessing spermatogenesis in a human testicular biopsy: 10 complete spermatogenesis and perfect tubules; 9 many spermatozoa present but disorganized spermatogenesis; 8 only a few spermatozoa present; 7 no spermatozoa but many spermatids present; 6 only a few spermatids present; 5 no spermatozoa or spermatids present but many spermatocytes present; 4 only a few spermatocytes present; 3 only spermatogonia present; 2 no germ cells present; 1 neither germ cells nor Sertoli cells present. Named after the author of the original article (PMID 5527187).
(More? Spermatozoa Development | PMID 5527187)
Cilium cartoon
Cilium cartoon

Joubert syndrome

(JSRD, JBTS) A rare autosomal recessive brain malformations characterised by developmental delay, hypotonia, ataxia and oculomotor apraxia. Magnetic resonance imaging has been recently used to detect posterior fossa signs and narrowing at the pontomesencephalic junction (isthmus) in diagnosing at-risk pregnancies. Named after the Marie Joubert the pediatric neurologist who first described this rare neurological condition. Joubert syndrome belongs to the class of abnormalities described as ciliopathies.
(More? Cerebellum | Autosomal recessive inheritance | PMID 19942698 | PMID 28371402 | Neural System Development)

Glossary Comments

Use this page to access brief definitions of specific embryology terms. Additional information can be accessed from links listed at the end of each definition. Glossary from the UNSW Embryology program compiled and written by Dr Mark Hill. Reference material used in preparing this glossary list includes: texts listed on page 1 "Reading" of each notes section, Department of Anatomy Publications, WWW resources from NCBI, NIH, OMIM, NHMRC (Australia), AMA (USA), Office of Rare Diseases (USA), PubMed Medline Dictionaries, MSDS, Merck Manual home edn. and WHO ART terminology (2009).

These notes are for Educational Purposes Only Please email Dr Mark Hill if you wish to make a comment about this current project.

Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2024, May 25) Embryology J. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/J

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© Dr Mark Hill 2024, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G