Abnormal Development - Polio Virus

From Embryology
Embryology - 25 May 2024    Facebook link Pinterest link Twitter link  Expand to Translate  
Google Translate - select your language from the list shown below (this will open a new external page)

العربية | català | 中文 | 中國傳統的 | français | Deutsche | עִברִית | हिंदी | bahasa Indonesia | italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | မြန်မာ | Pilipino | Polskie | português | ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ | Română | русский | Español | Swahili | Svensk | ไทย | Türkçe | اردو | ייִדיש | Tiếng Việt    These external translations are automated and may not be accurate. (More? About Translations)

Educational Use Only - Embryology is an educational resource for learning concepts in embryological development, no clinical information is provided and content should not be used for any other purpose.


WHO - Polio Eradication Initiative

Poliomyelitis (polio) is a highly infectious viral disease, affecting only humans of any age, but mainly children under the age of 3 (> 50% cases). There are three types (type 1, type 2, and type 3) of wild poliovirus which can invade the nervous system and can cause total paralysis in several hours. In areas with either poor hygiene or sanitation, infants are infected early in life, acquiring active immunity while still protected by maternal antibodies. Other infants who miss early contact with the virus become susceptible to infection as maternal antibodies fall.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1954 was awarded jointly to John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller and Frederick Chapman Robbins.

"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue."

Viral Links: viral infection | TORCH | cytomegalovirus | hepatitis | HIV | parvovirus | polio | rubella virus | chickenpox | Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus | Zika virus | human papillomavirus | rotavirus | West Nile virus | varicella virus | vaccination | zoonotic infection | environment
Historic Embryology - Viral 
1941 Rubella Cataracts | 1944 Rubella Defects

Some Recent Findings

  • Preventing Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Emergence during the Polio Endgame[1] "Reversion and spread of vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) to cause outbreaks of poliomyelitis is a rare outcome resulting from immunisation with the live-attenuated oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs). Global withdrawal of all three OPV serotypes is therefore a key objective of the polio endgame strategic plan, starting with serotype 2 (OPV2) in April 2016. Supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs) with trivalent OPV (tOPV) in advance of this date could mitigate the risks of OPV2 withdrawal by increasing serotype-2 immunity, but may also create new serotype-2 VDPV (VDPV2). Here, we examine the risk factors for VDPV2 emergence and implications for the strategy of tOPV SIAs prior to OPV2 withdrawal. ...Our results support a strategy of focused tOPV SIAs before OPV2 withdrawal in areas at risk of VDPV2 emergence and in sufficient number to raise population immunity above the threshold permitting VDPV2 circulation. A failure to implement this risk-based approach could mean these SIAs actually increase the risk of VDPV2 emergence and spread."
  • The World Health Organization says polio has re-emerged as a public health emergency. 1988 - virus was endemic in 125 countries, and 350,000 cases were recorded worldwide. 2014 - virus is considered endemic in only three countries: Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan (2013 only 417 cases detected). Currently affects 10 countries worldwide. WHO - Polio
  • India 1 year without polio Eradication "India has not had a case of wild poliovirus nor detected the virus in sewage sampling since 13 January 2011." India Statistics
  • Confirmed international spread of wild poliovirus from Pakistan. "Wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) genetically linked to virus currently circulating in Pakistan has been isolated in China. Pakistan is affected by nationwide transmission of WPV1, and is the location of the only wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) case in Asia in 2011 (a strain on the verge of elimination on the continent). As at 13 September 2011, Pakistan had reported 84 cases, compared to 48 cases for the same period in 2010." WHO - Global Alert and Response
  • American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases - Poliovirus[2] "Despite marked progress in global polio eradication, the threat of polio importation into the United States remains; therefore, all children should be protected against the disease." (More? Recommendations)
  • A statistical model of the international spread of wild poliovirus in Africa used to predict and prevent outbreaks.[3] "Outbreaks of poliomyelitis resulted primarily from continued transmission in Nigeria and the poor immunisation status of populations in neighbouring countries. From 1 January 2010 to 30 June 2011, reduced transmission in Nigeria and increased incidence in reinfected countries in west and central Africa have changed the geographical risk of polio outbreaks, and will require careful immunisation planning to limit onward spread."
More recent papers  
Mark Hill.jpg
PubMed logo.gif

This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.

  • This search now requires a manual link as the original PubMed extension has been disabled.
  • The displayed list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References also appear on this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

More? References | Discussion Page | Journal Searches | 2019 References | 2020 References

Search term: Polio Virus

Older papers  
These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.

See also the Discussion Page for other references listed by year and References on this current page.

Polio Infection

"Iron Lung" used by polio patients unable to breathe.

This enterovirus enters the body through the mouth and multiplies in the intestine. Initial symptoms are fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting, stiffness in the neck and pain in the limbs.

Irreversible paralysis (mainly legs) occurs in 1 in 200 infections. Amongst those paralysed, 5%-10% die when their breathing muscles become immobilized. Although polio paralysis is the most visible sign of polio infection, fewer than 1% of polio infections ever result in paralysis. Poliovirus can spread widely before cases of paralysis are seen. As most people infected with poliovirus have no signs of illness, they are never aware they have been infected. After initial infection with poliovirus, the virus is shed intermittently in faeces (excrement) for several weeks. During that time, polio can spread rapidly through the community.

(text modified from - Polio Eradication Organization)


Dorothy Horstmann and Albert Sabin (1984).[4]
  • 1908 Karl Landsteiner and Erwin Popper (Viennese scientists) first identify polio as caused by a virus.
  • 1916 An epidemic of polio in New York heightens concern on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean and accelerates research into how the disease is spread.
  • 1931 Macfarlane Burnet and Jean MacNamara identify several types of poliovirus, known as Types 1, 2, and 3.
  • 1952 Dorothy Horstmann shows that poliovirus reached the central nervous system through the bloodstream.
  • 1954 John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller and Frederick Chapman Robbins win Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for growing polio virus in culture.
  • 1955 Jonas Salk develops the first vaccine against polio, an inactivated and injectable polio vaccine.
  • 1961 Albert Sabin develops a "live" oral vaccine against polio.

Links: Polio Eradication Organization - History


Two types of polio vaccine:

  1. Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) - given as an injection (polio virus used in vaccine is killed).
  2. Live oral polio vaccine (OPV) - a liquid that is swallowed (virus used in vaccine is attenuated or weakened).

American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases

Poliovirus Recommendations[2]

"Despite marked progress in global polio eradication, the threat of polio importation into the United States remains; therefore, all children should be protected against the disease."
  • standard schedule for poliovirus immunization remains 4 doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine at 2, 4, and 6 through 18 months and 4 through 6 years of age.
  • minimum interval between doses 1 and 2 and between doses 2 and 3 is 4 weeks
  • minimum interval between doses 3 and 4 is 6 months.
  • minimum age for dose 1 is 6 weeks.
    • Minimal age and intervals should be used when there is imminent threat of exposure, such as travel to an area in which polio is endemic or epidemic.
  • final dose in the inactivated poliovirus vaccine series should be administered at 4 through 6 years of age, regardless of the previous number of doses administered before the fourth birthday, and at least 6 months since the last dose was received.

Polio Reports

September 2011

Confirmed international spread of wild poliovirus from Pakistan. (WHO)

"Wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) genetically linked to virus currently circulating in Pakistan has been isolated in China. Pakistan is affected by nationwide transmission of WPV1, and is the location of the only wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) case in Asia in 2011 (a strain on the verge of elimination on the continent). As at 13 September 2011, Pakistan had reported 84 cases, compared to 48 cases for the same period in 2010."

June 2006

Report of polio outbreak in Namibia national health authorities are preparing a response to an outbreak of wild poliovirus in Namibia, polio-free since 1996.

May 2005

Report of polio outbreak in Indonesia Indonesia has not had a wild poliovirus case since 1995, which suggests recent introduction of a wild poliovirus form an overseas source. Global polio cases 1267 for 2004 (as of week 26 April 2005): Nigeria (792) India (136) Pakistan (53) Niger (25) Afghanistan (4) Egypt (1) (Polio Eradication Org 04 May 2005) (More? Polio Eradication Initiative)


  • Endemic countries - have never stopped transmission of wild poliovirus. (Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, Pakistan)
  • Countries with re-established transmission - have active and persistent poliovirus transmission of more than 12 months following an importation. (Angola, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo)
  • Countries with imported poliovirus - are experiencing ongoing outbreaks following an importation.(China, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Nepal, Niger)

Links: polio eradication org - Infected countries


  1. Pons-Salort M, Burns CC, Lyons H, Blake IM, Jafari H, Oberste MS, Kew OM & Grassly NC. (2016). Preventing Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Emergence during the Polio Endgame. PLoS Pathog. , 12, e1005728. PMID: 27384947 DOI.
  2. 2.0 2.1 American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases. (2011). Poliovirus. Pediatrics , 128, 805-8. PMID: 21949143 DOI.
  3. <pubmed>22028632</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>21698038</pubmed>| PMC3117421


Verdijk P, Rots NY & Bakker WA. (2011). Clinical development of a novel inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine based on attenuated Sabin poliovirus strains. Expert Rev Vaccines , 10, 635-44. PMID: 21604984 DOI.

Breman JG, de Quadros CA, Dowdle WR, Foege WH, Henderson DA, John TJ & Levine MM. (2011). The role of research in viral disease eradication and elimination programs: lessons for malaria eradication. PLoS Med. , 8, e1000405. PMID: 21311582 DOI.

Alvis N, De la Hoz F & Narváez J. (2010). [Economic impact of introducing the injectable inactivated polio vaccine in Colombia]. Rev. Panam. Salud Publica , 27, 352-9. PMID: 20602069

Lauring AS, Jones JO & Andino R. (2010). Rationalizing the development of live attenuated virus vaccines. Nat. Biotechnol. , 28, 573-9. PMID: 20531338 DOI.

Baxter D. (2010). Vaccine responsiveness in premature infants. Hum Vaccin , 6, 506-11. PMID: 20519938

Ehrenfeld E, Modlin J & Chumakov K. (2009). Future of polio vaccines. Expert Rev Vaccines , 8, 899-905. PMID: 19545205 DOI.

Singh P, Das JK & Dutta PK. (2008). Eradicating polio: it's feasibility in near future?. J Commun Dis , 40, 225-32. PMID: 19579713

Sutter RW, Prevots DR & Cochi SL. (2000). Poliovirus vaccines. Progress toward global poliomyelitis eradication and changing routine immunization recommendations in the United States. Pediatr. Clin. North Am. , 47, 287-308. PMID: 10761505


Okeibunor J, Nsubuga P, Salla M, Mihigo R & Mkanda P. (2016). Coordination as a best practice from the polio eradication initiative: Experiences from five member states in the African region of the World Health Organization. Vaccine , 34, 5203-5207. PMID: 27381643 DOI.

Redondo N, Sanz MA, Welnowska E & Carrasco L. (2011). Translation without eIF2 promoted by poliovirus 2A protease. PLoS ONE , 6, e25699. PMID: 22003403 DOI.

Combelas N, Holmblat B, Joffret ML, Colbère-Garapin F & Delpeyroux F. (2011). Recombination between poliovirus and coxsackie A viruses of species C: a model of viral genetic plasticity and emergence. Viruses , 3, 1460-84. PMID: 21994791 DOI.

Shulman LM, Sofer D, Manor Y, Mendelson E, Balanant J, Salvati AL, Delpeyroux F & Fiore L. (2011). Antiviral activity of 3(2H)- and 6-chloro-3(2H)-isoflavenes against highly diverged, neurovirulent vaccine-derived, type2 poliovirus sewage isolates. PLoS ONE , 6, e18360. PMID: 21904594 DOI.

Fitzgerald KD & Semler BL. (2011). Re-localization of cellular protein SRp20 during poliovirus infection: bridging a viral IRES to the host cell translation apparatus. PLoS Pathog. , 7, e1002127. PMID: 21779168 DOI.

Search Pubmed

Search Pubmed Nov 2011 "Polio Virus" All (14366) Free Full Text (3815) Review (913)

Search Pubmed: Polio Virus

Environmental Links: Introduction | low folic acid | iodine deficiency | Nutrition | Drugs | Australian Drug Categories | USA Drug Categories | thalidomide | herbal drugs | Illegal Drugs | smoking | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | TORCH | viral infection | bacterial infection | fungal infection | zoonotic infection | toxoplasmosis | Malaria | maternal diabetes | maternal hypertension | maternal hyperthermia | Maternal Inflammation | Maternal Obesity | hypoxia | biological toxins | chemicals | heavy metals | air pollution | radiation | Prenatal Diagnosis | Neonatal Diagnosis | International Classification of Diseases | Fetal Origins Hypothesis

External Links

External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.

Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2024, May 25) Embryology Abnormal Development - Polio Virus. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Polio_Virus

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2024, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G