Abnormal Development - Gonorrhea
|Embryology - 11 Dec 2023 Expand to Translate|
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|Educational Use Only - Embryology is an educational resource for learning concepts in embryological development, no clinical information is provided and content should not be used for any other purpose.|
The variety of bacterial infections that can occur during pregnancy is as variable as the potential developmental effects, from virtually insignificant to major developmental, abortive or fatal in outcome. Some bacteria are common and are part of the normal genital tract flora (Lactobacillus sp), while other bacterial infections are less common or even rare and initially infect/transmit by air or fluids through the different epithelia (genital tract, lungs, gastrointestinal tract). The genitally transmitted common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are the bacterial infections described as syphilis and gonorrhoea. (STDs)
Infection in women can cause pelvic inflammatory disease and salpingitis, scarring of the uterine tubes, that in turn can lead to fertility issues or ectopic pregnancy. Pregnant women with severe gonorrhea can transmit the disease to their developing fetus or during delivery.
|Bacterial Links: bacterial infection | syphilis | gonorrhea | tuberculosis | listeria | salmonella | TORCH | Environmental | Category:Bacteria|
Some Recent Findings
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|These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.|
- Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Neisseriales; Neisseriaceae; Neisseria; Neisseria gonorrhoeae; Neisseria gonorrhoeae NCCP11945
Bacterial staining procedure named after Hans Christian Gram (1853 - 1938).
Generally divides bacteria into either:
- Gram-positive bacteria purple crystal violet stain is trapped by layer of peptidoglycan (forms outer layer of the cell).
- Gram-negative bacteria outer membrane prevents stain from reaching peptidoglycan layer in the periplasm, outer membrane then permeabilized and pink safranin counterstain is trapped by peptidoglycan layer.
Infection Effects Movie
|<html5media height="620" width="620">File:Cell apoptosis 02.mp4</html5media>||This movie from an experimental Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection of Hela cells in vitro shows the cells dying by apoptosis in response to the bacterial infection.
Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death that occurs normally in many developmental and adult tissues, but can also occur in response to pathogenic infections.
Hela cells were cultured in glass-bottom dishes and placed under an Olympus spinning disc microscope and phase contrast pictures of the cells were taken every 10 min upon infection.
- Moore DL & MacDonald NE. (2015). Preventing ophthalmia neonatorum. Paediatr Child Health , 20, 93-6. PMID: 25838784
- Nowicki S, Selvarangan R & Anderson G. (1999). Experimental transmission of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from pregnant rat to fetus. Infect. Immun. , 67, 4974-6. PMID: 10456962
- Carter TC, Olney RS, Mitchell AA, Romitti PA, Bell EM & Druschel CM. (2011). Maternal self-reported genital tract infections during pregnancy and the risk of selected birth defects. Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol. , 91, 108-16. PMID: 21319278 DOI.
- <pubmed>19300516</pubmed>PLoS Pathog.
Mancuso P. (2000). Dermatologic manifestations of infectious diseases in pregnancy. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs , 14, 17-38; quiz 123-4. PMID: 11249292
Ament LA & Whalen E. (1996). Sexually transmitted diseases in pregnancy: diagnosis, impact, and intervention. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs , 25, 657-66. PMID: 8912216
Ross SM. (1982). Sexually transmitted diseases in pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynaecol , 9, 565-92. PMID: 6293753
Bernstein KT, Mehta SD, Rompalo AM & Erbelding EJ. (2006). Cost-effectiveness of screening strategies for Gonorrhea among females in private sector care. Obstet Gynecol , 107, 813-21. PMID: 16582117 DOI.
Nowicki S, Selvarangan R & Anderson G. (1999). Experimental transmission of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from pregnant rat to fetus. Infect. Immun. , 67, 4974-6. PMID: 10456962
Search NCBI Bookshelf: Medical Microbiology - Gonorrhea Search
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- PubMed Health - Gonorrhea
- CDC (USA)
- CDC (USA) Fact Sheet - Gonorrhea
- Public Health Training Network Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (viewable Webcasts requires Media Player) | Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Recommendations
- Office on Women's Health (USA)
- Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (UK) Infection and Pregnancy - study group recommendations (Jun 2001)
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2023, December 11) Embryology Abnormal Development - Gonorrhea. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Gonorrhea
- © Dr Mark Hill 2023, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G