|Embryology - 18 Aug 2017 Expand to Translate|
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- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Movies
- 4 Human Zygote Size
- 5 Parental Pronuclei
- 6 Formation of Zygote
- 7 Zygote Protein Expression
- 8 Male Pronucleus Reprogramming
- 9 References
- 10 Glossary Links
The first diploid cell that forms following fertilization by fusion of the haploid oocyte (egg) and spermatozoa (sperm) resulting in the combination of their separate genomes. The first image shows the cell with the 2 pronuclei still present before fusion enclosed within the zona pellucida. In humans, this cell then undergoes a series of mitotic cell divisions, still enclosed within the zona pellucida, during the first few days of development to form 2 blastomeres then a solid cell mass called the morula.
|Zygote Links: Carnegie stage 1 | Fertilization | Week 1 | Morula | Blastocyst | ART | SCNT | Category:Zygote|
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
John C Marioni, Detlev Arendt How Single-Cell Genomics Is Changing Evolutionary and Developmental Biology. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol.: 2017; PubMed 28813177
Yanbing Wang, Tatsuya Tsukamoto, Jennifer Ashley Noble, Xunliang Liu, Rebecca Mosher, Ravishankar Palanivelu Arabidopsis LORELEI, a Maternally-expressed Imprinted Gene, Promotes Early Seed Development. Plant Physiol.: 2017; PubMed 28811333
Yosuke Watanabe, Yoshiaki Ishizuka, Takayuki Hirano, Eri Nagasaki-Maeoka, Reina Hoshi, Shinsuke Yoshizawa, Shota Uekusa, Hiroyuki Kawashima, Kiminobu Sugito, Kenichi Shinohara, Noboru Fukuda, Hiroki Nagase, Masayoshi Soma, Tsugumichi Koshinaga, Kyoko Fujiwara ZAR1 knockdown promotes the differentiation of human neuroblastoma cells by suppression of MYCN expression. Med. Oncol.: 2017, 34(9);158 PubMed 28791558
Liana Bosco, Roberto Chiarelli, Maria Carmela Roccheri, Domenica Matranga, Giovanni Ruvolo Relationship between apoptosis and survival molecules in human cumulus cells as markers of oocyte competence. Zygote: 2017;1-9 PubMed 28786369
Human Zygote Size
Animation based upon individual images of mouse maternal and paternal genomes.
|Mouse zygote pronuclei|
|Fluorescence||DIC Optics showing pronuclear bodies|
Most ribosomal DNA located around the Nucleolar-Precursor Bodies (NPBs), with some associated with pericentromeric filaments (extending from the NPBs towards the nuclear periphery) as well as rDNA signals joining two NPBs.
Formation of Zygote
- male and female pronuclei, 2 nuclei approach each other and nuclear membranes break down
- DNA replicates, first mitotic division
- sperm contributes centriole which organizes mitotic spindle
Conceptus - term refers to all material derived from this fertilized zygote and includes both the embryo and the non-embryonic tissues (placenta, fetal membranes).
Zygote Protein Expression
Maternally inherited Yes-associated protein (Yap), a co-activator of TEAD family transcription factors, plays a key role in activating embryonic transcription following fertilization in the mouse. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in the mouse tubal fluid binds to its G-protein coupled receptor at the plasma membrane, and induces the activation of YAP by inhibiting LATS1/2.  Developmental Signals - Hippo
The table above shows the pattern of protein expression (as percentages of total) in the mouse zygote according to 14 molecular function categories.
- Links: Germinal vesicle oocyte protein expression | MII oocyte protein expression | Zygote Protein Expression | Mouse Development | Oocyte Development | Zygote
Male Pronucleus Reprogramming
|Mouse zygote paternal genome reprogramming
Mouse zygotes male pronucleus contains 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) thought to be formed by enzymatic oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC).
Mouse zygote mitosis
- Kathy K Niakan, Kevin Eggan Analysis of human embryos from zygote to blastocyst reveals distinct gene expression patterns relative to the mouse. Dev. Biol.: 2013, 375(1);54-64 PubMed 23261930
- Francesco Silvestre, Alessandra Gallo, Annunziata Cuomo, Tiziana Covino, Elisabetta Tosti Role of cyclic AMP in the maturation of Ciona intestinalis oocytes. Zygote: 2011, 19(4);365-71 PubMed 20810008
- Chao-Bo Li, Zhen-Dong Wang, Zhong Zheng, Li-Li Hu, Shu-Qi Zhong, Lei Lei Number of blastomeres and distribution of microvilli in cloned mouse embryos during compaction. Zygote: 2011, 19(3);271-6 PubMed 20735894
- Khursheed Iqbal, Seung-Gi Jin, Gerd P Pfeifer, Piroska E Szabó Reprogramming of the paternal genome upon fertilization involves genome-wide oxidation of 5-methylcytosine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2011, 108(9);3642-7 PubMed 21321204 | PMC2132672 | PNAS
- Alison B Singer, Joseph G Gall An inducible nuclear body in the Drosophila germinal vesicle. Nucleus: 2011, 2(5);403-9 PubMed 21941118 | Nucleus
- Tiphaine Aguirre-Lavin, Pierre Adenot, Amélie Bonnet-Garnier, Gaétan Lehmann, Renaud Fleurot, Claire Boulesteix, Pascale Debey, Nathalie Beaujean 3D-FISH analysis of embryonic nuclei in mouse highlights several abrupt changes of nuclear organization during preimplantation development. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2012, 12;30 PubMed 23095683 | BMC Dev Biol.
- Chao Yu, Shu-Yan Ji, Yu-Jiao Dang, Qian-Qian Sha, Yi-Feng Yuan, Jian-Jie Zhou, Li-Ying Yan, Jie Qiao, Fuchou Tang, Heng-Yu Fan Oocyte-expressed yes-associated protein is a key activator of the early zygotic genome in mouse. Cell Res.: 2016; PubMed 26902285
- Shufang Wang, Zhaohui Kou, Zhiyi Jing, Yu Zhang, Xinzheng Guo, Mengqiu Dong, Ian Wilmut, Shaorong Gao Proteome of mouse oocytes at different developmental stages. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2010, 107(41);17639-44 PubMed 20876089 | PNAS
- Zygote An international journal dedicated to the rapid publication of original research in early embryology, Zygote covers interdisciplinary studies in animals and humans, from gametogenesis through fertilization to gastrulation.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Zygote. Retrieved August 18, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Zygote
- © Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G