|Embryology - 5 Sep 2015 Translate|
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- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Movies
- 4 Human Zygote Size
- 5 Parental Pronuclei
- 6 Formation of Zygote
- 7 Zygote Protein Expression
- 8 Male Pronucleus Reprogramming
- 9 References
- 10 Glossary Links
The first diploid cell that forms following fertilization by fusion of the haploid oocyte (egg) and spermatozoa (sperm) resulting in the combination of their separate genomes. The first image shows the cell with the 2 pronuclei still present before fusion enclosed within the zona pellucida. In humans, this cell then undergoes a series of mitotic cell divisions, still enclosed within the zona pellucida, during the first few days of development to form 2 blastomeres then a solid cell mass called the morula.
- Zygote Links: Fertilization | Week 1 | Carnegie stage 1 | Morula | Blastocyst | ART | SCNT | Category:Zygote
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Tatsuhiko Arakawa, Tsunetoshi Nakatani, Masaaki Oda, Yasuyoshi Kimura, Yoichi Sekita, Tohru Kimura, Toshinobu Nakamura, Toru Nakano Stella controls chromocenter formation through regulation of Daxx expression in 2-cell embryos. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.: 2015; PubMed 26325466
W Malcolm Byrnes E. E. Just and Creativity in Science. The Importance of Diversity. J Afr Am Stud (New Brunsw): 2015, 19(3);264-278 PubMed 26321893
Ravishekar Ravi Kannan, Peng Guo, A J Przekwas Particle transport in the human respiratory tract: formulation of a nodal inverse distance weighted Euler-Lagrangian transport and implementation of the Wind-Kessel algorithm for an oral delivery. Int J Numer Method Biomed Eng: 2015; PubMed 26317686
M Crispo, A P Mulet, L Tesson, N Barrera, F Cuadro, P C Dos Santos-Neto, T H Nguyen, A Crénéguy, L Brusselle, I Anegón, A Menchaca Efficient Generation of Myostatin Knock-Out Sheep Using CRISPR/Cas9 Technology and Microinjection into Zygotes. PLoS ONE: 2015, 10(8);e0136690 PubMed 26305800
Tiancheng Liu, Lin Yu, Guohui Ding, Zhen Wang, Lei Liu, Hong Li, Yixue Li Gene Coexpression and Evolutionary Conservation Analysis of the Human Preimplantation Embryos. Biomed Res Int: 2015, 2015;316735 PubMed 26273607
Human Zygote Size
Animation based upon individual images of mouse maternal and paternal genomes.
|Mouse zygote pronuclei|
|Fluorescence||DIC Optics showing pronuclear bodies|
Most ribosomal DNA located around the Nucleolar-Precursor Bodies (NPBs), with some associated with pericentromeric filaments (extending from the NPBs towards the nuclear periphery) as well as rDNA signals joining two NPBs.
Formation of Zygote
- male and female pronuclei, 2 nuclei approach each other and nuclear membranes break down
- DNA replicates, first mitotic division
- sperm contributes centriole which organizes mitotic spindle
Conceptus - term refers to all material derived from this fertilized zygote and includes both the embryo and the non-embryonic tissues (placenta, fetal membranes).
Zygote Protein Expression
The table above shows the pattern of protein expression (as percentages of total) in the mouse zygote according to 14 molecular function categories.
- Links: Germinal vesicle oocyte protein expression | MII oocyte protein expression | Zygote Protein Expression | Mouse Development | Oocyte Development | Zygote
Male Pronucleus Reprogramming
|Mouse zygote paternal genome reprogramming
Mouse zygotes male pronucleus contains 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) thought to be formed by enzymatic oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC).
Mouse zygote mitosis
- Kathy K Niakan, Kevin Eggan Analysis of human embryos from zygote to blastocyst reveals distinct gene expression patterns relative to the mouse. Dev. Biol.: 2013, 375(1);54-64 PubMed 23261930
- Francesco Silvestre, Alessandra Gallo, Annunziata Cuomo, Tiziana Covino, Elisabetta Tosti Role of cyclic AMP in the maturation of Ciona intestinalis oocytes. Zygote: 2011, 19(4);365-71 PubMed 20810008
- Chao-Bo Li, Zhen-Dong Wang, Zhong Zheng, Li-Li Hu, Shu-Qi Zhong, Lei Lei Number of blastomeres and distribution of microvilli in cloned mouse embryos during compaction. Zygote: 2011, 19(3);271-6 PubMed 20735894
- Khursheed Iqbal, Seung-Gi Jin, Gerd P Pfeifer, Piroska E Szabó Reprogramming of the paternal genome upon fertilization involves genome-wide oxidation of 5-methylcytosine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2011, 108(9);3642-7 PubMed 21321204 | PMC2132672 | PNAS
- Alison B Singer, Joseph G Gall An inducible nuclear body in the Drosophila germinal vesicle. Nucleus: 2011, 2(5);403-9 PubMed 21941118 | Nucleus
- Tiphaine Aguirre-Lavin, Pierre Adenot, Amélie Bonnet-Garnier, Gaétan Lehmann, Renaud Fleurot, Claire Boulesteix, Pascale Debey, Nathalie Beaujean 3D-FISH analysis of embryonic nuclei in mouse highlights several abrupt changes of nuclear organization during preimplantation development. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2012, 12;30 PubMed 23095683 | BMC Dev Biol.
- Shufang Wang, Zhaohui Kou, Zhiyi Jing, Yu Zhang, Xinzheng Guo, Mengqiu Dong, Ian Wilmut, Shaorong Gao Proteome of mouse oocytes at different developmental stages. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2010, 107(41);17639-44 PubMed 20876089 | PNAS
- Zygote An international journal dedicated to the rapid publication of original research in early embryology, Zygote covers interdisciplinary studies in animals and humans, from gametogenesis through fertilization to gastrulation.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2015) Embryology Zygote. Retrieved September 5, 2015, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Zygote
- © Dr Mark Hill 2015, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G