Timeline human development

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Introduction

Embryonic Development
From a cell to a newborn infant
Early zygote.jpg Newborn.jpg in 9 months.

This page is organised to show week by week human development features and approximate timing of key events with more detailed information about specific events in different systems. For a less detailed timeline see week by week.

Note:

  • The "weeks" refer to embryonic development and differ from clinical weeks (shown in brackets, from the first day of the Last Menstrual Period, LMP or GA)
  • The "stages" refer to Carnegie stages of development.
  • The "timing" refers to days from fertilization or post conception age (PC), not the clinical or gestational age (GA) calculated from LMP (add 2 weeks).
  • The dates and staging are also "ideal", and there is significant biological variability in the general timing of events.
  • Week 1 to Week 8 are considered the embryonic period of development.
  • Week 9 to week 37 or birth are considered the fetal period of development.
  • The first month after birth is the neonatal period of development.

Each developmental feature is linked to online content with more detailed information and resources such as images and movies. The superscript numbers are the original source references.

There are similar "timelines" for other species shown below.


Timeline Links: Human | Mouse | Mouse Detailed | Chicken | Rat | Medaka | Category:Timeline

Week -2

(GA Clinical Week 1)


Day
Menstrual cycle
Event
1
Menstrual Phase
Menstrual cycle.png

Menstrual Cycle changes: Uterine endometrium (loss), Ovary (Follicle Development)

2
  Human- menstrual uterine endometrium.jpg
3
 
4
   
5
Proliferative Phase Smear- early proliferative.jpgOva41he.jpg Menstrual Cycle changes: Uterine endometrium (proliferation), Ovary (Follicle Development)
6
7
   

Week -1

(Clinical Week 2)


Day
Menstrual cycle Event
8
Proliferative Phase
9
  Smear- mid-proliferative.jpg Human- mid-proliferative uterine endometrium.jpg Ovary10x.jpg Ova20he.jpg Menstrual Cycle - Mid proliferative
10
   
11
   
12
   
13
  Smear- late-proliferative.jpg Human- late proliferative uterine endometrium.jpg Menstrual cycle.png Menstrual Cycle - Late Proliferative
14
Ovulation

Capacitation

Human ovulation 06.jpg Human oocyte.jpg Follicle 001 icon.jpg

Week 1

Week 1 (GA Clinical Week 3)

Week 1 summary
Day
Stage
Event
1
Secretory Phase

Stage 1

Early zygote.jpg Stage1 size with ruler.jpgSmear- secretory.jpg Human- secretory uterine endometrium.jpg Fertilization, Secretory Phase
2
Stage 2 Stage2.jpg Week1 001 icon.jpg Morula, Blastula
3
  Human-blastocyst-day-3-6-icon.jpg Blastocyst Development
4
Stage 3 CSt3.jpg Blastocyst Hatching (zona pellucida lost)
5
  Smear- late secretory.jpg Human- late secretory uterine endometrium.jpg Late Secretory, Blastocyst (free floating)
6
Stage 4 Adplantation
7
Stage 5 Week2 001 icon.jpgStage5 bf11L.jpg

Week 2

Week 2 (GA Clinical Week 4)


Day
Stage
Event
8
Week2 001 icon.jpg Implantation
9
   
10
   
11
   
12
   
13
Stage 6 Stage6 bf03.jpgChorion 001 icon.jpg Chorionic Cavity
14
   

Week 3

Week 3 (GA Clinical Week 5)


Day
Stage
Event
15
16
Stage 7 Stage7-bf1.jpg Stage7-sem2.jpg Stage7.jpg
17
   
18
Stage 8 Stage8 human.jpg Neuralplate 001 icon.jpg Neural neurogenesis, neural groove and folds are first seen
19
 
Stage8 SEM1.jpg
20
Stage 9 Stage9 bf2c.jpg Stage9 sem1b.jpg Musculoskeletal somitogenesis, first somites form and continue to be added in sequence caudally (1 - 3 somite pairs).

Neural the three main divisions of the brain, which are not cerebral vesicles, can be distinguished while the neural groove is still completely open

Neural Crest mesencephalic neural crest is visible[1]

21
  Heart cardiogenesis, week 3 begins as paired heart tubes.

Week 4

Week 4 (GA Clinical Week 6)


Day
Stage
Event
22
Stage 10 Stage10 bf2c.jpg Stage10 sem10c.jpg Neuraltube 001 icon.jpg

Neural Crest differentiation at spinal cord level from day 22 until day 26

Neural neural folds begin to fuse near the junction between brain and spinal cord, when Neural Crest cells are arising mainly from the neural ectoderm

Neural Crest trigeminal, facial, and postotic ganglia components visible[1]

Neural Crest migration of vagal level neural crest cells begins (7-10 somite stage)

Neural rostral neural tube forms 3 primary brain vesicles (week 4)

Respiratory Week 4 - laryngotracheal groove forms on floor foregut.

23
  Heart begins to beat in Humans by day 22-23, first functioning embryonic organ formed.
24
Stage 11 Stage11 bf2c.jpg

Thyroid thyroid median endodermal thickening in the floor of pharynx

Neural rostral (or cephalic) neuropore closes within a few hours; closure is bidirectional, it takes place from the dorsal and terminal lips and may occur in two areas simultaneously. The two lips, however, behave differently.

Ventricular System Optic ventricle appears and the neural groove/tube space is initially filled with amniotic fluid.[2]

25
Stage 12 Stage12 bf2b.jpg Stage12 sem1.jpg

Pituitary Week 4 hypophysial pouch, Rathke's pouch, diverticulum from roof

Liver septum transversum forming liver stroma and hepatic diverticulum forming hepatic trabeculae[3]

Neural caudal neuropore takes a day to close (closure is approximately at future somitic pair 31/sacral vertebra 2)

Neural secondary neurulation begins

Ventricular System onset of the ventricular system and separates the ependymal from the amniotic fluid.[2]

Neural Crest cardiac crest, neural crest from rhombomeres 6 and 7 that migrates to pharyngeal arch 3 and from there the truncus arteriosus [1]

Neural Crest vagal neural crest enter the foregut (20-25 somite stage)

26
   
27
   
28
Stage 13 Stage13 bf1c.jpg Stage13 sem1c.jpg Neural the neural tube is normally completely closed, ventricular system now separated from amniotic fluid. Neural crest at spinal level is segregating, and spinal ganglia are in series with the somites. Spinal cord ventral roots beginning to develop.[4]

telencephalon cavity appears

Neural - Vascular Development - hindbrain is supplied by two parallel neural arteries (or channels) that obtain their blood supply from carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses given by the pharyngeal arch arteries; trigeminal artery, the otic artery, hypoglossal artery, and the proatlantal artery.[5]

Liver epithelial cord proliferation enmeshing stromal capillaries[3]

Smell Crest comes from the nasal plates[6]

Skin 4 weeks - simple ectoderm epithelium over mesenchyme

Skin 1-3 months ectoderm- germinative (basal) cell repeated division of generates stratified epithelium; mesoderm- differentiates into connective tissue and blood vessels

Vision Optic vesicle lies close to the surface ectoderm. The surface ectoderm overlying the optic vesicle, in response to this contact, has thickened to form the lens placode.[7]

Diaphragm - pleuroperitoneal fold (PPF) first discernible in human embryos (CRL 6mm).[8]

Week 5

Week 5 (GA Clinical Week 7)


Day
Stage
Event
29
Pituitary Week 5 elongation, contacts infundibulum, diverticulum of diencephalon

Heart Week 5 septation starts, atrial and ventricular

Respiratory Week 5 left and right lung buds push into the pericardioperitoneal canals (primordia of pleural cavity)

Respiratory Week 5 to 17 lung histology - pseudoglandular

Hearing Week 5 cochlear part of otic vesicle elongates (humans 2.5 turns)

30
   
31
   
32
Stage 14 Stage14 bf2l.jpg Stage14 sem1c.jpg Placodes sensory placodes, lens pit, otocyst, nasal placode, primary/secondary vesicles, fourth ventricle of brain

Mesoderm continued segmentation of paraxial mesoderm (somite pairs), heart prominence

Head 1st, 2nd and 3rd pharyngeal arch, forebrain, site of lens placode, site of otic placode, stomodeum

Body - heart, liver, umbilical cord, mesonephric ridge visible externally as bulges.

Limb upper and lower limb buds growing.

Abdominal Wall mesoderm of the primary body wall coalesced in the ventral midline to create the abdominal cavity.[9]

Neural first appearance of the future cerebral hemispheres. Cerebellar plate differentiated to an intermediate layer, and future rhombic lip identifiable[10]

Neural - Vascular Development - basilar artery forms from the consolidation of the neural arteries.[5]

Ventricular System Subarachnoid space initially as irregular spaces on the ventral surface of the spinal cord. 16228957

Liver hepatic gland and its vascular channels enlarge, hematopoietic function appears[3]

Eye - Lens the lens placode is indented by the lens pit.[7]

33
Stage 15 Stage15 bf1c.jpg

Neural cranial nerves (except olfactory and optic) are identifiable in more advanced embryos[11]

Neural - Vascular Development - vertebral arteries form from transverse anastomoses between cervical intersegmental arteries, beginning with the proatlantal artery and proceeding downward to the 6th intersegmental artery,[5]

Eye - Lens the lens pit is closed. The lens vesicle and optic cup lie close to the surface ectoderm and appear to press against the surface.[7]

34
 
35
  Vision 35 to 37 days retinal pigment present

Week 6

Week 6 (GA Clinical Week 8)


Day
Stage
Event
36
Pituitary Week 6 - connecting stalk between pouch and oral cavity degenerates

Parathyroid Week 6 - diverticulum elongate, hollow then solid, dorsal cell proliferation

Thymus Week 6 - diverticulum elongate, hollow then solid, ventral cell proliferation

Adrenal Week 6 - fetal cortex forms from mesothelium adjacent to dorsal mesentery, medulla neural crest cells from adjacent sympathetic ganglia

Respire Week 6 - descent of heart and lungs into thorax. Pleuroperitoneal foramen closes

Tongue Week 6 - descent of heart and lungs into thorax. Pleuroperitoneal foramen closes gustatory papilla, caudal midline near the foramen caecum (week 6 to 7 - nerve fibers approach the lingual epithelium)

37
Stage 16 Stage16 bf1c.jpg Neural first parasympathetic ganglia, submandibular and ciliary, are identifiable[12]

Neural - Vascular Development - development of the middle cerebral artery is first identified as small buds originating proximal to the anterior cerebral artery on the anterior division of the primitive internal carotid artery.[5]

Limb upper limb bud nerves median nerve, radial nerve and ulnar nerve entered into hand plate, myoblasts spindle shaped and oriented parallel to limb bud axis.

Abdominal Wall muscle cell migration about 25% of the hemicircumference of the abdominal cavity, the lateral plate mesoderm has become more condensed and thicker in the area around the myoblasts.[9]

Heart outflow tract elliptical configuration with four cushions, the two larger fusing at this stage. Semilunar valve leaflets form at the downstream end of the cushions

Head lip and palate components of the upper lip, medial nasal prominence and maxillary process present, median palatine process appears.

Eyelid prior to the development of the eyelids, one small sulcus or groove forms above the eye (eyelid groove) and another below it.[7]

38
   
39
   
40
   
41
Stage 17 Stage17 bf1c.jpg
  • Neural
    • telencephalon areas of the future archicortex, paleocortex, and neocortex, visible. Beginning of future choroid plexus[13]
    • primordium of the epidural space appears first on the ventral part of the vertebral canal and develops rostro-caudally[14]
  • Smell olfactory nerve fibres enter the brain[6]
  • Eyelid sulcus (groove) above and below eye deepen and eyelid folds develop (below first and then above)[7]
  • Diaphragm - pleuroperitoneal fold (PPF) no longer separated from the diaphragm (CRL 14mm)[8]
  • Abdominal Wall muscle cells now migrated approximately 50% of the distance to the ventral midline, inner and outer layers were not discernible yet.[9]
42
  Heart separation of common cardiac outflow (aortic arch and pulmonary aorta)

Week 7

Week 7 (GA Clinical Week 9)


Day
Stage
Event
43
Pancreas Week 7 to 20 pancreatic hormones secretion increases, small amount maternal insulin

Respiratory Week 7 - enlargement of liver stops descent of heart and lungs

44
Stage 18 Stage18 bf1c.jpg

Limb Bone forms by endochondrial ossification and throughout embryo replacement of cartilage with bone (week 5-12).

Neural Smell vomeronasal fibres and nervus terminalis[6]

Liver obturation due to epithelial proliferation, bile ducts became reorganized, continuity between liver cells and gut[3]

Ventricular System duramater appears and spaces surround the circumference of the spinal cord, which coalesce and contain many blood vessels.[14]

Genital - Female Development opening of the paramesonephric (Müllerian) duct to the coelomic cavity formed as an invagination of the coelomic epithelium[15]

Abdominal Wall separation of the myoblasts into distinct inner and outer layers, with unidirectional orientation. Abdominal wall thicker in the region where secondary structures were forming compared with the primary body wall region, dorsally outermost layer of connective tissue approximately half of this thickness.[9]

45
   

Liver (stage 18 to 23) biliary ductules developed in periportal connective tissue

produces ductal plates that receive biliary capillaries[3]

46
   
47
   
48
Stage 19 Stage19 bf1c.jpg
  • Vision - (stage 19 -22) eyelid folds develop into the eyelids and cover more of the eye as the palpebral fissure takes shape. The upper and the lower eyelids meet at the outer canthus in Stage 19. [16]
  • Cardiovascular
    • arterial system[17] Chapter 18 fig. 447).
    • aortic arches [18] stages 11–19 (figs. 29–40).
    • Heart fusion of aortic and mitral endocardial cushion material</ref>Teal SI., Moore GW. and Hutchins GM. Development of aortic and mitral valve continuity in the human embryonic heart. (1986) Amer. J. Anat., 176:447-460.</ref>
  • Respiratory - first generation of subsegmental bronchi now complete, see bronchial tree reconstruction[19] (plates 3 and 4).
  • Gastrointestinal - anal membrane defined.
  • Renal - Cloacal membrane ruptures from urinary pressure at stage 18 or stage 19,
  • Genital
    • Testis - Rete testis develops from the seminiferous cords at stages 19–23, and tunica albuginea forms.[20].
    • Ovary - Rete ovarii cords are developing.[21]
    • Uterus Müllerian duct grows independently from the invagination of the coelomic epithelium during stages 19-23[15]
  • Musculoskeletal
    • Sternum right and left sternal bars are present.[22] (figs. 7-17 and 7-22)
    • Abdominal Wall segregation of the myoblasts into four distinct muscle groups with unidirectional orientation of myoblasts. Myoblast migrated over half of the distance to the ventral midline, abdominal wall thickest where the muscles migrated and the outermost layer of connective tissue comprises approximately half of the total thickness of the abdominal wall. Rectus muscle completely separated after migrating over half the distance to the midline.[9]
  • Neural
    • rhombencephalon migration for olivary and arcuate nuclei begins.
    • choroid plexus of the fourth ventricle present.
    • stria medullaris thalami reaches the habenular nuclei.
    • habenular commissure begins to develop.
    • accessory olivary nucleus appears[23]
    • Neural - Vascular Development - middle cerebral artery becomes more prominent, the plexi fuse into a single artery and further branches pierce the cerebral hemisphere.[5]
49
   

Week 8

Week 8 (GA Clinical Week 10)


Day
Stage
Event
50
Stage 20 Stage20 bf1c.jpg

Head scalp vascular plexus visible

Limb upper limbs begin to rotate ventrally

Neural amygdaloid body has at least four individual nuclei[23]

oculomotor nerve shows a dorsolateral and a ventromedial portion

rhombic lip (rhombencephalon) formation of the cerebellum (intermediate layer) and of the cochlear nuclei

cerebellum cell layer (future Purkinje cells) develops

choroid plexuses of the fourth and lateral ventricles

Eyelid the inner canthus is established.[7]

51
  Gastrointestinal Tract anal membrane perforates
52
Stage 21 Stage21 bf1c.jpg

Neural cortical plate appears in the area of future insula[24]

Neural - Vascular Development - formation of the anterior communicating artery.[5]

Limb upper and lower limbs rotate

Intraembryonic Coelom pericardioperitoneal canals close

Abdominal Wall Myoblasts have reached the ventral midline and myotubes were present and oriented uniformly within all muscle groups. The rectus abdominis formed distinct bundles of muscle. Connective tissue layers comprised the majority of the thickness of the abdominal wall, outermost layer of connective tissue accounted for the majority of this thickness.[9]

53
   
54
Stage 22 Stage22 bf1c.jpg Neural neocortical fibres project to epithalamus, to dorsal thalamus, and to mesencephalon[24]

Limb fingers and toes lengthen

Smell Stage 22 to early fetal period - migratory streams of neurons from the subventricular zone of the olfactory bulb towards the future claustrum[6]

Uterus Vagina fused duct (uterovaginal canal) bifurcated at the caudal portion at Carnegie stages 22 and 23[15]

55
Genital 8 Weeks Testis - mesenchyme, interstitial cells (of Leydig) secrete testosterone, androstenedione

Genital 8 to 12 Weeks - hCG stimulates testosterone production

Tongue Week 8 - nerves penetrate epitheilai basal lamina and synapse with undifferentiated, elongated, epithelial cells (taste bud progenitor cell)[25]

56
Stage 23 Stage23 bf1c.jpg Stage 23 defines the end of the embryonic (organogenesis) period

Mesoderm heart prominence, ossification continues

Head nose, eye, external acoustic meatus, eyelids, external ears, rounded head

Body - straightening of trunk, umbilical cord, intestines herniated at umbilicus

Limb upper limbs longer and bent at elbow, hands and feet turned inward, foot with separated digits, wrist, hand with separated digits

Extraembryonic Coelom chorionic cavity is now lost by fusion with the expanding amniotic cavity

Neural rhombencephalon, pyramidal decussation present, nuclei and tracts similar to those present in the newborn cerebellum present as only a plate connected to midbrain and hindbrain through fibre bundles[26]

Axial Skeleton vertebral column 33 or 34 cartilaginous vertebrae (20-33 mm in total length), vertebral pedicles, articular and transverse processes identifiable (no spinous processes)[27]

Abdominal Wall Rectus muscle forms 2 or 3 distinct layers with myotube orientation uniform in all muscles. The external oblique and internal oblique started to expand in thickness, transversus a thin layer of muscle.[9]

 
Week 8 Stomach Week 8 - Gastrin containing cells in stomach antrum. Somatostatin cells in both the antrum and the fundus.

Genital - Female Development paired paramesonephric (Müllerian) ducts contact each other and are fused into a single tube that separates again and returns to the mesonephric (Wolffian) ducts. The paramesonephric ducts have not yet reached the urogenital sinus.[15]

Week 9

(GA Clinical Week 11)


Day
Stage
Event
57
Fetal Period Size comparison embryo-fetus actual.jpg

Hearing Week 9 - mesenchyme surrounding membranous labrynth (otic capsule) chondrifies

Smell Embryonic/Fetal transition - localized incomplete lamination of the olfactory bulb[6]

58
   
59
 
60
   
61
 
62
   
63
Week 9 - CRL 43 mm, femur length 6 mm

9 weeks CRL 50 mm - Genital genitalia in both sexes look identical[28]

uterus - paramesonephric ducts come into apposition with the urorectal septum and begin to fuse

Week 10

(GA Clinical Week 12)


Day
Stage
Event
64
Size comparison embryo-fetus actual.jpg

Gastrointestinal Tract Week 10 intestines in abdomen

Pituitary growth hormone and ACTH detectable

Pancreas Week 10 glucagon (alpha) differentiate first, somatostatin (delta), insulin (beta) cells differentiate, insulin secretion begins

Tongue Week 10 shallow grooves above the taste bud primordium

Stomach Week 10 - Glucagon containing cells in stomach fundus.

Nail Development fingernails appear

Hearing - Outer Ear Development Week 10 - Meatal plug extends in a disc-like fashion, the meatus is boot-shaped with a narrow neck and the sole of the meatal plug spreading widely to form the future tympanic membrane medially. Proximal portion of the neck starts to be resorbed.

Hearing - Inner Ear Development Week 10 - neural-crest-derived melanocytes migrate into the cochlea. They penetrate the basement membrane of the lateral wall epithelium and develop into the intermediate cells of the stria vascularis.[29]

65
   
66
 
67
   
68
 
69
   
70
Week 10 - CRL 55 mm, femur length 9 mm, biparietal diameter 17 mm

Week 11

(GA Clinical Week 13)


Day
Stage
Event

Neural - Cerebrum appearance of the first sulcus (week 11-15, GA 13-17 weeks)[30]

71
Size comparison embryo-fetus actual.jpg

Thyroid colloid appearance in thyroid follicles, iodine and thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis

Stomach Week 11 - Serotonin containing cells in both the antrum and the fundus.

72
   
73
 
74
   
75
 
76
   
77
Week 11 - CRL 68 mm, femur length 12 mm, biparietal diameter 20 mm

Second Trimester

(GA Clinical Week 14) Second Trimester


Week
Stage
Event
12
Clinical second trimester Fetal head lateral.jpg Week 12 - CRL 85 mm, femur length 15 mm, biparietal diameter 25 mm

Hearing Week 12-16 - Capsule adjacent to membranous labrynth undegoes vacuolization to form a cavity (perilymphatic space) around membranous labrynth and fills with perilymph


Genital male and female external genital differences observable

Respiratory Month 3-6 - lungs appear glandular, end month 6 alveolar cells type 2 appear and begin to secrete surfactant

Tongue Week 12 - first differentiated epithelial cells (Type II and III)

Genital female genital canal (80 days) formed with absorption of the median septum

13
  Tongue Week 12 to 13 - maximum synapses between cells and afferent nerve fibers

Hearing - Outer Ear Development Week 13 - Meatal plug disc-like, innermost surface in contact with the primordial malleus, contributes to the formation of the tympanic membrane.  

14
Tongue Week 14 to 15 - taste pores develop, mucous

Ovary Development 100 days - primary follicles present

Nail Development toenails appear

Head Development facial skeleton remodelling begins

Hearing - Inner Ear Development Week 14 GA 16 - neural-crest-derived melanocytes, now intermediate cells of the stria vascularis, tightly integrate with Na+ /K+ -ATPase-positive marginal cells, which started to express KCNQ1 in their apical membrane.[29]

15
  Pancreas glucagon detectable in fetal plasma.

Spleen Week 15 -alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA)-positive reticulum cells scattered around the arterioles. [31]

Fetal Timeline

16
14 cm Fetal size change.jpg Hearing Week 16-24 - Centres of ossification appear in remaining cartilage of otic capsule form petrous portion of temporal bone. Continues to ossify to form mastoid process of temporal bone.

Pituitary adenohypophysis fully differentiated

Respiratory Week 16 to 25 lung histology - canalicular

Hearing - Outer Ear Development Week 16.5 - External auditory meatus is fully patent throughout its length, lumen is still narrow and curved.

Hearing - Inner Ear Development Week 16 GA 18 - cells in the outer sulcus express KCNJ10 and gap junction proteins GJB2/CX26 and GJB6/CX30, but these are not expressed in the spiral ligament.[29] gap junction cartoon

Neural - Cerebrum development of the periinsular sulci (week 16-17, GA 18-19 weeks)[30]


Skin 4 months - basal cell- proliferation generates folds in basement membrane; neural crest cells- (melanocytes) migrate into epithelium; embryonic connective tissue- differentiates into dermis, a loose ct layer over a dense ct layer. Beneath the dense ct layer is another loose ct layer that will form the subcutaneous layer. Ectoderm contributes to nails, hair follictles and glands. Nails form as thickening of ectoderm epidermis at the tips of fingers and toes. These form germinative cells of nail field. Cords of these cells extend into mesoderm forming epithelial columns. These form hair follocles, sebaceous and sweat glands.

primary follicles begin to form in the ovary and are characterized by an oocyte

glandular urethra forms and skin folds present

17
Brain week 17 histology.jpg Neural - Brain development histology week 17

Tooth Development Week 17 - First papilla of the permanent dentition appear (first molar) immediately behind the second milk molar, milk teeth are well advanced (Fetus 180 mm).

18
Bailey095.jpgTongue Week 18 - substance P detected in dermal papillae, not in taste bud primordia

Skin vernix caseosa covers skin

Spleen Week 18 - alpha-SMA-positive reticulum cells increase in number and began to form a reticular framework. An accumulation of T and B lymphocytes occurred within the framework, and a primitive white pulp was observed around the arterioles. [31]

Hearing - Outer Ear Development week 18 - External auditory meatus is already fully expanded to its complete form.

Neural - Cerebrum central sulci and opercularization of the insula (week 18-20, GA 20-22 weeks)[30]

19
  Neural week 19 neuronal migration ends and the radial glial cells that aided the migration now become transformed into astrocytes and astrocytic precursors.[32]
20
  Pituitary week 20 to 24 growth hormone levels peak, then decline

Skin lanugo, skin hair

Skin 5 months - Hair growth initiated at base of cord, lateral outgrowths form associated sebaceous glands; Other cords elongate and coil to form sweat glands; Cords in mammary region branch as they elongate to form mammary glands.

21
   
22
  Gray0038.jpg Neural brain cortical sulcation - sylvian fissure, interhemispheric fissure, callosal sulcus, parietooccipital fissure, and hippocampic fissures present[33]

Spleen - Week 22 - antigenic diversity of the reticular framework was observed, and T and B lymphocytes were segregated in the framework. T lymphocytes were sorted into the alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive reticular framework, and the periarteriolar lymphoid sheath (PALS) was formed around the arteriole. B lymphocytes aggregated in eccentric portions to the PALS and formed the lymph follicle (LF). The reticular framework of the LF was alpha-SMA-negative. [31]

Neural - Cerebrum covering of the posterior insula (week 22-24, GA 24-26 weeks)[30]

23
   
24
  Respiratory Week 24 to 40 lung histology - terminal sac

Spleen Week 24 - marginal zone appeared in the alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive reticular framework around the white pulp.[31] Tooth Development Week 24 - Permanent incisors and canines appear. Earliest potential survival expected if born

ovarian follicles can consist of growing oocytes surrounded by several layers of granulosa cells

25
  Respiratory end month 6 alveolar cells type 2 appear and begin to secrete surfactant

Neural - Cerebrum closure of the laeteral sulcus (Sylvian fissure or lateral fissure) (week 25-26, GA 27-28 weeks)[30]

Third Trimester

(GA Clinical Week 28) Third Trimester


Week
Stage
Event
Clinical third trimester Fetal size change.jpg Hearing 3rd Trimester - vibration acoustically of maternal abdominal wall induces startle respone in fetus.
27
 
28
  Respire Month 7 - respiratory bronchioles proliferate and end in alveolar ducts and sacs
29
 

Tooth Development Week 29 - Permanent premolars (correspond to the milk molars) appear.

30
   

Genital male gonad (testes) descending

31
 
32
  Nail Development fingernails reach digit tip
33
  Neural brain cortical sulcation - primary sulci present[33]
34
  Neural brain cortical sulcation - insular, cingular, and occipital secondary sulci present[33]
35
   
36
  Frazer006 bw600.jpg Nail Development toenails reach digit tip

Lens Development - lens growth and interocular distance plateaus after 36 weeks of gestation[34]

37
   
38
Birth Newborn.jpg Clinical Week 40

Heart pressure difference closes foramen ovale leaving a fossa ovalis

Thyroid TSH levels increase, thyroxine (T3) and T4 levels increase to 24 h, then 5-7 days postnatal decline to normal levels

Adrenal - zona glomerulosa, zona fasiculata present



Postnatal

Week
Stage
Event
+1
Normal Newborn Neural Exam Movies
Normal Newborn Neural Exam Movies

The newborn neuromuscular system can be initially assessed by 6 quick tests (posture, square window, arm recoil, popliteal angle, scarf sign and heel to ear). The following short videos show clinical examination of these assessments and a number of neonatal reflexes.

Later developmental assessment includes behaviour, reflexes (primitive and postural), muscular tone, and motor (gross, fine, co-ordination).

Normal Newborn Neural Exam Movies

Newborn Behaviour
Newborn-normal-behaviour.jpg
 ‎‎Behaviour
Page | Play
Newborn n 02.jpg
 ‎‎Cranial Nerves
Page | Play
Newborn Tone
Newborn n 03.jpg
 ‎‎Resting Posture
Page | Play
Newborn n 04.jpg
‎‎ Tone Upper Limb
Page | Play
Newborn n 05.jpg
‎‎ Arm Traction
Page | Play
Newborn n 06.jpg
 ‎‎Arm Recoil
Page | Play
Newborn n 07.jpg
 ‎‎Scarf Sign
Page | Play
Newborn n 08.jpg
 ‎‎Hand Position
Page | Play
Newborn n 09.jpg
 ‎‎Lower Limb
Page | Play
Newborn n 10.jpg
 ‎‎Leg Traction
Page | Play
Newborn n 11.jpg
 ‎‎Leg Recoil
Page | Play
Newborn n 12.jpg
 ‎‎Popliteal Angle
Page | Play
Newborn n 13.jpg
 ‎‎Heel to Ear
Page | Play
Newborn n 14.jpg
 ‎‎Neck Tone
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Newborn n 15.jpg
 ‎‎Head Lag
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Newborn n 16.jpg
 ‎‎Head Control
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Newborn Positions
Newborn n 17.jpg
 ‎‎Prone Position
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Newborn n 18.jpg
 ‎‎Ventral Suspend
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Newborn n 19.jpg
 ‎‎Vertical Suspend
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Newborn Reflexes
Newborn n 20.jpg
 ‎‎Tendon Reflexes
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Newborn n 21.jpg
 ‎‎Plantar Reflex
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Newborn n 22.jpg
 ‎‎Reflex Suck,Root
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Newborn n 23.jpg
 ‎‎Moro Reflex
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Newborn n 24.jpg
 ‎‎Galant Reflex
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Newborn n 25.jpg
 ‎‎Stepping Reflex
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Newborn n 26.jpg
 ‎‎Grasp Reflex
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Newborn Head
Newborn n 27.jpg
‎‎ Head Shape
Page | Play
Newborn n 28.jpg
‎‎Head Circumference
Page | Play
Neural Exam Movies: normal behaviour | cranial nerves | Newborn Tone - resting posture | upper extremity‎ | arm traction | arm recoil | scarf sign | hand position | lower extremity | leg traction‎ | leg recoil‎‎ | popliteal angle‎ | heel to ear | neck tone | head lag‎ | head control | Newborn Positions - prone | ventral suspension | vertical suspension | Newborn Reflexes - deep tendon reflexes | plantar reflex‎ | suck, root | Moro | Galant | stepping‎ | grasp | Newborn Head - head shape and sutures‎ | head circumference‎ | Neonatal Diagnosis


+2
 
+3
 
+4
  Vision Development - eye globe growth plateaus after 42 weeks of gestation[34]  
+5
   
Month
  Testis | Spermatozoa - about 2 months of age, primordial germ cells (gonocytes) are replaced by adult dark (Ad) and pale (Ap) spermatogonia forming the spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) population that at puberty will commence differentiation into spermatozoa.
Year
 
Year 1
  Neural Hearing (6 months to 5 years) thalamocortical afferents to the deeper cortical layers mature and are the first source of input to the auditory cortex[35]


Normal 12 Month Neural Exam Movies
Normal 12 Month Neural Exam Movies

The following short videos show clinical examination of neural development assessments and a number of reflexes.


12 Months Neural Exam Movies: Shy | Social and Language | Cranial Nerves | Tone - Tone | Reflexes - deep tendon reflexes | plantar reflex‎ | Parachute | Pincer Grasp | Beads in the Cup | Play Ball | Transition in and out of Sitting | Creeping | Stoop and Recover | Motor/Gait - Stand, Walks with Support | Toddler’s Gait | Head Circumference | Neural Exam Movies
Year 2
   
Year 3
  Adrenal - Year 3 zona reticularis present.


Normal 30 Month Neural Exam Movies
Normal 30 Month Neural Exam Movies

The following short videos show clinical examination of neural development assessments and a number of reflexes.


Neural Exam Movies: Establishing Relationship | Follows Commands | Points to Pictures | Names Pictures | Response to Questions | Pointing to and Naming Body Parts | Motor/Coordination - Using Puppets | Using Measuring Tape | Block Tower | Drawing | Tone | Deep Tendon Reflex | Kicking and Throwing a Ball | Walking, Running
4
   
5
  Neural Hearing - (5 to 12 years) commissural and association axons in the superficial cortical layers allows communication between subdivisions of the auditory cortex[35]
7-13
  Puberty - Female
9-15
Puberty - Male

References

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  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Khaled Menshawi, Jay P Mohr, Jose Gutierrez A Functional Perspective on the Embryology and Anatomy of the Cerebral Blood Supply. J Stroke: 2015, 17(2);144-58 PubMed 26060802 | J Stroke.
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  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 Peter F Nichol, Robert F Corliss, Shigehito Yamada, Kohei Shiota, Yukio Saijoh Muscle patterning in mouse and human abdominal wall development and omphalocele specimens of humans. Anat Rec (Hoboken): 2012, 295(12);2129-40 PubMed 22976993 | PMC3976953 | Anat Rec (Hoboken)
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  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Ryozo Hashimoto Development of the human Müllerian duct in the sexually undifferentiated stage. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol: 2003, 272(2);514-9 PubMed 12740945
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  19. Wells LJ. and Boyden EA. The development of the bronchopulmonary segments in human embryos of horizons XVII to XIX. (1954) Amer. J. Anal, 95, 163-201.
  20. Jirasek JE. Development of the Genital System and Male Pseudohermaphroditism. (1971) Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore.
  21. Wilson KM. Origin and development of the rete ovarii and the rete testis in the human embryo. (1926) Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ. 362, Contrib. Embryol., 17:69-88.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2016) Embryology Timeline human development. Retrieved July 26, 2016, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Timeline_human_development

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© Dr Mark Hill 2016, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G