Musculoskeletal System - Bone Development
|Embryology - 22 May 2015 Translate|
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- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Adult Human Skeleton
- 4 Textbooks
- 5 Objectives
- 6 Development Overview
- 7 Ossification Centres
- 8 Bone Structure
- 9 Bone Cells
- 10 Bone Matrix
- 11 Haversian Systems
- 12 Endochondral Ossification
- 13 Intramembranous Ossification
- 14 Molecular
- 15 Abnormalities
- 16 References
- 17 Additional Images
- 18 External Links
- 19 Glossary Links
The mesoderm forms nearly all the connective tissues of the musculoskeletal system, except within the head where neural crest also contributes connective tissues. Each tissue (cartilage, bone, and muscle) goes through many different mechanisms of differentiation.
The 2 key developmental processes are the initial "patterning" of bone location and then the overt "differentiation" of bone through the process of ossification. For details on specific bone differentiation in human development see Bone Development Timeline.
Bone is formed through a lengthy process involving ossification of a cartilage formed from mesenchyme. Two main forms of ossification occur in different bones, intramembranous (eg skull) and endochondrial (eg limb long bones) ossification. Ossification continues postnatally, through puberty until mid 20s. Early ossification occurs at the ends of long bones.
The two major parts of the human skeleton are the axial (80 bones in skull, vertebra, ribs, sternum) and appendicular (126 bones in limbs, shoulders, pelvis) skeletons.
Musculoskeletal and limb abnormalities are one of the largest groups of congenital abnormalities.
- Musculoskeletal Links: Introduction | Mesoderm | Somitogenesis | Limb | Cartilage | Bone | Bone Timeline | Axial Skeleton | Skull | Joint | Muscle | Muscle Timeline | Tendon | Diaphragm | Lecture - Musculoskeletal Development | Abnormalities | Limb Abnormalities | Cartilage Histology | Bone Histology | Skeletal Muscle Histology | Category:Musculoskeletal
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Bahadır Kan, Metin Sencimen, Gurkan Rasit Bayar, Petek Korkusuz, Abdullah Tugrul Coskun, Ahmet Korkmaz, Elham Bahador, Tamer Zerener Histomorphometric and microtomographic evaluation of the effects of hyperbaric oxygen and systemic ozone, used alone and in combination, on calvarial defect healing in rats. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.: 2015, 73(6);1231.e1-1231.e10 PMID: 25981839 Daniela Caldas de Andrade, Simone Nunes de Carvalho, Daphne Pinheiro, Alessandra Alves Thole, Anibal Sanchez Moura, Lais de Carvalho, Erika Afonso Costa Cortez Bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation improves mitochondrial bioenergetics in the liver of cholestatic rats. Exp. Cell Res.: 2015; PMID: 25978973 Pu Li, Lei Zhang Exogenous Nkx2.5‑ or GATA‑4‑transfected rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and myocardial cell co‑culture on the treatment of myocardial infarction in rabbits. Mol Med Rep: 2015; PMID: 25975979 Adrián Ruiz-Villalba, Ana M Simón, Cristina Pogontke, María I Castillo, Gloria Abizanda, Beatriz Pelacho, Rebeca Sánchez-Domínguez, José C Segovia, Felipe Prósper, José M Pérez-Pomares Interacting resident epicardium-derived fibroblasts and recruited bone marrow cells form myocardial infarction scar. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.: 2015, 65(19);2057-66 PMID: 25975467 Wenduo Ye, Cheng Sun, YiPing Chen Reply to Kelder et al.: Does the dorsal mesenchymal protrusion act as a temporary pacemaker during heart development? J. Biol. Chem.: 2015, 290(12);8015 PMID: 25964955
Adult Human Skeleton
- The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (8th Edition) by Keith L. Moore and T.V.N Persaud - Moore & Persaud Chapter 15 the skeletal system
- Larsen’s Human Embryology by GC. Schoenwolf, SB. Bleyl, PR. Brauer and PH. Francis-West - Chapter 11 Limb Dev (bone not well covered in this textbook)
- Before we Are Born (5th ed.) Moore and Persaud Chapter 16,17: p379-397, 399-405
- Essentials of Human Embryology Larson Chapter 11 p207-228
- Identify the components of a somite and the adult derivatives of each component.
- Give examples of sites of (a) endochondral and (b) intramembranous ossification and to compare these two processes.
- Identify the general times (a) of formation of primary and (b) of formation of secondary ossification centres, and (c) of fusion of such centres with each other.
- Briefly summarise the development of the limbs.
- Describe the developmental abnormalities responsible for the following malformations: selected growth plate disorders; congenital dislocation of the hip; scoliosis; arthrogryposis; and limb reduction deformities.
Below is a very brief overview using simple figures of 3 aspects of early musculoskeletal development. More detailed overviews are shown on other notes pages Mesoderm and Somite, Vertebral Column, Limb in combination with serial sections and Carnegie images.
- Secondary ossification centres develop in the cartilage epiphysis of the long bones.
- No medulary cavity forms in a secondary ossification center.
- Appears late in fetal development.
- Used as a marker for term development if a secondary ossification centre present in either: head of femur, head of tibia, of head of humerus.
- The last secondary centre to appear is the clavical medial epiphysis, that does not develop until 18 or 20 years.
- (dense) no spaces or hollows in the bone matrix visible to the eye.
- forms the thick-walled tube of the shaft (or diaphysis) of long bones, which surrounds the marrow cavity (or medullary cavity). A thin layer of compact bone also covers the epiphyses of long bones.
- (cancellous or spongy bone) consists of delicate bars (spicules) and sheets of bone, trabeculae
- branch and intersect to form a sponge-like network
- ends of long bones (or epiphyses) consist mainly of trabecular bone.
Connective tissue covering the surface of bone (except articular surfaces).
Connective tissue lining inner surface of bone.
- Appositional growth occurs at either the periosteum (outer surface), or the endosteum (inner surface).
- Osteoblasts secrete osteoid, a pre-bone material composed mainly of type I collagen that becomes mineralized.
- Early bone matrix deposited in development and during repair is woven rather than lamellar in appearance and structure.
- In development, there are 2 distinct types of bone formation (intramembranous and endochondral)
- derive from osteogenic stem cells the osteoprogenitor cells that differentiate to form pre-osteoblast then osteoblasts maturing to an osteocyte
- osteoprogenitor cells - "resting cell" line the inner and outer surfaces of bone
- mature bone-forming cells embedded in lacunae within the bone matrix
- osteoblasts and osteocytes - secrete organic matrix of bone (osteoid), converted into osteocytes when become embedded in matrix (which calcifies soon after deposition)
- bone-resorbing multinucleated macrophage-like cells
- origin- fusion of monocytes or macrophages, Blood macrophage precursor, Attach to bone matrix
- seal a small segment of extracellular space (between plasma membrane and bone surface), HCl and lysosomes secreted into this space by osteoclasts dissolves calcium phosphate crystals (give bone rigidity and strength)
- Resorptive bay - (Howship's lacuna) shallow bay lying directly under an osteoclast.
- do not mistake for megakaryocytes, found in bone marrow not associated with bone matrix.
- megakaryocytes are also multi-niucleated and form platelets
- red marrow - mainly haematopoietic (myeloid) tissue, newborn has all red marrow
- yellow marrow - mainly fat cells, found in diaphysis region of long bones
- stromal cells - all other support cells not involved in haematopoiesis
- Links: Blood Development
Marrow stroma components:
- osteoblasts - enclose the marrow compartment in bone tissue.
- endothelial and smooth muscle cells - organized into a complex vascular network composed of arterioles, capillaries, sinusoids, and a large central vein.
- nerves - sensory and sympathetic nerve fibres, glia, and perineural cells that innervate the marrow compartment to form a neural network.
- adipocytes - support metabolic functions of the bone marrow.
- stromal cells - support haematopoiesis and retain skeletal potential.
The bone matrix has 2 major components.
- Organic portion composed of mainly collagen Type 1 (about 95%) and amorphous ground substance.
- Inorganic portion (50% dry weight of the matrix) composed of hydroxyapatite crystals, calcium, phosphorus, bicarbonate, nitrate, Mg, K, Na.
- storage calcium and phosphate
- regulate blood calcium levels
- also called osteons
- Volkmann's canals - interconnect Haversian systems
- concentric - surrounding each Haversian System
- interstitial - bony plates that fill in between the haversian systems.
- circumferential - layers of bone that underlie the periosteum and endosteum
- osteocytes extending cytoplasmic processes into canaliculi
- Additional Histology images: low | medium | high
Most of the bony skeleton forms by this process, that replaces a developmental cartilage template with bone.
See also Bone Histology
- Links: Blue Histology - endochondral | Dev Biology - endochondral ossification | endochondral ossification animation
Only specific parts of the skeleton form by this process, where bone forms by direct ossification of mesenchyme without a pre-existing cartilage template.
This process occurs in regions of the skull and the clavicle.
See also Bone Histology
Human Fetal Head (12 week)
The transcription factors Runx2 and Runx3 are essential for chondrocyte maturation, while Runx2 and Osterix are essential for osteoblast differentiation.
Osterix (OSX) encodes a transcription factor containing three Cys2-His2 zinc-finger DNA-binding domains at its C terminus that has been shown to be essential for bone formation.
Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI, brittle bone disease) originally described as a collagen 1 gene mutation, but can have several different genetic causes and can be classified into eight different types (I-VIII).
- COL1A1 and COL1A2 mutations
- CRTAP and LEPRE1 mutations, in severe/lethal and recessively inherited osteogenesis imperfecta
- Yuh-Charn Lin, Steve R Roffler, Yu-Ting Yan, Ruey-Bing Yang Disruption of Scube2 impairs endochondral bone formation. J. Bone Miner. Res.: 2015; PMID: 25639508
- Sonja M Walzer, Erdal Cetin, Ruth Grübl-Barabas, Irene Sulzbacher, Beate Rueger, Werner Girsch, Stefan Toegel, Reinhard Windhager, Michael B Fischer Vascularization of primary and secondary ossification centres in the human growth plate. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2014, 14;36 PMID: 25164565 | BMC Dev Biol.
- Antonella Galli, Dimitri Robay, Marco Osterwalder, Xiaozhong Bao, Jean-Denis Bénazet, Muhammad Tariq, Renato Paro, Susan Mackem, Rolf Zeller Distinct roles of Hand2 in initiating polarity and posterior Shh expression during the onset of mouse limb bud development. PLoS Genet.: 2010, 6(4);e1000901 PMID: 20386744 | PMC2851570 | PLoS Genet.
- Jay R Shapiro, Paul D Sponsellor Osteogenesis imperfecta: questions and answers. Curr. Opin. Pediatr.: 2009, 21(6);709-16 PMID: 19907330
Masaharu Takigawa CCN2: a master regulator of the genesis of bone and cartilage. J Cell Commun Signal: 2013, 7(3);191-201 PMID: 23794334 | MC3709051 | J Cell Commun Signal. Yingzi Yang Skeletal morphogenesis during embryonic development. Crit. Rev. Eukaryot. Gene Expr.: 2009, 19(3);197-218 PMID: 19883365
E J Mackie, Y A Ahmed, L Tatarczuch, K-S Chen, M Mirams Endochondral ossification: how cartilage is converted into bone in the developing skeleton. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.: 2008, 40(1);46-62 PMID: 17659995
Search April 2010
- Musculoskeletal System Development - All (44637) Review (5065) Free Full Text (6601)
- Musculoskeletal Development - All (44637) Review (5065) Free Full Text (6601)
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name.
- Virtual Slidebox of Histology (USA) Skeletal system
- e-radiography Ossification
- UWA Blue Histology bone
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2015) Embryology Musculoskeletal System - Bone Development. Retrieved May 22, 2015, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Musculoskeletal_System_-_Bone_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2015, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G