Embryology History - Franklin Mall

From Embryology
Embryology - 18 May 2024    Facebook link Pinterest link Twitter link  Expand to Translate  
Google Translate - select your language from the list shown below (this will open a new external page)

العربية | català | 中文 | 中國傳統的 | français | Deutsche | עִברִית | हिंदी | bahasa Indonesia | italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | မြန်မာ | Pilipino | Polskie | português | ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ | Română | русский | Español | Swahili | Svensk | ไทย | Türkçe | اردو | ייִדיש | Tiếng Việt    These external translations are automated and may not be accurate. (More? About Translations)


Franklin Mall (1911)
Historic Marker

Franklin P. Mall (1862-1917) is most remembered for his work done at the Department of Embryology at the Carnegie Institute of Washington. Mall began collecting human embryos while a postgraduate student in Lepzig with Wilhelm His, but didn't receive the first Carnegie specimen until his position at Johns Hopkins University.

Carnegie Institution of Embryology Directors: Franklin Mall (1914-1917) | Streeter (1917-1940) | George Corner (1940-)

Surprizingly age and size proves a poor way to organize embryos. It is very difficult to accurately age an embryo, and it could shrink a full 50% in the preserving fluids. Mall took it upon himself to find a better way. He had more success basing his "staging" scheme on morphological characteristics. To that end, Mall and his colleagues not only prepared and preserved serial sections of the embryos, they also made hundreds of three-dimensional models at different stages of growth.

According to Adrianne Noe, who manages the collection at the National Museum of Health and Medicine, Mall gathered the most renowned scientists, scholars, artists, photographers, and craftspeople ever to apply their interests and skills to embryology.

One of the first to be hired, in 1913, was modeler Osborne O. Heard, who spent 42 years at the department and made over 700 wax-based reconstructions. The results of this team effort still stand as the international standard by which human embryos are described and classified.

(Above text and information about the collection is modifed from the original Carnegie Institute website)

The embryo collection is now held at the National Museum of Health and Medicine, located at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, D.C. the Carnegie collection is still available for use by researchers.

Historic Anatomical Terms

  • Mall formula - formula used to calculate the age in days of a human embryo based upon the square root of its length.
  • Mall ridges - a term used for the pulmonary ridges.
  • periportal space of Mall - the tissue space between the limiting lamina and the portal canal in the liver.

Mall was also an editorial board member of The American Journal of Anatomy.

Franklin Mall Links: Franklin Mall | 1891 26 Day Human Embryo | 1905 Blood-Vessels of the Brain | 1906 Human Ossification | 1910 Manual of Human Embryology 1 | 1912 Manual of Human Embryology 2 | 1911 Mall Human Embryo Collection | 1912 Heart Development | 1915 Tubal Pregnancy | 1916 Human Magma in Normal and Pathological Development | 1917 Frequency Human Abnormalities | 1917 Human Embryo Cyclopia | 1918 Embryo Age | 1918 Appreciation | 1934 Franklin Mall biography PDF | Mall photograph | Mall painting | Mall painting | Carnegie Stages | Carnegie Embryos | Carnegie Collection | Category:Franklin Mall

Embryologists: William Hunter | Wilhelm Roux | Caspar Wolff | Wilhelm His | Oscar Hertwig | Julius Kollmann | Hans Spemann | Francis Balfour | Charles Minot | Ambrosius Hubrecht | Charles Bardeen | Franz Keibel | Franklin Mall | Florence Sabin | George Streeter | George Corner | James Hill | Jan Florian | Thomas Bryce | Thomas Morgan | Ernest Frazer | Francisco Orts-Llorca | José Doménech Mateu | Frederic Lewis | Arthur Meyer | Robert Meyer | Erich Blechschmidt | Klaus Hinrichsen | Hideo Nishimura | Arthur Hertig | John Rock | Viktor Hamburger | Mary Lyon | Nicole Le Douarin | Robert Winston | Fabiola Müller | Ronan O'Rahilly | Robert Edwards | John Gurdon | Shinya Yamanaka | Embryology History | Category:People
Related Histology Researchers  
Santiago Ramón y Cajal | Camillo Golgi

Carnegie Stages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | About Stages | Timeline | Glossary Carnegie Collection

Nature - Obituary Notice

Prof. Franklin P. Mall

"ALL who are interested in the progress of biology will learn with deep regret of the sudden death of Dr. Franklin P. Mall, of Johns Hopkins University, at the age of fifty-five. It was chiefly owing to his precepts and example that, in little more than a score of years, a complete revolution was wrought in the anatomical departments attached to medical schools throughout the length and breadth of the United States. Dissecting-rooms were changed from places in which routine teaching and perfunctory investigation were carried on to laboratories where exact methods were applied to the elucidation of definite problems. Prof. Mall was thirty-one years of age when he returned in 1893 from a long course of study under the late Prof. His, of Leipzig, to become the first professor of anatomy in Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. He designed his own department, selecting a slimly built, cheap, brick construction, and settled down with his students to combine study with research. He devoted himself to embryological and microscopic investigations, reconstructing his results in the exact model methods practised by Prof. His. His writings cover the whole field of embryology, every contribution representing a permanent addition to knowledge. His pupils left him to fill the various chairs of anatomy as they fell vacant, and carried to their new departments the methods and spirit they had imbibed from Franklin Mall. He took a leading-part in the foundation of the excellent journals which have been established in the United States for the publication of anatomical investigations the American Journal of Anatomy, the Anatomical Record, and the Journal of Morphology. He pursued the study of human embryology in a more systematic manner than has ever been accomplished by any other man."
Links: Nature (27 December 1917)

Franklin Paine Mall 1862-1917 In Memoriam

G. Carl Huber
  • An address, in memory of Franklin Paine Mall, presented at the thirty-fourth session of the American Association of Anatomists, convened at the University of Minnesota, December 27 to 29, 1917. (1918 Anat Rec. 14 (1): 9-17.)

This hour, of our busy session, has been set aside to enable us to voice our deep appreciation, our gratitude and affection of one who has been wont to meet with us, one of our members whose busy and eventful life, but recently and all too suddenly was brought to an end. On November 17 We were shocked and grieved to learn of the death of Franklin Paine Mall, Professor of Anatomy at Johns Hopkins University and Director of the Department of Embryology of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. We Who in thought lingered at his bedside during the final week of illness, though separated by boundaries of states, We who Were made hopeful or sorrowed as bulletins Were received, and were in a measure led to anticipate the end, were none the less unprepared to sustain the grief which came with the realization of the sudden ending of a career which has meant so much to the development of scientific Anatomy in America. On this 17th day of November there came to a close the lives of two notable personalities with international standing. The one, Auguste Rodin, with years numbering more than three score and ten, who labored more than half a century to reach fame, one whose molded clay and chiseled stone expressed structure and movement; the other, our departed member, who in the scarce more than half century of life, obtained a commanding position early in his career and of his brief span was for nearly a quarter of a century recognized at home and abroad as an able investigator, with wide sympathies, and keen and broad vision; one Who saw life in a dead section; one who has been teacher to many of us though we held not the formal relation of pupils.

We are at the moment too near to sorrow to sketch with full justice this life. I have been the more willing to give expression to our feelings, at this time, since I fully realize that no word of eulogy of mine is needed to bring him to your appreciation. We are all familiar with the results of his labor. To nearly all of us there has been a personal side, not revealed in printed page. To me, he has been a helpful friend of many years standing, one whose frank though kindly criticism as well as encouraging word, whether written or spoken, have been appreciated and have influenced my endeavors and will influence them to the end of my labors.

Franklin Paine Mall was born September 28, 1862, on a farm some two miles distant from Belle Plaine, Iowa, the son of Francis and Louise (Miller) Mall. His father came to America from Germany in 1848. His mother, born in this country, died during his early boyhood. His preliminary education was received largely at a boarding school situated near his home. He entered the Department of Medicine and Surgery of the University of Michigan, apparently on the advice of their family physician, who had graduated there, in the autumn of 1880, and received the degree of Doctor of Medicine from this institution on June 28, 1883; thus several months before attaining majority. This period of study fell to a time when “The Faculty recognizes what is evident in the experience of all medical students, that attendance upon lectures on the same subject a second time, is much more interesting and profitable than the first; hence they require students to attend lectures on all the leading subjects more than once.” Probably speaking from his own experience—Liberty in Medical Education~he states “When the third year course was introduced the second year was the first year taken over again, with a special third year course added. In this way the student heard each course of lectures twice in order to make him remember it.” Laboratory courses in anatomy and histology were required, though in later years while discussing the need of careful work in the dissecting room, with reference to the value of Barker’s Manual, he states that “Nowhere do we read that the 5000 questions which were placed before me while a medical student give the ‘royal road’ to knowledge.” It is stated that instead of taking lectures over again, yes a first time in certain courses, this medical student chose the alternative of study in the library. Of his then teachers he has spoken to me of two— Vaughan and Sewall — as having given inspiration and incentive to further work. To me, who approached this same course at about the same age and with essentially the same preliminary training and only a few years later, retrospect does not reveal much specific knowledge gained during undergraduate days; rather one had opportunity to acquire an attitude of mind. A ‘trieb’ within for knowing the unknown did find congenial environment in the quiet and stimulating University atmosphere, with approach to academic ideals.

The years immediately following graduation in medicine, Doctor Mall spent in study in Europe. The first year (1884) at Heidelberg, where he pursued various medical subjects, lived the life of a student and perfected himself in the German language. In his discussion of liberty in medical education, with special reference to sequence or courses, we read “If a student desires to take pathological histology without having had normal histology and the instructor did not object, the student would have to take the consequences. I myself did this as a student at Heidelberg and to this day I have not regretted it.” The years of 1885-86 were spent in Leipzig and the greater part of this time in Ludwig’s laboratory, and he was profoundly influenced by this teacher, one whom Minot has characterized “as the greatest teacher of the art of scientific research whom he had ever met.” The influence of Ludwig was the dominant one in molding his future scientific ideals as well as his attitude toward medical education. The happy relations existing in the laboratory between Ludwig and his pupils was one which impressed him greatly and was emulated by him in his own laboratory in later years. During his second year at Leipzig a part of the time was spent in study in the laboratory of His. This great teacher of anatomy was not so congenial and less approachable. In his account of the life of Wilhelm His he informs us that “When I knocked at his door at first I was turned away, but after appearing a number of times I was finally accepted.” Teacher and pupil became intimate friends in later years. Doctor Mall spent many summers in Leipzig working with His. Their intimacy was based on common interests in similar scientific problems. The clear reasoning and direct manner of formulating and solving problems, characteristic of His, impressed and influenced his pupil and co—worker. The results of his two years of study at Leipzig are embodied in two publications, one from each of the two laboratories in which his special work was carried on — “Die Blut—und Lymphwege im Diinndarm des Hundes” and “Entwickelung der Branchialbogen und Spalten des Hunchens,” characteristic of the spirit of the two laboratories and in a measure foreshadowing the main lines of his future work.

On his return to America Doctor Mall was called to Baltimore, where he entered upon the duties of Fellow in Pathology, under Professor Welch (1886~88) in association with Doctors Halstead and Councilman. He was named Instructor in Pathology, 1888-89. These were further years of training, devoted to investigation, as attested by a number of publications. It is deemed fitting to emphasize here this long period of training devoted to research, and the breadth of the training—physiology, embryology and pathology. Doctor Mall has often, in spoken and written word, stressed the necessity of training in research as a preparation for an academic career and has pled for the opportunity for such training in our American Medical Schools. “In America,” he writes, “we frequently find recent graduates who tell us they would follow an academic career if their future were assured as far as salary is concerned. Little do they realize that this attitude of mind alone would exclude them absolutely from such a career.” With the opening of Clark University Doctor Mall became Adjunct Professor of Vertebrate Anatomy (1889-92), and with the foundation of Chicago University, Professor of Anatomy (1892-93). With the establishment of the School of Medicine at Johns Hopkins University, he returned to Baltimore to enter upon the duties'of Professor of Anatomy and Director of the Laboratory, which position he held at the time of his death, assuming in 1914, in conjunction, the directorship of the newly created Department of Embryology of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. The University of Michigan honored him and honored itself by conferring the degree of A.M., in 1900, and the degree of Sc.D., in 1908. He received the degree of LL.D., from the University of Wisconsin, in 1904. His sympathies in the sciences, more particularly in the Biological sciences were broad, and in an advisory capacity, as a member of committees or of boards, he did much to promote his chosen and allied sciences. He was sometime a trustee of the Woods Hole Biological Laboratory, member of the Advisory Board of The Wistar Institute, member of the committee of brain research of the International Association of Academies, member of the National Academy of Sciences, of the American Philosophical Association, Fellow of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia and member of many learned societies of America.

Doctor Mall’s publications number somewhat over one hundred. Time does not permit, nor is this the opportunity to present a bibliographic list and discuss critically these publications. This I am attempting for record elsewhere. However, a fleeting survey may here be permitted. His Leipzig teachers, Ludwig and His, were sometime teachers both of anatomy and physiology and many of Ludwig’s researches were of physiological problems studied chiefly on an anatomical basis, bringing structures and course of blood vessels in relation with function of organs. This functional or physiological anatomy is exemplified in his studies of the blood and lymph vessels of the dog’s small intestine and stomach, his studies of the spleen lobule, and of the structural unit of the liver. finished contributions of studies in which methods of vascular injection, corrosion injection, maceration and differential digestion where used to advantage in reaching definite conclusions. Of his more purely physiologic researches may be mentioned the studies of the vasomotor supply of the Portal System. His careful and illuminating studies of the histogenesis of the connective tissue from mesenchymal syncytium and of collagenous, yellow elastic and reticular fibrils have given us a new conception of the structure of connective tissue. However, from the time of his early studies in embryology in the His laboratory, resulting in his first publication, embryology and histogenesis have been the chief theme of his investigation, his real program for modern anatomy. The embryological studies contributed by himself, with many others emanating from his laboratory, have greatly extended the bounds of our knowledge of developmental processes, especially as concerns the human embryo, the development of which, except for earliest stages, is now better understood than that of any other mammal, and this largely through his labors, his cooperation or his incentive. Doctor Mall’s first embryological contribution dealt with the development of the branchial cleft region of the chick, followed in close succession by a series of studies of this region, both in chick and mammals. These were followed by a series of papers on the development of the coelomic cavity, culminating in his well known contribution to the development of the human coelom. His study of a human embryo 26 days old, falling to the early period of his work (1891) exemplifies a characteristic of the embryological work of His, namely, that he viewed the embryo as a whole and carried the investigation to its logical conclusion. This study has been the prototype for other investigations of human and other mammalian embryos. The contribution to the development of the human intestine and its position in the adult exemplifies another type of embryological work, one worthy of special commendation. Of it, His has stated in a private letter— “What is lacking in the majority of contributions to embryology is a fundamental conception of the transition phases from early developmental stages to fetal and adult stages. For the intestine you have now completed this chain, from beginning to end, and this I hold to be a great advance.” This broad conception of embryblogic investigation characterizes other of his contributions; his studies on the development of the heart, normal and pathological, and of the structure of the adult heart, his studies of the structural unit of the liver, of the blood vessels of the brain and other vessels, all bring to conclusion developmental stages and give the key to modern anatomic investigation. With the increase in the size of the human embryological collection at Johns Hopkins University, the need of determining more definitely the age relation to the size of the human embryo, the sequence of stages and a uniform and well authenticated designation of stages, became apparent, and much thought was given this phase of embryologic investigation. The results of these reflections have appeared in a number of publications which have proven essential and helpful in the correlation of investigations on the human embryo. The ever-growing collection of human embryos contained many specimens of pathologic ova and young embryos, which have formed the basis for a number of monographic contributions dealing with the pathology of early human embryos, the causes underlying the origin of human monsters, of cyclopia in the human embryo, the frequency of localized anomalies in human embryos and infants at birth, the causes of tubal pregnancy and the fate of the embryo in tubal pregnancy. Much of this later work was pioneer work and of the greatest value; of interest not only to the specialist but of a wide general interest. The “Manual of Human Embryology,” edited by Keibel and Mall, and published simultaneously in German and in English, marks a milestone in the progress of our knowledge of human development and embodies the crystallized thought of Doctor Mall and his co-workers.

Doctor Mall was for many years vitally interested in the question of medical education. From the time of his early Leipzig days, influenced by the attitude existing between Ludwig and his pupils, influenced also by this able investigator’s views on medical education and on university education in general, he agitated for more liberty in medical education. “How different is the study of medicine in Europe than in America. There freedom reigns and students wander from place to place, being controlled only by a fairly rational system of examinations in case they wish to graduate,” we hear him say. And againv “Liberty to the student should not mean license to him, but rather liberty also to the instructor.” He has argued for more liberal curricula, concentration of courses, opportunity for electives on the part of the student, but also for more freedom from routine and better facilities for research on the part of the teacher. “A medical department of a University must consist of a group of independent departments, each a complete organization in itself, existing primarily as a conservator of the branch it represents. Teaching beginners may become its chief work, but should never be its chief ideal.” I am not prepared to say just how much of the improvement in medical education witnessed during the past decade is due to his influence, direct or indirect, though I feel that he has been a potent factor; and may we come to a nearer realization of his ideals.

His chief concern was of necessity with departments of anatomy. On entering upon the real work of his life, at Johns Hopkins University, he was able to organize a department of anatomy unhampered by traditions, and in an environment of academic freedom, surrounded by departments devoted to scientific research, he was able, from the beginning, to realize certain of his ideals. The work of the department was placed on a broad basis. “To bring about desired reform it is necessary to have represented in an anatomical department, even in a medical school, all which naturally belongs to this science. The study of anatomy begins with the cell, ends with the entire individual, and includes man,” we were informed in his remarks to this association as president. And again — “A subject like anatomy, taught for many centuries, has recently been made a new science through the studies in embryology and histology.” His was the first department of anatomy i11 America in which all divisions of anatomy were thus correlated, not alone in printed announcement but in daily practice. Other medical schools have followed, but some have been tardy followers. From the beginning much needed reform was instituted in the dissecting room; his was not a ‘dissecting room’ but a laboratory. Consideration was given to adequate preservation of material. The aim from the beginning was to make the study of anatomy inductive, and a type of instruction in gross anatomy was inaugurated and carried on with eminent success, which if followed by many of us would inevitably have cost us our positions. The student was led to make a complete dissection, using atlases, text-books and manuals. Analyzing the object itself was thought to be of infinitely more value than watching the results exposed by another. Neat, careful and accurate dissection was insisted upon, for it was appreciated that “The thorough dissector is much more likely to become a fine and discriminating physician and an effective and progressive surgeon.” And further — “The importance of working out the finer structure lies not always so much in the actual knowledge gained by the student, as in the acquisition of the habits of thoroughness of observation and investigation.” Such a course in gross anatomy could only be carried on in a department the staff of which was actively engaged in scientific research and in contributing to the progress of anatomy. From the beginning and through these many years he has been able to associate with himself a corps of able assistants and co-workers, who have profited by his methods and acquired his ideals, and many of them have become able and independent investigators. It was fortunate that when reorganization of medical schools became imperative, and fulltime and trained.teachers were sought, this need for the departments of anatomy was met, and in a number of medical schools the departments of anatomy formed the nucleus around which reorganization was effected. May I be permitted to quote from the English periodical Nature (February 3, 1916) in which the reorganization of embryological research in America, and incidentally its departments of anatomy, are considered; and I quote with full accord- “five-and-twenty years ago anatomists in America were British in method and spirit; they were easygoing, each man following leisurely his own individual bent. Since that time a remarkable change has taken place; the number of laboratories in which the structure and development of the human body are taught and investigated have increased tenfold; the number of investigators has grown in a still greater ratio; in quantity and quality their anatomical proceedings and journals have come to rival those of any country in Europe. In effecting this transformation the chief credit must be assigned to one man Franklin P. Mall, for twenty—three years professor of anatomy at the Johns Hopkins University. He planted in Baltimore the methods and aims which he acquired when working in the laboratory of the late Professor His at Leipzig. By his personal influence and example, by pupils and disciples, and by reason of the inherent excellence of the Leipzig traditions, he has succeeded in Germanizing the majority of the dissecting rooms and anatomical laboratories throughout the length and breadth of North America.” I never entered the unpretentious little building, situated at the corner of Wolfe and Monument Streets, though admirably planned within, crowded to the doors, with Walls of halls covered with drawings of illustrations of contributions to all phases of anatomy, nor shared the simple noonhour lunch of staff, perhaps each contributing to my share, without realizing to the full, that not brick and mortar, not even chiseled stone adorned by marble, make an anatomic institute.

During the early period of the regeneration of anatomic departments in our medical schools, the need of a medium for publishing in America, contributions to anatomy emanating from American laboratories, was keenly felt by him. Scientific anatomy had been Wrested from the medical school by collegiate and University departments of Zoology; the scattered contributions to anatomy were being published abroad or in our own journal devoted primarily to Zoology or to general science. And, while he believed fully in the catholicity of the Biological Sciences, he did not like to have it said of our association that its prominent members were not anatomists but biologists or something else. To enable fuller expression of anatomic thought, to assist in developing and differentiating Work in the anatomic laboratories of our medical schools, and the creation of a science of anatomy in America, The American Journal of Anatomy was founded. The realization of the need was largely his. In the fruition of the plans, an editorial board drawn from workers in a number of laboratories was created. Members of this board, laboratories and others interested in the development of anatomy, subscribed a suflicient fund to assure the publication of the early volumes. The journal at once became the organ of this association; membership in it automatically giving subscription to the journal. The early volumes were edited and published from his laboratory. The high standard set for contributions accepted, the enthusiasm with which the work was carried on, the sacrifice of time given to the work by himself and associates in his laboratory, did much to insure the success of this journal. After the issuance of the first few volumes of The American Journal of Anatomy, a few pages were set aside in each number, under the heading of “Anatomical Record.” To these pages he contributed freely himself; and nearly always, whether in book review, in record of collection or brief note, the dominant theme pertains to development of anatomy. The Anatomical Record, which thus. had its anlage by budding, soon developed into an independent organ, which has differentiated with the development of anatomy. With the re-formulation of the aims of The Wistar Institute of Anatomy under the directorship of Doctor Greenman, who, with far—seeing policy, appreciated the opportunity of lending the aid of this Institute to the development of scientific anatomy in America, and with full approval of an Advisory Board of Anatomists for this Institute, created at his suggestion, the publication office of The American Journal of Anatomy and The Anatomical Record, and other prominent morphologic journals, was transferred to The Wistar Institute. To the wisdom of establishing and maintaining these relations we can all testify. It has seemed to me that there has been no one effort on the part of The Wistar Institute which has been so instrumental in developing scientific anatomy in America as the broad policy shown by its Director in furthering the interests of our anatomic publications. We anatomists acknowledge a debt to the Director of this Institute as well as to Doctor Mall; the realization of the need of an American journal of Anatomy, and the appreciation of its value in furthering the development of scientific anatomy in our medical schools, to a large measure its inception and an ever present help in earlier stages of development, we owe to the one; the other through material aid and broad policy has been instrumental in bringing to fuller fruition the earlier endeavors. It is peculiarly fitting and appropriate that an appreciation of the life and influence of Doctor Mall should be presented at a session of the American Association of Anatomists. Some time its President and for a large number of years member of its executive committee, ever interested in its wellfare and keenly appreciative of its growth in numbers and influence and ever appreciating character of papers and demonstrations presented at its yearly sessions; to him this expressed growth of anatomy in America. Three years ago, this association assembled in its thirty—first session recorded in resolution its profound sense of sorrow and deep feeling of the loss sustained by the death of Charles Sedgwick Minot, he having died the 19th of November preceding. We recorded in appropriate words our appreciation of his labors in furthering the affairs of this association. I recall distinctly a session of this society, held in New Haven some twenty years ago, one of the first I attended. This session marked the turning point in the growth and development of our association. Plans for reorganization were then instituted. At a subsequent meeting, Professor Huntington was elected to the presidency, which office he held for a period of four years, important years in our evolution. I became your secretary during this period and was permittedto come in closer oflicial connection, and to serve in this capacity, during the terms of presidency of three of our members who more than others were responsible for the reforming of the aims and ideals of our society: Huntington, Minot, Mall. I recall the many letters received from Doctor Mall during this period, full of discussion of plans for furthering our common interests and elevating our ideals, with ever—growing lists of names proposed for new members, with plans and suggestions for furthering the development of our journals and their relation to our membership. In all ever striving with unselfish devotion and sacrifice of time, for the furthering of the affairs of this association, and thus developing scientific anatomy in America.

Perhaps the crowning work of the career of Doctor Mall, though we judge it now only in its inception, is the work connected with the Department of Embryology of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. An institute of this kind, finally achieved, was in his mind years before it was realized. He was much impressed and influenced by a paper published by His as early as 1886, on the necessity of Research Institutes. Later when opportunity presented itself His made a plea. for a research institute in neurology and one for human embryology. In answer, the commission for brain research was sanctioned by the Associated Academies. Concerning the development of plans for the research in human embryology I abstract as follows from Doctor Mall’s plea for such an institute, published but a few years ago. The second project of His was referred by the Associated Academies to the Anatomic Societies for consideration, and in consequence, the German Anatomic Society, in the meeting of 1901, appointed a committee to arrange for cooperation in embryologic research; it developed no activities. Not until the time of the Brussels meeting of the Anatomic Congress in 1910, were further definite steps taken at that time, and as I recall at the suggestion of Doctor Minot, a committee was appointed to revise embryonic nomenclature. Shortly after this Brussels meeting a self appointed committee of three met at Utrecht to arrange for an international institute for comparative embryology. The object of the Brussels committee was to revise embryologic nomenclature and of the Utrecht conference, to make extensive collections of embryos of all vertebrates, neither committee purposed to confine its field especially to human development. Recognizing the fact that in the study of human development there are specific problems of great scientific and practical value, which cannot possibly be studied to best advantage without more concentration of energies than either the above committees had planned, and the further fact, that the science of anatomy, which in a great measure has been the mother of all biological sciences, needs a thorough revision and a new basis, to be obtained through the study of embryology, the original plan of His was again revised and ably and clearly put forth in “A Plea for an Institute of Human Embryology.” Through cooperation of those especially interested, and the hearty endorsement of the late Professor Minot, this oft expressed wish was realized through the generosity and foresight of the Director and the Trustees of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, and for this recognition of anatomy in America, on the part of this Institution, we anatomists are placed in a deep and lasting obligation. The new department of embryology was stationed at Baltimore with Doctor Mall as its director. The scope of the plans for the new Institute of Human Embryology, as outlined in the plea for its creation, and already in part realized, is broad and comprehensive. It calls for a large collection of embryos, a competent staff, the very best material equipment and an appreciation of all the problems which bear on anatomy~physical anthropology, comparative embryology, physiology of gestation, pathology and teratology. The larger questions to be given consideration are—curve of growth; anatomy of various stages; morphology of the brain; histogcnesis; causes of abortion; the study of monsters and of moles ;_ comparative and experimental embryology to elucidate human. Nearly twenty subdivisions of these larger questions are enumerated and discussed. I gather from a recent report that the collection of human embryos consists of about 2000 specimens, many of which have been prepared in permanent serial sections. The collection is already unique, both in magnitude and importance, and vigorous efforts are being made to increase it, but I note also, that the chief function of an institute of human embryology is not the making of a collection, but the formulation and solution of problems. That this new institute was already at work, and the manner in which it was to fulfil its destiny, is attested by the “Contributions to Embryology,” published by the Carnegie Institution, some twenty of which have appeared in monographic form, with a goodly number of smaller publications which have appeared in our Anatomic journals. May the personality and strength and the high scientific ideals of the late Director of this new Institute for the study of human embryology serve as an example and stimulus to such as follow in his footsteps; we conceive of no surer avenue to success.

Such has been his life; here briefly, all too briefly and I realize inadequately told. I cannot leave its appreciation without referring to the loving care and affectionate solicitude with which it has been watched over by his trusted wife. Who, trained in anatomy, was fully appreciative of his endeavors and ever interested in the development and realization of his ideals. We who have been permitted to partake of the kindly and sincere hospitality of their home, will cherish pleasant memories. To her and to the family, We as individuals and collectively as an association, extend our most sincere and heartfelt sympathy. May the knowledge that this profound sorrow is mutually borne, lighten their grief.

In closing I make use of the opening paragraph of his account of the life and influence of Wilhelm His, his teacher and his friend - “The ancient science of anatomy has been perpetuated and extended during the many centuries of its existence by great men who have dedicated their lives to it. The list is a long one for the development of the science has been slow and progressive from the earliest ages to the present time; we find in it on the one hand, some of the greatest who have ever lived—Aristotle, Vesalius~on the other, the names of those who rank as leaders of a generation, Bichat, His.” To the names of Bichat and His, I would add, with your accord, the name of Mall.

G. Carl Huber.

Franklin Paine Mall: A Review of His Scientific Achievement

Florence Sabin
Florence Sabin

Address given at a meeting in memory of Franklin Paine Mall held at the Johns Hopkins University, February 3, 1918.

Science Vol. XLVII. No. 1211 March 15, 1918 254-

To those who are familiar with the history of medicine in this country, it is a matter of common knowledge that at the time Dr. Mall began his career, thirty years ago, anatomy in America had no scientific standing — a mere tool of surgery with but a single method, that of dissection. He left it where it must be in any community where medicine is progressive, one of its greatest sciences. He left it richly endowed with technical methods, a science so truly fundamental that workers in every other branch of medicine are constantly and increasingly returning to it, both for methods and for results. The vision of this change must have been his while he was yet a student for he wrote in one of his letters :

My aim is to make scientific medicine a life work. If opportunities present, I will. This has been my plan ever since I left America and not until of late (since having received encouragement) have I expressed myself. I shall no doubt meet many stumbling blocks, but they are anticipated.

Sweeping aside the traditions of the dissecting room, he first created conditions under which this change could develop, and then devoted himself to scientific achievement and to the type of teaching in which he was profoundly interested. It was one of his oft-repeated maxims that the best and perhaps the only great way to teach is by example. "With the ideal of scientific work as his goal, he has left us an example so rich in ideas, so varied in technical methods and so representative of the range of anatomy and embryology, that a study of his work is both an inspiration and an education.

His first undertaking in the field of research serves well to illustrate his independence of thought which, to those who knew him, was most striking. During the winter of 1885 he began his scientific work under His at Leipzig, who gave to him a problem connected with the gill-arches in the chick. In this study he came to the conclusion, now generally held, that the thymus arises from the endoderm of the pharynx, notwithstanding the fact that His held the view that it came from ectoderm. This work was given to His as Dr. Mall was leaving for Baltimore and was accepted for publication. In the next number of the journal of which His was editor, there appeared a second communication from the latter, strengthening his own point of view, but announcing that a different opinion would be published by one of his pupils in the next number. When Dr. Mall's article appeared, it was with a damaging footnote by His, to the effect that the independent character of the results was obvious. Two years later His restudied the region in a human embryo and found that Dr. Mall's conclusions were correct. He gave due acknowledgment of this in an open letter to Dr. Mall in the same journal, in which he states frankly, "Sie haben gegen mich Recht". This letter cemented a lifelong friendship, as can be readily seen from correspondence accompanying Dr. Mall's article on "An Estimate of the Work of His."

During the winter of 1885, His suggested that Dr. Mall work under the great physiologist, Ludwig. As Ludwig's laboratory was always full, the opportunity was slow in coming; indeed, as Dr. Mall wrote home, he was leaving Leipzig with no hope; his trunk was even on the way to the station when the letter came that the opportunity he so much desired was his. So great was the influence of Ludwig over his mind, character and future work, that it is impossible to overestimate it. He himself summed it up in these words: "To that, master I owe much — all." Ludwig assigned to him the study of the villus of the intestine. His first impression of his new problem, as gathered from one of his letters home, was that here was a subject which had occupied the minds of the greatest anatomists of the past century. Repeatedly throughout Dr. Mall's writings there is to be found that expression of regard for the work of great minds. Widely read in his own subject, it was of the works which have lived that he made a profound study.

In Ludwig's laboratory Dr. Mall learned the methods of injecting blood-vessels and lymphatics, and his studies on the vascular system of the intestine and stomach are familiar to every student of medicine. Under the influence of Ludwig, his work was characterized by a very strong physiological bent. Indeed it may be said that his work was physiology in the hands of one with an intense interest in structure. In some of the foreign universities it was the custom for a new incumbent of a chair

to deliver an address giving, as it were, a "prophecy" or a "program" of his future work. Such a program was the famous address of His on accepting a chair in the Swiss University of Basel. In some such way the article of Dr. Mall on the stomach, published in the first volume of the Johns Hopkins Hospital Report, gives his program of the way he proposed to study anatomy. This paper lays a foundation for what may be called physiological anatomy. He studied the stomach from every aspect and with a wide range of methods. Here is the beginning of his brilliant work on the fibers of the connective tissues; here the studies on the normal contraction-wave of smooth muscle and the experiments on the reversal of those waves. In his paper on the stomach is this brief note :

Recently I have found that irritation of the splanchnic nerve causes contraction of the mesenteric vein.

He probably first made this observation in Ludwig's laboratory and subsequently proved that the portal vein is supplied with vasomotor nerves, a valuable discovery in physiology.

The most important idea of this early work from the standpoint of anatomy is that of structural units, which Dr. Mall conceived from the study of the villus. The theory reaches its best expression in Dr. Mall's articles on the liver and spleen. It is that organs are made of ultimate histological units, represented in the vascular system by the capillary bed which intervenes between a terminal artery and its corresponding vein. Thus the size of the unit is determined by the length of the capillary. These units are grouped together into lobules. They are not only of great structural significance, since an organ is to be considered as a multiplication of them, but they are also of significance to physiology since such units are equal in function. This equality of size and function comes from the laws of growth ; when a unit increases in size so that the length of its capillaries increases beyond the norm, a new artery develops, the single unit splitting into two.

In his study on the spleen Dr. Mall brings out best the relation of all the tissues of an organ to its function. Thus he showed by experiments that the vessels of the spleen are emptied by the contraction of the bands of muscle on the trabeculae and that the fibers of these same trabeculae are so arranged as to distend the veins and compress the arteries as the muscles contract.

One of his valuable contributions is the study of the structure of the heart. He grasped the significance of the work of Krehl, which he said bore the stamp of Ludwig. In this work it is to be seen that the atrio-ventricular rings are tendons of origin for the bands of heart-muscle. In 1900 he gave the study of the bands of heart-muscle to John Bruce MacCallum, who unraveled the ventricles of the heart in the embryo pig into superficial and deep spiral bands with their origin and insertion in two tendons, the atrio-ventricular rings and the chordae tendineae. As a tribute to this brilliant work, Dr. Mall completed the study on the adult human heart after MacCallum 's death, reducing the problem to the following simple terms : To understand the beat of the heart one must figure out how a muscular bag is constructed so as to empty itself. We have Dr. Mall's specimens in the laboratory showing how the spiral bands contract with each beat of the heart in the exact familiar pattern of wringing out a rag.

Another line of work which interested him greatly was the study of the brain. Here he was drawn to the anthropological side. Dr. Hrdlicka, the anthropologist in Washington, had said to him that the brain of a negro could be distinguished from that of a white man and with this in mind Dr. Mall made a comparative study of the brains in the anatomical collection, comparing them by weights, the complexity of their convolutions and other criteria. Realizing that no man can free himself of prejudice, he charted all of his data by means of numbers, filling in the race and sex only after the charts were complete. In this way he showed that the crude, present-day methods are inadequate for scientific deductions regarding the relation of the brain to race and sex. Of the criteria on race, there remains only the difference in the shape of the brain corresponding to the well-known shape of the head.

In his anatomical studies Dr. Mall has enriched his science with a wide range of methods. Our laboratory is full of examples of beautiful injections, corrosions of blood vessels, preparations of connective tissue made by maceration, cleared embryos to show the development of the skeleton and many others. His own methods of work in the laboratory are of great interest and he frequently discussed the influence of Ludwig in this connection. Contrary to the usual type, Dr. Mall was far more active mentally than physically. I have known him to think and plan with the greatest care so that a bit of routine might be simplified. Thus it was his habit to think out every detail of an experiment before he undertook it; he never employed the system of trying a thing out without adequate preparation or of approximating his methods through errors. For this reason he made but one experiment a day. If it failed, he would not repeat it until the next day, thus giving himself ample time to think out the reasons of his failure. , He was intolerant of the collection of unanalyzed material. His interest in technical procedures was only in their bearing upon solving problems; it lay in understanding principles rather than in multiplying evidence.

"We have outlined Dr. Mall's work in anatomy as it grew out of his study in Ludwig's laboratory. But he was not only an anatomist, he was also an embryologist. In 1891 he published an account of a normal human embryo, now placed in the fourth week of development. He made a most careful and accurate study of all of its systems, illustrated by the surf ace form, by models and casts. This was the first human embryo ever modeled in America and at that time it was the most complete account of any human embryo in existence. In this study he announced several discoveries, for example, that the Eustachian tube and the middle ear arise from the first branchial arch. The effect of this work on Dr. Mall is to be seen in these words in one of his publications :

I always think in human anatomy in relation to this embryo.

Dr. Huber has said that this study has served as a model for all future work of its type. It did more for, like his work on the stomach, it represents as it were, Dr. Mall's program in embryology. This specimen forms the foundation of the priceless collection of over two thousand human embryos which Dr. Mall later gave the department of embryology of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. It was perfect, beautifully fixed and sectioned. When he had finished the description of it he offered it as a tribute to his teacher, His. His returned it, with several others of his own, expressing the wish that they might be the nucleus for a much larger collection. How richly has this gift borne fruit in the development of - the science of embryology!

In the study of embryonic development, three names stand out in logical sequence, von Baer, His, Mall. Neither His nor Dr. Mall were concerned with the phenomena of maturation, fertilization or the cleavage stages, in the development of the embryo, but the latter has characterized the work of His as laying a foundation for histogenesis. In like manner the work of Dr. Mall in normal embryology may be summed up in the term organogenesis. He has traced the growth of organs up to their adult stage. He has laid the foundation for a complete anatomical survey of the human embryo in all stages of its development. Here, for example, belong his studies on diaphragm and the ventral abdominal walls and more strikingly his studies on the development of the loops of the intestine. These he followed from their beginning up to their position in the adult, he then determined their normal position in the adult by studies in the dissecting room, and by experiments on animals he showed that both the intestine and the omentum seek their normal position when disturbed. Of this work His wrote :

Your satisfaction in your work will be lasting, because you have brought light into a field which was so obscure. The thing which has been lacking in all of our studies on development up to this time has been observations on the transition between the early embryonic and fetal stages up to the form of the adult. For the intestine you have given the entire study from the beginning up to the end, and I regard it a great step in advance.

It is in connection with the development of the vascular system that Dr. Mall made some of his most significant contributions to embryology. One of the most important points in the study of the embryo just mentioned was solving the problem of the primitive ventral branches of the aorta. This he did by showing that the vessels which are the forerunners of the celiac axis arise as far forward as the first dorsal segment and by indicating the method by which they shift back to their position in the adult. This work has since been repeated with more specimens, but not analyzed with more insight. I recall in connection with these more elaborate subsequent studies on this subject, one of Dr. Mall's, characteristic comments: "I can never become interested in the mere collection of new examples after a principle has once been thoroughly established." In connection with the study of the development of the vascular system the two lines of thought embodied in Dr. Mall's earlier work converge. These two generalizations I understand to be, first, that he approached anatomy from the standpoint of how structure is adapted to function, a different idea from that of the study of pure morphology, and secondly, that he saw the value of organogenesis to the study of anatomy. He carried over to embryology the methods of injecting blood-vessels and lymphatics in use for the adult and thereby made possible a complete account of the spread of vessels in the embryo. In the study of the vascular system he emphasized again and again the value of the study of an organ as a whole. .Trained by the man who invented the microtome and himself making many improvements on it, he reacted strongly against those anatomists who study only sections. He was interested in the architecture of an organ ; to use one of his own phrases he had "a feeling for structure." Indeed, he has often said that if he were to choose a career again, it would be that of an architect. His gift in anatomy, like the gift of the sculptor or the architect, was the power to visualize structure in three dimensions. Thus, one can understand his pleasure in the studies of the architecture of the vessels of organs, given not in indefinite terms, but showing the exact pattern of all vessels, the number and the relations of the orders of arteries from the main to the terminal branches. Thus he has left us a rich heritage of corrosions of the vessels of various organs which is worthy of a place in the great scientific museums of the world.

During the later years of his life, Dr. Mall became more and more interested in the problems associated with his collection ; that is to say, in the type of problems for which institutes for research are founded, those that depend upon that analysis of large amounts of material and the cooperation of experts along closely allied lines. These problems touch more and more closely clinical medicine and social welfare. Such, for example, is the study of abnormal embryos, leading up to the analysis of their frequency and causes, the normal curve of growth, the determination of the age of the embryo and the causes of sterility and abortion. He first became interested in the study of abnormal embryos through separating the normal from the abnormal in his collection. His first general account of abnormal embryos was in the volume of the Johns Hopkins Hospital Reports published in honor of Dr. Welch in 1900. Eight years later he published a monograph on monsters, of which Morgan wrote :

The recent publication by Mall on the causes underlying the origin of human monsters marks an epoch in the study of teratology in this country, for he has treated the subject with a breadth of view and a wealth of illustration rarely found in the handling of this complex question. Mall has brought to the task a profound knowledge of the older literature of the subjeet, an appreciation of the most modern results in experimental teratology, and a thorough familiarity at first hand with the subject of human monsters. The physician and anatomist are brought into close touch with work generally supposed to be outside their proper field; and on the other hand, the student of malformations in the lower animals will be made to appreciate the inexhaustible supply of human materials with which the anatomist and physician are familiar.

In this study and during the last six years, Dr. Mall has given a masterly analysis of the causes of monsters. He has shown that from the earliest ages of the world's history the study of monsters has been one of the capital problems of anatomy, medicine and natural history ; that the belief in supernatural causes gave way .to the theory of maternal impressions, and that this must now give way to a scientific analysis of their causes. Dr. Mall recognized that a few abnormalities, Polydactyly, for example, are germinal and can not be produced experimentally; but that monsters are not due to germinal or hereditary causes, but are produced from normal embryos by influences which are to be sought in their environment. The cause of monsters, he has indicated, lies buried in the non-committal term of faulty implantation. In his recent paper on cyclopia he has fully analyzed the meaning of recent experimental embryology. He showed that as soon as Stockard succeeded in experimenting with eggs in such a way as to produce cyclopian monsters at will, the explanation of the process was at hand, for the work demonstrated that a slight change in chemical environment, acting at a critical time, caused cyclopia. Dr. Mall studied the cyclopian monsters in his collection, one of which is at a stage where a complete analysis could be made, and in conclusion he says:

It seems to me that the studies based upon our collection of embryos, as well as recent investigations in experimental embryology, set at rest for all time the question of the causation of monsters. It has been my aim to demonstrate that the embryos found in pathological human ova and those obtained experimentally in animals are not analogous or similar, but identical. A double monster or a cyclopian fish is identical with the same condition in human beings. In all eases monsters are produced by external causes acting upon the ovum.

Thus, most localized abnormalities and monsters, of which he gives a wealth of illustrations, can be traced back to the faulty nutrition of the embryo at early critical stages, and the effects can be followed with every grade of intensity, from complete degeneration of the ovum to monsters which survive to term. One of his most interesting deductions is that in some forms of faulty implantation there results a dissociation of the tissues of the embryo, so that they grow exactly as do the cells in the experiments with tissue cultures, without the correlating forces which check and integrate the organs in normal development. It is to my mind a significant example that this work has been carried on during the years given to the organization of a new institute, that is to say that Dr. Mall so planned the work of administration that it did no;t check research. It is not too much to say that this work of Dr. Mall's opens up a new field, and that it has already formed a broad foundation on which all future study of abnormalities must rest. Such was the work with which he was engaged at the time of his death. In his vision of an institute for embryological research, he saw that the two great lines of work in which he was most interested could be brought to a successful conclusion within a reasonable limit of time. First, that the full development of the study of organogenesis could give us a completely rationalized anatomy; second, that there is a group of problems such as the determination of the curve of growth, the study of abnormalities and their causes, normal and abnormal implantation which may perhaps be brought together under the heading of the study of the laws of growth, which lie beyond the powers of a single individual and thus must be attacked through organized research. Often he said during the latter months of his life: "My work is mapped out for the next ten years." Fortunately in his "Plea for an institute of human embryology" and in some unpublished manuscripts some of these plans are recorded ; but for the loss of those coming years that would have given us his greatest achievements, those achievements for which his whole life has been the preparation, no philosophy can console us. About a month before his death he put the question to me : "What would you say had been the effect of the Carnegie Institute of Embryology upon this laboratory?" to which I replied: "It has lifted the research of the place from a somewhat amateurish to a more professional state." Never shall I forget the pleasure in his face as he replied: "It is exactly what I wished to do." Such was his aim, such the ideal from which he had never swerved from the very beginning of his career.

No account of Dr. Mall's scientific work is complete without a mention of his contribution in the training of others. Of teaching he had the highest ideal. He once said: "What higher title could there be than that of a great teacher ?" That he himself was one of the world's great teachers will be realized when his influence in the development of medical education in this country is adequately analyzed. To the general problems of education he gave deep thought and great originality. His own teaching was characterized by two broad principles, Which were followed in his laboratory; first, that each student might approach his work in the spirit of a discoverer. Second, that since in each class there may be those who are destined to become the intellectual leaders of the nest generation, liberty in education is essential in order that the strong personality might develop. In regard to the meaning of liberty in education, I shall venture to be specific in two points -. He held that in the planning of courses in the laboratory, the directions for work should not be so minute and specific as to eliminate a student's initiative ; and that his time should not be so completely filled with prescribed work that he could not follow his own bent in some line.

Dr. Mall's methods of training others were unique — so bound up with his own rare personality that none could copy, and few describe them. He had a gift, perhaps a genius for stimulating thought. Barely indeed by question, the quiz he never used ; it was more in the nature of an occasional suggestion, the acuteness of which impressed one more and more profoundly as one pondered over it. Perhaps his most fundamental quality was his rare generosity. I recall distinctly an instance in which a student had worked carefully and accurately with him without, however, understanding the meaning or the value of his observations. The student became discouraged and had decided to give up the work when Dr. Mall asked for his notes, and later published a very interesting paper under the student's name. This incident is the more interesting in connection with one of Dr. Mall 's letters, written in the early days of the medical school when he was homesick for the laboratory of Leipzig. He told therein that before leaving Leipzig he had given some incomplete studies to Ludwig, evidently expecting him to use them in his own work, but that Ludwig had added experiments and published all under Dr. Mall's name. He then concluded, "Can you blame any one for wanting to return to one who would do things like that?" Ludwig, he wrote, was entirely without selfishness, and that when he tried to thank him for all he had done, he replied, "Pass it on." This indeed became the great watchword of Dr. Mall 's life. Most freely did he give his ideas and his energies to his students. You will find no joint research with his students, for all that he gave them he meant to be theirs. He demanded in return the development of high standards of work. In fact, perhaps the most lasting effect which he made upon the minds of his followers was the value of scientific standards and the meaning of ideals in research. He never gave first-hand praise; the only encouragement which a student received was a genuine interest in his work shown in such a way that the student came to find enjoyment where Dr. Mall found his — in the work itself. Many of his informal talks in the laboratory were on general topics or on principles rather than the specific development of research, and so general, so whimsical were these discussions that their meaning was lost entirely upon more than one student.

In directing departments there are certain leaders who train the students only in their own problems, giving little scope for independent work. Dr. Mall on the contrary was keen to give opportunities to those who could develop an independent line of research. Thus, for example, in his laboratory he developed the method of tissue-culture. Again, though his own work did not lead him into the newer fields of cytology, he saw to it that this work was represented. An even more striking example is that he was the first to see that the methods of anthropology might be applied with great value to the study of embryology ; hence he brought into the department of embryology professional anthropologists thereby widening the scope of the science of embryology.

Closely bound up with his own scientific achievements is the part he played in the development of scientific publications in this country. According to his own account when he started out he hoped that the excellent Journal of Morphology would care for all the more complete publications of the laboratory, but it became hampered financially and finally suspended publication in 1903. During a term of years, those in the laboratory well remember that he constantly discussed the feasibility of establishing a new journal. At a meeting of the Anatomists held in Baltimore in 1900, a committee was formed to launch the American Journal of Anatomy and its first number appeared the following November. In 1906 followed the Anatomical Record, both published first in Baltimore. In 1908, when the Journal of Morphology was revived by the Wistar Institute of Anatomy, it was with Dr. Mall's work on monsters as its first number. More striking still as an example of Dr. Mall's ideas of developing scientific publications in this country, are the new Contributions to Embryology, published by the Carnegie Institution of Washington. His originality, far-seeing vision and courage for undertaking new enterprises could not be better illustrated than in connection with these journals.

In his introduction to the article on His, Dr. Mall wrote these words :

The ancient seienee of anatomy has been perpetuated during many centuries by great men who have dedicated their lives to it. The list is a long one, for the development of science has been slow and progressive from the earliest ages up to the present time; we find in it, on the one hand, some of the names of the greatest who ever lived — Aristotle, Vesalius — on the other, the names of those who rank as leaders of a generation, Bichat, His.

With Bichat and His belongs the name of Mall. His name will be associated with the strongly physiological bent of modern anatomy, with the laying of a broad foundation of organogenesis in embryology, and with the vision of a broadening of the scope ,of embryology so as to bring it into relation with the problems of clinical medicine and social welfare. In America, his place is unique; it goes without saying that he was our greatest anatomist. More than any other man in American medicine, he had led his generation into the way of research.

Florence R. Sabin

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Manual of Human Embryology

Keibel Mall 1910.jpg by Franz Keibel and Franklin P. Mall (1910)
   Manual of Human Embryology I 1910: The Germ Cells | Fertilization | Segmentation | First Primitive Segment | Gastrulation | External Form | Placenta | Human Embryo and Fetus Age | Ovum Pathology | Integument | Skeleton and Connective Tissues | Muscular System | Coelom and Diaphragm | Figures | Manual of Human Embryology 1 | Manual of Human Embryology 2 | Franz Keibel | Franklin Mall | Embryology History
Keibel Mall 1912.jpg
   Manual of Human Embryology II 1912: Nervous System | Chromaffin Organs and Suprarenal Bodies | Sense-Organs | Digestive Tract and Respiration | Vascular System | Urinogenital Organs | Figures 2 | Manual of Human Embryology 1 | Figures 1 | Manual of Human Embryology 2 | Figures 2 | Franz Keibel | Franklin Mall | Embryology History

A Human Embryo Twenty-Six Days Old

Mall1891 Plate02Fig01.jpg

Mall FP. A human embryo twenty-six days old. (1891) J Morphol. 5: 459-480.

Studies on abortuses: a survey of pathologic ova in the carnegie embryological collection

Contributions to Embryology VOLUME XII (1921)

By Franklin Paine Mall and Arthur William Meyer. (24 plates, 5 text-figures, and 1 chart)

Mall FP. and Meyer AW. Studies on abortuses: a survey of pathologic ova in the Carnegie Embryological Collection. (1921) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 275, 12: 1-364.

In this historic 1921 pathology paper, figures and plates of abnormal embryos are not suitable for young students.

Contributions Vol.12 No.56 (1921): Preface | 1 Collection origin | 2 Care and utilization | 3 Classification | 4 Pathologic analysis | 5 Size | 6 Sex incidence | 7 Localized anomalies | 8 Hydatiform uterine | 9 Hydatiform tubal | Chapter 10 Alleged superfetation | 11 Ovarian Pregnancy | 12 Lysis and resorption | 13 Postmortem intrauterine | 14 Hofbauer cells | 15 Villi | 16 Villous nodules | 17 Syphilitic changes | 18 Aspects | Bibliography | Figures | Contribution No.56 | Contributions Series | Embryology History

Report Upon the Collection of Human Embryos at the John Hopkins University

Mall FP. Report upon the collection of human embryos at the Johns Hopkins University. (1911) Anat. Rec. 5(7): 343–357.

Mall, F.P. The Anatomical Record Volume 5, Issue 7, pages 343–357, July 1911

  • 533 specimens recorded under 500 numbers
    • 335 normal specimens
    • 198 pathological
  • under 8 mm in length, under six weeks old
    • 50 normal embryos
    • 105 pathological
  • 9 and 25 mm
    • 133 normal embryos
    • 66 pathological

Pathological Percentages

  • 68% first six weeks of pregnancy
  • 34% sixth to the end of the eighth week
  • 18% remaining seven months
  • i - obtain complete vascular injection in embryos less than 20 mm long
  • k - clarified in caustic potash and glycerine to show the extent of ossification

On The Frequency of Localized Anomalies in Human Embryos and Infants at Birth

On the Frequency of Localized Anomalies in Human Embryos and Infants at Birth Amer. Jour. Anat., (1917) vol. 22, p. 49-72.

In this historic 1921 pathology paper, figures and plates of abnormal embryos are not suitable for young students.

Blood-Vessels of the Brain

Mall FP. On the Development of the Blood-Vessels of the Brain in the Human Embryo. (1905) Amer. J. of Anat. 4; 1–18.

Review - Contributions to Embryology IX - A Memorial to Franklin Paine Mall

The Study of Live Embryos Nature October 7, 1920 NO. 2658, VOL. 106: 170-171.

Contributions to Embryology, Vol. IX., Nos. 27 to 46. A Memorial to Franklin Paine Mall. (Publication No. 272.) Pp. v+ 554 + plates- (Washington: The Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1920.)

Long before the war it was being realised in England that the centre of embryological research, at least so far as concerns inquiries into the developmental stages of the human body, was shifting from the laboratories of Germany to those of the United States. The transference was the work of one man—the late Prof. F. P. Mall, who died in 1917 at the age of fifty-five. Prof. Mall stocked the new and highly equipped anatomical laboratories of the United States with young men and women who had served their apprenticeship with him in the anatomical department of Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore. In 1918 he would have reached the twenty-fifth anniversary of his appointment at Baltimore, and his pupils, “in recog¬ nition of his inspiring leadership, and in response to the strong feeling of affection with which they had come to regard him,” intended to mark the occasion by dedicating to him a volume of their most recent investigations. These essays, owing to his untimely death, have now to appear as a memorial volume, and the sense of regret that Prof. Mall did not live to study it will be felt as acutely on this side of the Atlantic as on the other, for many of its contributors have made highly important additions to our knowledge of the growing embryo. The volume is issued by the Carnegie Institution of Washington, under the aegis of which Prof. Mall had established a department of embryology two years before his death.

In these essays we see employed the exact technique which Prof. Mall learned when working under the late Prof. Wilhelm His (1831-1904), of Leipzig, but in addition there is evidence of a clear realisation that embryology is a series of vital processes, and that to understand them the living as well as the dead embryo must be studied. The developing chick lends itself particularly well for vitaiistic observation, but we have every reason to suppose that the earlier stages of mammalian development —including the early stages in the growth of the human ovum—can be investigated in a similar manner. In this respect a return has been made to the earlier methods of Harvey and of Hunter.

As examples of the vitaiistic method of observation, we may cite papers by Prof. Florence Sabin on “ The Origin of Blood-vessels and of Red Blood Corpuscles,” by Dr. Eliot R. Clark and Eleanor L. Clark on “The Origin and Early Development of the Lymphatic System,” and by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis on “ Muscular Contraction in Tissue Cultures.” Prof. Sabin shows that blood-vessels arise from islets, or groups, of angioblastic cells, which by canaliculisation and inosculation unite to form a capillary network. The angioblastic cells give rise to the endothelial lining of blood vessels, and both the angioblasts and endothelial cells can, and do, produce nucleated red blood corpuscles. The lymphatic system of vessels, however, as one is led to infer from the experiments of the two Clarks, arises from the endothelium of the veins in certain embryonic regions, and from these regions, or centres, the endothelial outgrowths invade certain neighbouring areas of the body and thus provide it with a lymphatic system. If one centre of outgrowth is destroyed, neighbouring centres will supply the deficiency.

Another series of papers records observations on the vital reactions of certain cells in the body of adult animals. Capt. Charles Essick found that when a solution containing fine particles was placed in the sub-arachnoid spaces of the brain of a living animal the endothelial cells of these spaces were transformed into phagocytes, which consumed the foreign matter thus introduced. Capt. Essick’s investigation was occasioned, apparently, by observations made by Capt. Lewis H. Weed during a research on “The Experimental Production of Hydrocephalus ”—an important inquiry which also appears in this memorial volume. To this series also belongs the paper contributed by Dr. Charles C. Macklin on “ The Development and Function of Macrophages in the Repair of Experimental Bone-wounds Vitally Stained with Typan-blue.” We infer from Dr. Macklin’s experiments that the phagocytes which appear at the sites of repair and of rapid growth have, as their chief business, the consumption of tissue-debris and the rendering of that debris fit for return to the general circulation of the body. Dr. George Corner’s observations on “The Widespread Occurrence of Reticular Fibrils produced by Capillary Endothelium ” serve to enhance the functional importance of the cells which line blood and lymphatic vessels.

Besides these papers on the living behaviour of the tissues of the body, this volume contains important contributions to orthodox or morphological embryology—particularly a most valuable summary of the present state of our knowledge of the youngest known human embryos, given by Prof. George L. Streeter, who succeeded Prof. Mall as director of the department of embryology in the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Dr. Warren H. Lewis’s description of the skull of a human foetus towards the end of the second month of development is also a very welcome addition to our knowledge of the human body. Other papers, like those of Prof. C. R. Bardeen on “The Postnatal Development of the Human Body,” Prof. Robert Bean’s on “The Post-natal Growth of the Heart, Kidneys, Liver, and Spleen of Man,” and Dr. Schultz’s “Development of the External Nose of Whites and Negroes,” represent contributions to anthropology as well as to embryology. Altogether, this volume represents a worthy memorial to a really great man.


Mall FP. A human embryo twenty-six days old. (1891) J Morphol. 5: 459-480.

Mall FP. Development of the lesser peritoneal cavity in birds and mammals. (1891) J of Morphology 5: 165-179.

Mall FP. A human embryo of the second week. (1893) Anat. Anz. 8: 630-633.

Mall FP. Early human embryos and the mode of their preservation. (1893) Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin 4: 115-121.

Mall FP. Human embryos. (1893) Ref. Handb. Med. Sci. Supplement, 9: 268-269.

Mall FP. Coelom. (1893) Ref. Handb. Med. Sci. Supplement, 9: 184-189.

Mall FP. The heart. (1893) Ref. Handb. Med. Sci. Supplement, 9: 391-395.

Mall FP. Development of the thyroid. (1893) Ref. Handb. Med. Sci. Supplement, 9: 879-881.

Mall FP. Development of the thymus. (1893) Ref. Handb. Med. Sci. Supplement, 9: 875-877.

Mall FP. Development of the human coelom. (1893) Jour. Morph. 12: 395-453.

Mall FP. Development of the human coelom. (1897) J Morphol. 12: 395-453.

Mall FP. Development of the ventral abdominal walls in man. (1898) Jour. Morph. 14: 347-366.

Mall FP. Development of the human intestine and its position in the adult. (1898) Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin 9: 197-208.

Mall FP. The lobule of the spleen. (1898) Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin 9: 218-.

Mall FP. Development of the internal mammary and deep epigastric arteries in man. (1898) Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin 9: 232.

Mall FP. A contribution to the study of the pathology of early human embryos, (1900) Johns Hopkins Hosp. Rep., 9: 1-68.

Mall FP. Note on the basement membranes of the tubules of the kidney. (1901) Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin 12:

Mall FP. On the origin of the lymphatics in the liver. (1901) Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin 12: 140

Mall FP. On the development of the human diaphragm. (1901) Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin 12: 158-171.

Mall FP. Age of human embryos. (1901) Ref. Handb. Med. Sci. 2d ed. 3: 794-797.

Mall FP. Comparative development of the coelom. (1901) Ref. Handb. Med. Sci. 3: 166-171. PDF

Mall FP. Development of the human coelom. (1901) Ref. Handb. Med. Sci. 3: 171-189. PDF

Mall FP. Development of the heart.. (1902) Ref. Handb. Med. Sci., 2d ed. 4: 573-579.

Mall FP. Development of the connective tissues from the connective syncytium. (1902) Amer. J Anat. 1(3): 329-366

Mall FP. Hosp. Bull., XIV, 1903. Catalogue of the collection of human embryos in the Anatomical Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins University. Johns Hopkins Hopkins University. Baltimore, 1904.

Mall FP. On the development of the blood-vessels of the brain in the human embryo. (1905) Amer. J Anat. 4(1): 1–18.

Mall FP. On ossification centers in human embryos less than one hundred days old. (1906) Amer. J Anat. 5:433-458.

Mall FP. A study of the structural unit of the liver. (1906) Amer. J Anat. 5:227-308.

Mall FP. On measuring human embryos. Anat. Rec, (1907) 1: 129-140.

Mall FP. Normal plates of the development of vertebrates. Anat. Rec, (1908).

Mall FP. A study of the causes underlying the origin of human monsters. (1908) J Morphol. 19: 3-368.

Mall FP. On several anatomical characters of the human brain, said to vary according to race and sex, with especial eeference to the weight of the frontal lobe. (1909) Amer. J Anat. 9: 1-32.

Mall FP. A list of normal human embryos which have been cut into serial sections. (1910) Anat. Rec. 4(10): 355-367.

Keibel F. and Mall FP. Manual of Human Embryology I. (1910) J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia.

Mall FP. Report upon the collection of human embryos at the Johns Hopkins University. (1911) Anat. Rec. 5(7): 343–357.

Mall FP. On the development of the human heart. (1912) Amer. J Anat. 13: 249-298.

Keibel F. and Mall FP. Manual of Human Embryology II. (1912) J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia.

Mall FP. A plea for an institute of human embryology. (1913) J. Amer. Med. Ass., 60: 1599-1601.

Mall FP. On stages in the development of human embryos from 2 to 25 mm long. (1914) Anat. Anz., 46: 78-84.

Mall FP. On the fate of the human embryo in tubal pregnancy. (1915) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 221, 1: 1-104.

Mall FP. The human magma reticule in normal and in pathological development. (1916) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 224, 4:5-26.

Mall FP. On the frequency of localized anomalies in human embryos and infants at birth. (1917) Amer. J Anat. 22:49-72.

Mall FP. On the age of human embryos. (1918) Amer. J Anat. 23: 397-422.

Mall FP. and Meyer AW. Studies on abortuses: a survey of pathologic ova in the Carnegie Embryological Collection. (1921) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 275, 12: 1-364.

Mall FP. (1913). UNIVERSITY EDUCATION IN LONDON. Science , 38, 33-9. PMID: 17830207 DOI.

Mall FP. (1907). ON SOME POINTS OF IMPORTANCE TO ANATOMISTS. Science , 25, 121-5. PMID: 17770718 DOI.

Search PubMed: Mall FP

External Links

External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2024, May 18) Embryology Embryology History - Franklin Mall. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Embryology_History_-_Franklin_Mall

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2024, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G