Gastrointestinal Tract - Stomach Development

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Gray0982a.jpg
Developing stomach mid embryonic period (stage 13)

Introduction

This section of notes gives an overview of how the stomach and duodenum develops. The GIT is best imagined as a simple tube, the upper part being the foregut diverticulum, which is further divided into oesophagus and stomach.

During week 4 at the level where the stomach will form the tube begins to dilate, forming an enlarged lumen. The dorsal border grows more rapidly than ventral, which establishes the greater curvature of the stomach.[1] A second rotation (of 90 degrees) occurs on the longitudinal axis establishing the adult orientation of the stomach.


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GIT Histology Links: Upper GIT | Salivary Gland | Smooth Muscle Histology | Liver | Gall Bladder | Pancreas | Colon | Histology Stains | Histology | GIT Development
Historic Embryology - Gastrointestinal Tract  
1878 Alimentary Canal | 1882 The Organs of the Inner Germ-Layer The Alimentary Tube with its Appended Organs | 1902 The Organs of Digestion | 1903 Submaxillary Gland | 1906 Liver | 1907 Development of the Digestive System | 1907 Atlas | 1907 23 Somite Embryo | 1908 Liver and Vascular | 1910 Mucous membrane Oesophagus to Small Intestine | 1910 Large intestine and Vermiform process | 1912 Digestive Tract | 1912 Stomach | 1914 Digestive Tract | 1914 Intestines | 1914 Rectum | 1915 Pharynx | 1915 Intestinal Rotation | 1917 Entodermal Canal | 1918 Anatomy | 1921 Alimentary Tube | 1932 Gall Bladder | 2016 GIT Notes | Historic Disclaimer
Human Embryo: 1908 13-14 Somite Embryo | 1921 Liver Suspensory Ligament | 1926 22 Somite Embryo | 1907 23 Somite Embryo | 1937 25 Somite Embryo | 1914 27 Somite Embryo | 1914 Week 7 Embryo
Animal Development: 1913 Chicken | 1951 Frog


Historic Embryology: 1912 Stomach

Some Recent Findings

  • Stomach curvature is generated by left-right asymmetric gut morphogenesis[1] "Left-right (LR) asymmetry is a fundamental feature of internal anatomy, yet the emergence of morphological asymmetry remains one of the least understood phases of organogenesis. Asymmetric rotation of the intestine is directed by forces outside the gut, but the morphogenetic events that generate anatomical asymmetry in other regions of the digestive tract remain unknown. Here, we show in mouse and Xenopus that the mechanisms that drive the curvature of the stomach are intrinsic to the gut tube itself. The left wall of the primitive stomach expands more than the right wall, as the left epithelium becomes more polarized and undergoes radial rearrangement. These asymmetries exist across several species, and are dependent on LR patterning genes, including Foxj1, Nodal and Pitx2 Our findings have implications for how LR patterning manifests distinct types of morphological asymmetries in different contexts."
  • FGF4 and retinoic acid direct differentiation of hESCs into PDX1-expressing foregut endoderm in a time- and concentration-dependent manner.[2] "Retinoic acid (RA) and fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) signaling control endoderm patterning and pancreas induction/expansion.FGF
  • FGF10 is required for cell proliferation and gland formation in the stomach epithelium of the chicken embryo. [3] "The development of digestive organs in vertebrates involves active epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. In the chicken proventriculus (glandular stomach), the morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation of the epithelium are controlled by the inductive signaling factors that are secreted from the underlying mesenchyme. ... FGF10 signaling, mediated by FGFR1b and/or FGFR2b, is required for proliferation and gland formation in the epithelium in the developing chick embryo." FGF
More recent papers  
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches


Search term: Stomach Embryology

Mehmet Kalayci, Mehmet Ali Kocdor, Tuncay Kuloglu, İbrahim Sahin, Mehmet Sarac, Aziz Aksoy, Meltem Yardim, Semih Dalkilic, Onur Gursu, Suna Aydin, Ramazan Fazil Akkoc, Meltem Cokugras, Gokhan Artas, İbrahim Hanifi Ozercan, Kader Ugur, Suleyman Aydin Comparison of the therapeutic effects of sildenafil citrate, heparin and neuropeptides in a rat model of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer. Life Sci.: 2017; PubMed 28807720

Lei Yan, Kai Sun, Yang Liu, Jun Liang, Kerui Cai, Jinqiu Gui MiR-129-5p influences the progression of gastric cancer cells through interacting with SPOCK1. Tumour Biol.: 2017, 39(6);1010428317706916 PubMed 28653880

Sławomir Krzemiński [Chilaiditi syndrome - a case report]. [Zespół Chilaiditi – opis przypadku.] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski: 2017, 42(250);170-172 PubMed 28530216

Silvia Perin, Conor J McCann, Osvaldo Borrelli, Paolo De Coppi, Nikhil Thapar Update on Foregut Molecular Embryology and Role of Regenerative Medicine Therapies. Front Pediatr: 2017, 5;91 PubMed 28503544

Bernadette S de Bakker, Saffire S K S Phoa, Mohammed Kara, Sabaa Al-Eryani, Marieke E Gielen, Cyriel I J Ponsioen, Henri M de Bakker, Thomas M van Gulik The vanishing duodenal polyp: mesenteric invagination presenting as duodenal pseudopolyp. BMJ Case Rep: 2017, 2017; PubMed 28501824

Components of Stomach Formation

primitive endoderm

  • foregut diverticulum (pocket)
    • pharyngeal region of foregut
      • laryngo-tracheal groove (see respiratory tract)
      • oesophageal region of foregut
        • oesophagus
          • stomach
            • glandular/proventricular/pyloric stenosis
              • fundus/pyloric antrum
                • pyloric sphincter
            • dorsal mesogastrium
              • lieno-renal ligament
                • splenic primordium
                  • spleen
                • gastro-splenic ligament
                • duodenum (rostral half)
  • foregut-midgut junction
  • midgut region
  • hindgut diverticulum (pocket)

Modified from [4]

Movies

Endoderm 002 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Endoderm
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Amnion 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Amniotic Cavity
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Gastrointestinal tract growth 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Tract Growth
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Stomach rotation 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Stomach Rotation
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Lesser sac 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Lesser sac
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Greater omentum 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Greater Omentum
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Stage 13

The images below link to larger cross-sections of the mid-embryonic period (end week 4) stage 13 embryo starting just above the level of the stomach and then in sequence through the stomach to the level of the duodenum.

Stage 13 image 072.jpg Stage 13 image 073.jpg Stage 13 image 074.jpg
D2 Cardio-oesophageal junction D3 Stomach body D4 Stomach body
Stage 13 image 075.jpg Stage 13 image 076.jpg Stage 13 image 077.jpg
D5 Stomach body D6 Pyloric junction D7 Duodenum


Stage13-GIT-icon.jpg
 ‎‎GIT Stage 13
Page | Play
This is an animation based on a reconstruction of the above embryo entire stage 13 gastrointestinal tract.


Links: Carnegie stage 13 - serial sections | Embryo Serial Sections | Movies

Stage 22

The images below link to larger cross-sections of the end of the embryonic period (week 8) stage 22 embryo starting just above the level of the stomach and then in sequence through the stomach to the level of the duodenum. Note how the stomach is "embedded" within the large developing liver.

Stage 22 image 082.jpg Stage 22 image 083.jpg Stage 22 image 084.jpg Stage 22 image 085.jpg
E5 Oesophagus E6 Cardio-oesophageal junction E7 Stomach body Pyloric junction F1 Stomach body Pylorus
Stage 22 image 086.jpg Stage 22 image 087.jpg Stage 22 image 088.jpg Stage 22 image 089.jpg
F2 Stomach body F3 Stomach body Duodenum F4 Duodenal-Jejunal junction F5 Duodenum Jejunum


Stage22-GIT-icon.jpg
 ‎‎GIT Stage 22
Page | Play
This is an animation based on a reconstruction of the above embryo entire stage 22 gastrointestinal tract.


Links: Carnegie stage 22 - serial sections | Embryo Serial Sections | Movies

Stomach Mesentery

In the second trimester, the ventral and dorsal mesenteries associated with the stomach are still anatomically different from the newborn. The figure shows a lateral view of this process comparing the early second trimester arrangement with the newborn structure.

Ventral Mesogastrium

Attached to the superior end of the stomach will form the lesser omentum. This structure will connect the lesser curvature of the stomach to the liver as a ligamentous structure.

Dorsal Mesogastrium

Attached to the inferior end of the stomach initially as an extended fold, this later fuses as a single "apron-like" structure, the greater omentum. Fusion will also incorporate the transverse colon part of the large intestine. This will also contribute the gastrosplenic ligament (gastrolienal ligament).

Greater-omentum.jpg The greater omentum hangs like an apron over the small intestine and transverse colon. It begins attacted to the inferior end of the stomach as a fold of the dorsal mesogastrium which later fuses to form the structure we recognise anatomically. The figure below shows a lateral view of this process comparing the early second trimester arrangement with the newborn structure.

Duodenum/Pancreas Rotation

Pancreas rotation cartoon After the stomach the initial portion of the gastrointestinal tract tube is the duodenum which initially lies in the midline within the peritoneal cavity.

This region, along with the attached pancreas, undergoes rotation to become a retroperitoneal structure.

This diagram shows the rotation with spinal cord at the top, vertebral body then dorsal aorta then pertioneal wall and cavity.


Glands

The data below comes from a historic study by Johnson (1910)[5]

  1. Early - A few vacuoles, similar to those of the oesophagus, are found in corresponding stages in the stomach.
  2. 16 mm - the smooth epithelium begins to show a number of pit-like depressions, the first appearances of the gastric pits. These rapidly increase in number and many become elongated to form grooves. At first the basal surface of the epithelium shows no irregularities due to the gastric pits. Then appear slight swellings into the mesenchyma. Still later depressions or furrows, alternating with the gastric pits, extend inward into the epithelium from the mesenchymal surface. This brings about a readjustment of the cells, and causes the heretofore 2 to 3 layered epithelium to become single layered.
  3. The groove-like pits anastomose with one another to form a network. This network marks out irregular areas of the surface epithelium, which have been described as villi.
  4. Growth of the mucous membrane is accompanied by an increase in the number of pits and by an increase in their size. The additional pits develop in between those already formed.
  5. 120 mm - Glands first seen bud out from the bottoms of the pits. These rapidly increase in number and give off branches. Parietal cells are first distinct at 120 mm
  6. Large longitudinal folds of the mucous membrane occur in the stomach, but are variable in position, number, and size. Their occurrence is probably due to the contraction of the muscularis.


Stomach Hormonal Development

The gastrointestinal tract has its own complex entero-endocrine system (enterohormones) that regulates many regional tract functions.

Cells within the stomach express a range of peptide hormones known to regulate a range of gastric functions including secretion of digestive enzymes, mucous and the movement of the luminal contents. The list below shows the earliest detectible presence of specific hormone-containing cells in regions of the developing human stomach.

Hormonal Timecourse

8 weeks - Gastrin containing cells in stomach antrum. Somatostatin cells in both the antrum and the fundus.

10 weeks - Glucagon containing cells in stomach fundus.

11 weeks - Serotonin containing cells in both the antrum and the fundus.

Expression data based upon[6]

Other Gut Peptides

  • Cholecystokinin (CCK), pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin (increase satiety and decrease food intake) and ghrelin

Mouse

The images below show differential gene expression of some selected markers during development (E10.5 and E13.5) of the mouse gastrointestinal tract.[7]

Mouse-Gastrointestinal-tract-E10.5-01.jpg

Mouse-Gastrointestinal-tract-E13.5-01.jpg

Links: Mouse Development | Full original figure | E10.5 | E13.5

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Adam Davis, Nirav M Amin, Caroline Johnson, Kristen Bagley, H Troy Ghashghaei, Nanette Nascone-Yoder Stomach curvature is generated by left-right asymmetric gut morphogenesis. Development: 2017, 144(8);1477-1483 PubMed 28242610
  2. Martina Johannesson, Anders Ståhlberg, Jacqueline Ameri, Fredrik Wolfhagen Sand, Karin Norrman, Henrik Semb FGF4 and retinoic acid direct differentiation of hESCs into PDX1-expressing foregut endoderm in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. PLoS ONE: 2009, 4(3);e4794 PubMed 19277121
  3. Masahiro Shin, Sumihare Noji, Annette Neubüser, Sadao Yasugi FGF10 is required for cell proliferation and gland formation in the stomach epithelium of the chicken embryo. Dev. Biol.: 2006, 294(1);11-23 PubMed 16616737
  4. Kaufman & Bard, The Anatomical Basis of Mouse Development, 1999 Academic Press
  5. Johnson FP. The development of the mucous membrane of the oesophagus, stomach and small intestine in the human embryo. (1910) Amer. J Anat., 10: 521-559.
  6. B A Stein, A M Buchan, J Morris, J M Polak The ontogeny of regulatory peptide-containing cells in the human fetal stomach: an immunocytochemical study. J. Histochem. Cytochem.: 1983, 31(9);1117-25 PubMed 6136542
  7. Makoto Matsuyama, Shinichi Aizawa, Akihiko Shimono Sfrp controls apicobasal polarity and oriented cell division in developing gut epithelium. PLoS Genet.: 2009, 5(3);e1000427 PubMed 19300477 | PLoS Genet.


Reviews

Kyle W McCracken, James M Wells Mechanisms of embryonic stomach development. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol.: 2017; PubMed 28238948

Tae-Hee Kim, Ramesh A Shivdasani Stomach development, stem cells and disease. Development: 2016, 143(4);554-65 PubMed 26884394

Aaron M Zorn, James M Wells Vertebrate endoderm development and organ formation. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol.: 2009, 25;221-51 PubMed 19575677

Kimiko Fukuda, Sadao Yasugi The molecular mechanisms of stomach development in vertebrates. Dev. Growth Differ.: 2005, 47(6);375-82 PubMed 16109035

S Yasugi Regulation of pepsinogen gene expression in epithelial cells of vertebrate stomach during development. Int. J. Dev. Biol.: 1994, 38(2);273-9 PubMed 7526882

L R Johnson Functional development of the stomach. Annu. Rev. Physiol.: 1985, 47;199-215 PubMed 3922287

J S Deren Development of structure and function in the fetal and newborn stomach. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.: 1971, 24(1);144-59 PubMed 4923462


Articles

Masahiro Shin, Sumihare Noji, Annette Neubüser, Sadao Yasugi FGF10 is required for cell proliferation and gland formation in the stomach epithelium of the chicken embryo. Dev. Biol.: 2006, 294(1);11-23 PubMed 16616737

S Yasugi Epithelial cell differentiation during stomach development. Hum. Cell: 2000, 13(4);177-84 PubMed 11329933


Search Pubmed

Search Bookshelf: Stomach Development

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Historic References

Grosser O. Lewis FT. and Mcmurrich JP. The Development of the Digestive Tract and of the Organs of Respiration. (1912) chapter 17, vol. 2, in Keibel F. and Mall FP. Manual of Human Embryology II. (1912) J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia.

Bardeen CR. The critical period in the development of the intestines. (1914) Amer. J Anat. 16: 427 – 445.

Images

Historic Images

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Gastrointestinal Tract - Stomach Development. Retrieved August 20, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Gastrointestinal_Tract_-_Stomach_Development

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© Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G