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WHO motor development milestones
Neurological development continues postnatally with both growth and reorganization of the central nervous system. The amount of simple physical growth is shown by the skeletal flexibility designed around the brain and spinal cord, which allows continued postnatal growth of these structures. The World Health Organization (WHO) recently identified early postnatal motor skill development in terms of "motor milestones", this was released along with new international growth charts.
The following movies demonstrate normal and abnormal postnatal neurological development assessment procedures.
The newborn neuromuscular system can be initially assessed by 6 quick tests (posture, square window, arm recoil, popliteal angle, scarf sign and heel to ear). Later developmental assessment includes behaviour, reflexes (primitive and postural), muscular tone, and motor (gross, fine, co-ordination). This is examined in the newborn, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months and at 30 months of age. There are several primitive reflexes (rooting, sucking reflexes, Moro, grasp) that change (are repressed) with development of the central nervous system.
These movies were designed by PD Larsen and SS Stensaas, Utah School of Medicine.
- Neural Exam Movies: normal behaviour | cranial nerves | Newborn Tone - resting posture | upper extremity | arm traction | arm recoil | scarf sign | hand position | lower extremity | leg traction | leg recoil | popliteal angle | heel to ear | neck tone | head lag | head control | Newborn Positions - prone | ventral suspension | vertical suspension | Newborn Reflexes - deep tendon reflexes | plantar reflex | suck, root | Moro | Galant | stepping | grasp | Newborn Head - head shape and sutures | head circumference | Neonatal Diagnosis
Newborn Abnormal Links: behaviour | cranial nerves |
Newborn Tone - resting posture | upper extremity | arm traction | arm recoil | scarf sign | hand position | lower extremity | leg traction | leg recoil | popliteal angle | heel to ear | neck tone | head lag | head control |
Newborn Positions - prone | ventral suspension | vertical suspension |
Newborn Reflexes - deep tendon reflexes | plantar reflex | suck, root | Moro | Galant | stepping | grasp |
Newborn Head - head shape and sutures | head circumference
- Links: Neural Exam - Newborn behaviour comparison
3 Months Normal
- 3 Months Neural Exam Movies: normal behaviour | cranial nerves | Tone - head and trunk control | upper extremity | hand movements | lower extremity Positions - supine | prone | ventral suspension | vertical suspension | Reflexes - Deep tendon reflexes | Plantar reflex | Root | Moro | Galant | Grasp | Asymmetric tonic neck | Neural Exam Movies | Neonatal Diagnosis
3 Month Behaviour
3 Month Tone
3 Month Positions
3 Month Reflexes
6 Months Normal
These videos require relabelling before release.
12 Months Normal
- 12 Months Neural Exam Movies: Shy | Social and Language | Cranial Nerves | Tone - Tone | Reflexes - deep tendon reflexes | plantar reflex | Parachute | Pincer Grasp | Beads in the Cup | Play Ball | Transition in and out of Sitting | Creeping | Stoop and Recover | Motor/Gait - Stand, Walks with Support | Toddler’s Gait | Head Circumference | Neural Exam Movies
18 Months Normal
- Neural Exam Movies: Wants | Understanding | Points to Pictures | Points to Body Parts | Cranial Nerves Motor/Coordination - Blocks in Cup | Beads in Cup | Stacking Blocks | Pincer Grasp and Handedness | Drawing/Scribbling | Tone | Deep Tendon Reflex | Throwing Ball | Walking
30 Months Normal
- Neural Exam Movies: Establishing Relationship | Follows Commands | Points to Pictures | Names Pictures | Response to Questions | Pointing to and Naming Body Parts | Motor/Coordination - Using Puppets | Using Measuring Tape | Block Tower | Drawing | Tone | Deep Tendon Reflex | Kicking and Throwing a Ball | Walking, Running
WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group WHO Motor Development Study: windows of achievement for six gross motor development milestones. Acta Paediatr Suppl: 2006, 450;86-95 PubMed 16817682
| World Health Organization - Motor development milestones
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Neural Exam Movies. Retrieved November 22, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_Exam_Movies
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- © Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G