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WHO motor development milestones
Neurological development continues postnatally with both growth and reorganization of the central nervous system. The amount of simple physical growth is shown by the skeletal flexibility designed around the brain and spinal cord, which allows continued postnatal growth of these structures. The World Health Organization (WHO) recently identified early postnatal motor skill development in terms of "motor milestones", this was released along with new international growth charts.
The following movies demonstrate normal and abnormal postnatal neurological development assessment procedures.
The newborn neuromuscular system can be initially assessed by 6 quick tests (posture, square window, arm recoil, popliteal angle, scarf sign and heel to ear). Later developmental assessment includes behaviour, reflexes (primitive and postural), muscular tone, and motor (gross, fine, co-ordination). This is examined in the newborn, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months and at 30 months of age. There are several primitive reflexes (rooting, sucking reflexes, Moro, grasp) that change (are repressed) with development of the central nervous system.
These movies were designed by PD Larsen and SS Stensaas, Utah School of Medicine.
Some Recent Findings
- Distinct locomotor precursors in newborn babies It is commonly thought that human locomotor development stems from a single precursor behavior, consisting of alternating flexor–extensor movements, such as kicking or stepping on ground. According to this view, kicking and stepping are identical movement patterns generated by the same neural mechanisms. Here we show that the neuromuscular modules of neonatal kicking and stepping are different, presumably related to different neural mechanisms. Kicking involves an adult-like number of temporal activation patterns, whose association with specific sets of muscles varies across movements. Ground-stepping involves a limited number of activation patterns, each associated with a stable muscle synergy. Since neonatal kicking and ground-stepping seem to anticipate subsequent developmental changes of locomotion in human babies, they might represent distinct locomotor antecedents."
- Neural Exam Movies: normal behaviour | cranial nerves | Newborn Tone - resting posture | upper extremity | arm traction | arm recoil | scarf sign | hand position | lower extremity | leg traction | leg recoil | popliteal angle | heel to ear | neck tone | head lag | head control | Newborn Positions - prone | ventral suspension | vertical suspension | Newborn Reflexes - deep tendon reflexes | plantar reflex | suck, root | Moro | Galant | stepping | grasp | Newborn Head - head shape and sutures | head circumference | Neonatal Diagnosis
Newborn Abnormal Links: behaviour | cranial nerves |
Newborn Tone - resting posture | upper extremity | arm traction | arm recoil | scarf sign | hand position | lower extremity | leg traction | leg recoil | popliteal angle | heel to ear | neck tone | head lag | head control |
Newborn Positions - prone | ventral suspension | vertical suspension |
Newborn Reflexes - deep tendon reflexes | plantar reflex | suck, root | Moro | Galant | stepping | grasp |
Newborn Head - head shape and sutures | head circumference
- Links: Neural Exam - Newborn behaviour comparison
3 Months Normal
- 3 Months Neural Exam Movies: normal behaviour | cranial nerves | Tone - head and trunk control | upper extremity | hand movements | lower extremity Positions - supine | prone | ventral suspension | vertical suspension | Reflexes - Deep tendon reflexes | Plantar reflex | Root | Moro | Galant | Grasp | Asymmetric tonic neck | Neural Exam Movies | Neonatal Diagnosis
3 Month Behaviour
3 Month Tone
3 Month Positions
3 Month Reflexes
6 Months Normal
These videos require relabelling before release.
12 Months Normal
- 12 Months Neural Exam Movies: Shy | Social and Language | Cranial Nerves | Tone - Tone | Reflexes - deep tendon reflexes | plantar reflex | Parachute | Pincer Grasp | Beads in the Cup | Play Ball | Transition in and out of Sitting | Creeping | Stoop and Recover | Motor/Gait - Stand, Walks with Support | Toddler’s Gait | Head Circumference | Neural Exam Movies
18 Months Normal
- Neural Exam Movies: Wants | Understanding | Points to Pictures | Points to Body Parts | Cranial Nerves Motor/Coordination - Blocks in Cup | Beads in Cup | Stacking Blocks | Pincer Grasp and Handedness | Drawing/Scribbling | Tone | Deep Tendon Reflex | Throwing Ball | Walking
30 Months Normal
- Neural Exam Movies: Establishing Relationship | Follows Commands | Points to Pictures | Names Pictures | Response to Questions | Pointing to and Naming Body Parts | Motor/Coordination - Using Puppets | Using Measuring Tape | Block Tower | Drawing | Tone | Deep Tendon Reflex | Kicking and Throwing a Ball | Walking, Running
- ↑ | World Health Organization - Motor development milestones
- ↑ Sylos-Labini F, La Scaleia V, Cappellini G, Fabiano A, Picone S, Keshishian ES, Zhvansky DS, Paolillo P, Solopova IA, d'Avella A, Ivanenko Y & Lacquaniti F. (2020). Distinct locomotor precursors in newborn babies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , 117, 9604-9612. PMID: 32284405 DOI.
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Hillairet de Boisferon A, Tift AH, Minar NJ & Lewkowicz DJ. (2018). The redeployment of attention to the mouth of a talking face during the second year of life. J Exp Child Psychol , 172, 189-200. PMID: 29627481 DOI.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2023, December 11) Embryology Neural Exam Movies. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Neural_Exam_Movies
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- © Dr Mark Hill 2023, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G