Museum of Natural History Berlin - 2013 Seminar

From Embryology
11:00 25th November 2013      Translate page - German

The Evolution of Embryology Education

Dr Mark Hill

Position of the Uterus and Fetus at Term (Wilhelm Braune, Topographisch-anatomischer Atlas, 1872)


Embryology is a cornerstone of both Medical Education for medical students and Developmental Biology for science students. In this presentation I will explore how the teaching of Embryology has evolved in our Medical School with the entry into the digital age and the expansion of new teaching and research techniques.

This entire presentation will remain available online if you would like to explore in your own time!

Seminar Summary

  1. Historic background
  2. Embryo staging and collections
  3. Previous teaching techniques
  4. Online education
  5. Medicine
  6. Science
  7. Questions

Early History


(16th to 18th century)

Spiegel1626 table07.jpg

Placenta and Fetus (Spiegel and Casseri, De formato foetu liber singularis, 1626)

Galletti Models

(late 18th century)

Galletti1770 week 16.jpg

Beginning Last Century - 1900's

Ziegler Models

(19th to early 20th century)

Ziegler Freiburg workshop.jpg Ziegler model 06.jpg

Ziegler Freiburg workshop (c 1912). Ziegler Models | Embryology Models

Carnegie and Blechschmidt Models

Osborne Heard.jpg Blechschmidt model icon.jpg
Carnegie Models

Osborne O. Heard (1891–1983) produced over 700 wax-based embryo reconstructions models for the Carnegie Institute. Models were produced by the lost-wax casting process and were more detailed than the earlier Ziegler (1880's) embryo models.

Blechschmidt Models

Erich Blechschmidt (1904–92) independently developed new methods of embryo reconstruction, 200,000 serial sections of embryos and 64 models. (University of Goettingen, Germany)

Embryo Collections and Staging

Embryo Collections: Human Embryo Collections | Embryo Collections | Blechschmidt Collection | Carnegie Collection | Domenech-Mateu Collection | Harvard Collection | Hill Collection | Hinrichsen Collection | Hubrecht Collection | Kyoto Collection | Madrid Collection | Embryology Models | DEC Information | DEC

Keibel Mall 034a.jpg Keibel Mall 034b.jpg
His's Normentafel (human embryo staging)
Human Carnegie stage 10-23.jpg Human Carnegie stage 1-23.jpg
Carnegie Collection (USA) Kyoto Collection (Japan)
Carnegie Stages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | About Stages | Timeline

Animal Models

  • Experimental embryology - involving manipulation of animal models.
  • Imaging development - electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy, ultrasound, tomography.
  • Research fields - molecular biology, in vitro fertilisation, stem cells.
Chick E12.jpg Adult frogs 01.jpg Rat.jpg Mouse E0-E5.jpg Fly antennapedia head.jpg Larvae1.png
Chicken Frog Rat Mouse Fly Zebrafish
Animal Development: axolotl | bat | cat | chicken | cow | dog | dolphin | echidna | fly | frog | grasshopper | guinea pig | hamster | kangaroo | koala | lizard | medaka | mouse | pig | platypus | rabbit | rat | sea squirt | sea urchin | sheep | worm | zebrafish | life cycles | development timetable | development models | K12
Historic Embryology  
1897 Pig | 1900 Chicken | 1901 Lungfish | 1904 Sand Lizard | 1905 Rabbit | 1906 Deer | 1907 Tarsiers | 1908 Human | 1909 Northern Lapwing | 1909 South American and African Lungfish | 1910 Salamander | 1951 Frog | Embryology History | Historic Disclaimer

Recent Embryology Education

Anatomy teaching USA graph.jpg

Trends in anatomy disciplines contact teaching hours based on data from USA survey.

Less contact time, but a growing list of new clinically relevant topics.

Embryo Serial Sections

Microfiche reader.jpg Microfiche Reader used in Medicine and Science classes from 1975 to 1995.

View embryo section 49 images (7x7 matrix) in 3 sets:

  1. Stage 13 Embryo (mid-embryonic period)
  2. Stage 22 Embryo (end embryonic period)
  3. Selected Stage 22 images (selected organs and tissues from end embryonic)

Identify key organs and tissues in these sections and compare appearance at different periods of development.

1997 Online

Online Development



Human development 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Human Development
Page | Play
Glossary A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
Abnormal Development
Abnormality Links: abnormal development | abnormal genetic | abnormal environmental | Unknown | teratogens | ectopic pregnancy | cardiovascular abnormalities | coelom abnormalities | endocrine abnormalities | gastrointestinal abnormalities | genital abnormalities | head abnormalities | integumentary abnormalities | musculoskeletal abnormalities | limb abnormalities | neural abnormalities | neural crest abnormalities | renal abnormalities | respiratory abnormalities | placenta abnormalities | hearing abnormalities | vision abnormalities | twinning | Developmental Origins of Health and Disease |  ICD-11
Historic Embryology  
1915 Congenital Cardiac Disease | 1917 Frequency of Anomalies in Human Embryos | 1920 Hydatiform Degeneration Tubal Pregnancy | 1921 Anencephalic Embryo | 1921 Rat and Man | 1966 Congenital Malformations

2004 New Medicine Program

  • Previously lectures and practicals covering a semester.
  • Embryology became "integrated" into new cross-discipline courses.

Lecture Example

BGD - Development of the Embryo/Fetus 1

  • Replace powerpoint slides
  • Can be formatted for printing
  • Accessible at all times (including Mobile Access)
  • Can be opened during associated practical class
  • Links to:
    • Textbooks
    • Related online pages, including practical, audio etc.
    • Movies
    • Glossary

Practical Example

BGD - Practical Fertilization to Implantation

  • Organised into a timeline
  • Each page worked through with the demonstrator
  • Independent time to ask questions
  • Students can cut n paste for their own notes
  • Online Quizzes | Category:Quiz

Student Project Examples

Medicine Student Projects

  • Part of the Medicine undergraduate program allows for individual students to work on research or educational projects related to medicine.
  • The projects are academically supervised and are described as an "Independent Learning Project" (ILP).
Navigation bar 1.jpg
Navigation bar 2.jpg
Basic Heart Development Timeline.jpg
Navigation menus
ILP2006 Generating the surface .gif
Cardiac Embryology Tutorial Carnegie Stage Embryo 3D Animations

Science Student Projects
  • Since 2009 undergraduate science students have been preparing online group projects as part of their ANAT2341 Embryology course.
  • Student group (4-5 students) selects a specific topic within the main theme that they then research and work collaboratively on that topic throughout the semester.
  • Project is discussed online.
  • Assessed by peers, before being finally edited for submission as their group assessment component for the course.
  • Group and Individual contributions can also be monitored.
Project timeline.png



(Shown in the lefthand menu)



Php-most used browsers May-Oct 2013.jpgPhp-most used operating systems May-Oct 2013.jpg


IBooks icon.jpg Embryology iBooks 2013 software update now allows iBooks to be downloaded and read on tablets, laptops and desktop computers.

Final Remarks

  • I remind you that I do not intend to cover everything shown on this seminar page. Some content can be returned to and studied in your own time.
  • Embryology education will continue to evolve online as new technologies and research techniques are developed.
  • Finally, and most importantly, I thank all my Contributors who have helped make this a site so rich in embryology content.

External Link: Museum für Naturkunde - DE | EN

External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, April 19) Embryology Museum of Natural History Berlin - 2013 Seminar. Retrieved from

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G