Carnegie stage 19

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Introduction

Stage19 bf1c.jpg

Facts

Week 7, 48 - 51 days, 16 - 18 mm

Gestational Age GA - week 9

Summary

  • Ectoderm: sensory placodes, lens pit, otocyst, nasal pits moved ventrally, fourth ventricle of brain
  • Mesoderm: heart prominence, ossification continues
  • Head: forebrain, eye, external acoustic meatus
  • Body: straightening of trunk, heart, liver, umbilical cord


See also Stage 19 Events

Features

  • eyelid, eye, external acoustic meatus, auricle of external ear, digital ray, wrist, liver prominence
  • Identify: straightening of trunk, pigmented eye, eyelid, external acoustic meatus, digital rays, liver prominance, thigh, ankle, foot plate, umbilical cord


Stage 19 Links: Week 7 | System Development | Lecture - Limb | Lecture - Head Development | Lecture - Sensory | Science Practical - Head | Science Practical - Sensory | Science Practical - Urogenital | Carnegie Embryos | Madrid Embryos | Category:Carnegie Stage 19 | Next Stage 20
  Historic Papers: 1911 larynx | 1914 | 1954 Stage 19-23


Week: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Carnegie stage: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
Carnegie Stages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | About Stages | Timeline

Bright Field

Stage19 bf13.jpg

Virtual Slide

Stage 19 - Right Lateral

Stage19bf13-icon.jpg

 ‎‎Mobile | Desktop | Original

Stage 19 | Embryo Slides

Carnegie stage 19

  • Facts: Week 7, 48 - 51 days, 16 - 18 mm
  • View: Lateral view. Amniotic membrane removed.
  • Features: eyelid, eye, external acoustic meatus, auricle of external ear, digital ray, wrist, liver prominence
  • Identify: straightening of trunk, pigmented eye, eyelid, external acoustic meatus, digital rays, liver prominance, thigh, ankle, foot plate, umbilical cord


Stage 19 Links: Embryo open gestational sac | Embryo | Embryo (rotated) | Carnegie stage 19


Image: Dr Steven O'Connor (Houston, Texas) - Other embryo images.


Carnegie Stages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | About Stages | Timeline




Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Carnegie stage 19. Retrieved September 25, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Carnegie_stage_19

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G


Scanning EM

Stage19 em01.jpgStage19 em11.jpg

Ventral view of head showing upper lip, maxilla and nasal region.

Image Source: Prof Virginia Diewert

Kyoto Collection

Stage19 bf1.jpg


View: This is a dorsolateral view of embryo. Amniotic membrane removed.

Image source: Embryology page Created: 19.03.1999


Image source: The Kyoto Collection images are reproduced with the permission of Prof. Kohei Shiota and Prof. Shigehito Yamada, Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan for educational purposes only and cannot be reproduced electronically or in writing without permission.

Carnegie Collection

Stage19 bf4.jpg Stage19 bf5.jpg Stage19 bf6.jpg Stage19 bf7.jpg Stage19 bf8.jpg Stage19 bf9.jpg Stage19 bf10.jpg Stage19 bf11.jpg Stage19 bf12.jpg

Carnegie stage 19: 4501 Right | 4501 Anterior | 4501 Left | 6824 Right | 6824 Anterior | 6824 Left | 8092 Right | 8092 Anterior | 8092 Left


Carnegie Collection - Stage 19 
Serial No. Size (mm) Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Plane Thinness (µm) Stain Score Sex Year Notes
17 E, 18 Ch, 40x30x20 Poor Alc. P 50, 100 Al. carm. 16.5 M 1894
43 E, 16 Good Alc. P 50 Al. coch. 10 M 1 1894
293 E, 19 Poor Ale. P Sagittal 50 Coch. 16.5 S 1905
390 E, 19 Good Formol? P Sagittal 20, (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 11.5 M 1906 Tubal Injected

50

409 E.18 Ch, 50x40x40 Good Formol P Transverse 20 Copper, iron H. & erythrosin 14.5 M 1907
432 E..18.5 Ch , 45x35x20 Good Formol P Sagittal 20 H. & Congo red 13.5 M 1910 Tubal
576 E. 17 Ch, 60x40 Good Formol P Sagittal 15, 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 14.5 d 1912 Tubal
626 E., 21.5 Ch., 40x30x21 Good Formol P Transverse 100 Al. coch. 14_5 6 1913
6??8 E, 20 Ch, ca. 30 Poor Formol P Sagittal 50 Al. coch. 12 9 1913 Head damaged
709 E, 19 Ch. 40x35x25 Poor Alc. P Coronal 40 Al. coch, Lyons blue 15 49 1913
837 E. 21 Ch. 65x45x Good Formol P Sagittal 40 Al. coch. 14.5 P 1914
1324 E., 18 50x30x18 Good Formol C Coronal 40 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), aur, or. G 125 79 1915
1332 E., 19 Ch., 40x43x22 Poor Formol C Coronal 40 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) aur, or. G. 15 M 1915
1390 E., 18 Ch, 40x38x15 Good Formol P Sagittal 20 Al. coch. 10_5 M 1915 Tubal
1534 E., 13 Ch.,35x31x25 Poor Formol P 53% 50 Al. coch. 13.5 F 1916 Protruding midbratn
2114 E., 19.3 Ch., 49x42x33 Good Formol P Transverse 40 A1. coch. 12 M 1918
4405 E., 15.5 Good Formol P Transverse 10 Coch, Mallory 13.5 <3 1923 Midbrain injured
4501 E, 18 Exc. Bouin P Transverse 15 Coch, or. G. 14.6 1924 Cystic left kidney
5609 E., 18 Exc. Formol P Coronal 25 A1. coch. 13.5 M
6150 E., 17 Ch., 40x39x30 Good Bouin C-P Transverse 15 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 16.5 M 1930 Tubal
6824 E., 18.5 Ch., 45x40x25 Good Formol C-P Sagittal 12 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 14.5 F 1933
7900 E., 16.5 Good Bouin C-P Sagittal 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), phlox. 11.5 . . 1941 Tubal
8092 E., 16.3 Ch., 52 x 47 Exc. Bouin C-P Transverse 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), phlox. 13 M 1942
8913 E.,? Ch, 34 Poor Formol p Transverse 10 Alan . 7 1951 Rubella. Medical abortion. Isolated head damaged
8965 E, 19.1 Ch, 42x32x19 Good Formol—Zenker C-P Transverse 10 Borax, carm, or. G. 1952 Univ. Chicago No. H 173
9097 E, 21 Exc. Fo1rno1—glucose C-P Coronal 10 Azan ? .  ? 1930 Univ. Chicago No H 1380
9113 E, 185 Ch, 24 Exc. Formol C-P Transverse 10 Alan > 6 1953 Rubella. Medical abortion
9325 E, 17.0 Ch, 32x28x20 Good Formol —acetic p Transverse 15& 8-10 Azan & Ag  ? - 1955 Tubal
Abbreviations
  • Size - E. is the greatest length of the embryo and Ch. is the mean diameter of the chorion.
  • Grade - total grade of the specimen and includes both its original quality and the condition of the mounted sections.
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin (Bouin solution)
  • Stain -
  •  ? - unknown or not determined.
iBook - Carnegie Embryos  
link=http://itunes.apple.com/au/book/the-carnegie-staged-embryos/id510004473?mt=11 iTunes link
  • iTunes link | iBook Store
  • Description - Imagine the excitement of seeing this incredible early period of human development for the first time. Now consider that much of our initial understanding of human development is based upon study of historic embryo collections. You can now look at these historic images of the first 8 weeks after fertilisation and explore for yourself the changes that occur in human development during this key period. This current book is designed as an atlas of the Carnegie embryo stages with some brief notes and additional information covering the first 8 weeks of development. These images are from from the beginning of last century and are one of the earliest documented series of human embryos collected for basic research and medical education on development. I hope you enjoy learning about the amazing early events that begin to make and shape us. This is the second book in a series of educational releases from UNSW Embryology.
  • Release: First Edition - Mar 12, 2012 ISBN 978-0-7334-3148-7 Print Length 82 Pages, 25.8 MB Language English.
  • PDF Preview version 3.87 MB (Read the associated information, this is an edited educational preview version with many features not functioning).
  • The current website also includes numerous embryo images from this textbook (see Embryonic Development and Carnegie Embryos).

Blechschmidt Collection

Bl170452-01.jpg

Embryo (170452)


Links: Blechschmidt Collection

Photographs

Stage19 bf2.jpg Stage19 bf3.jpg
Virtual Slide
Image - Dr Ed Uthman Image - Dr Steven O'Connor

Embryo Virtual Slides

Stage 19 - Left Lateral

Stage19 bf2.jpg

 ‎‎Mobile | Desktop | Original

Stage 19 | Embryo Slides

Hill Collection

Righthand view Lefthand view
Stage19 bf18.jpg Stage19 bf19.jpg

Image source: The images from the Hill Collection (part of the Embryological Collection) are reproduced with the permission of the Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz Institute for Research on Evolution and Biodiversity. Images are for educational purposes only and must not be reproduced electronically or in writing without permission from the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin.

Embryo Virtual Slides

Stage 19 - Left Lateral

Stage19 bf16.jpg

 ‎‎Mobile | Desktop | Original

Stage 19 | Embryo Slides
Stage 19 - Left Lateral

Stage19 bf17.jpg

 ‎‎Mobile | Desktop | Original

Stage 19 | Embryo Slides

Hinrichsen Collection

ME28 001.jpg Hinrichsen collection Human Embryo ME28 (stage19).

Embryo left lateral view.

ME28 002.jpg

SEM upper limb showing digital ray development.

Image source: The Hinrichsen Collection images are reproduced with the permission of Prof. Beate Brand-Saberi, Head, Department of Anatomy and Molecular Embryology, Ruhr-Universität Bochum. Images are for educational purposes only and cannot be reproduced electronically or in writing without permission.

Madrid Collection

Madrid Collection Embryos  
Carnegie
Stage
Embryo Days CRL (mm) Section
thickness
Staining Section plane
19 PA 47 17 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) transverse
19 Civ1 48 18 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin)-Azan transverse


Events

  • Vision - (stage 19 -22) the eyelid folds develop into the eyelids and cover more of the eye as the palpebral fissure takes shape. The upper and the lower eyelids meet at the outer canthus in Stage 19.[2]
  • Hearing - otic capsule now cartilaginous. Cochlea tip becomes curled. Malleus and incus present.
  • Cardiovascular
    • Cerebral artery the middle cerebral artery becomes more prominent, the plexi fuse into a single artery and further branches pierce the cerebral hemisphere.[3]
    • arterial system[4] Chapter 18 fig. 447).
    • aortic arches [5] stages 11–19 (figs. 29–40).
    • Heart fusion of aortic and mitral endocardial cushion material</ref>Teal SI., Moore GW. and Hutchins GM. Development of aortic and mitral valve continuity in the human embryonic heart. (1986) Amer. J. Anat., 176:447-460.</ref>
  • Respiratory - first generation of subsegmental bronchi now complete, see bronchial tree reconstruction[6] (plates 3 and 4).
  • Gastrointestinal - anal membrane defined.
  • Renal - Cloacal membrane ruptures from urinary pressure at stage 18 or stage 19,
  • Genital
    • Testis - Rete testis develops from the seminiferous cords at stages 19–23, and tunica albuginea forms.[7].
    • Ovary - Rete ovarii cords are developing.[8]
  • Musculoskeletal - Sternum right and left sternal bars are present.[9] (figs. 7-17 and 7-22)
  • Neural
    • rhombencephalon migration for olivary and arcuate nuclei begins.
    • choroid plexus of the fourth ventricle present.
    • stria medullaris thalami reaches the habenular nuclei.
    • habenular commissure begins to develop.
  • Endocrine System Development[10]
    • Hypophysis - the caudal part of the craniopharyngeal pouch is reduced to a closed epithelial stem (Andersen et al. 1971).
    • Epiphysis - the "anterior lobe" of the pineal body shows a characteristic step and wedge appearance (Stadium 4 of Turkewitsch 1933) (O'Rahilly 1968).
    • Parathyroids - 3 become detached from the pharyngeal endo- derm (Jirfisek 1980).
    • Adrenal Cortex - C2 cells lie on the surface of the gland and form a "capsule".[11]
    • Adrenal Medulla - Sympathicoblasts penetrate the cortex at stages 19 and 20, and form scattered islets of medullary tissue throughout the cortex (Jirfisek 1980).
  • Meninges (Spinal Cord) - increased chondrification ventral vertebral wall and greater concentration in the dorsal vertebral wall (the membrana reuniens), further ventral migration of the ganglia, and formation of large cavities in the meninx primitiva and a reticular arrangement of its cells. Layers of stratified cells overlying the dorsal surfaces of the centra and intervertebral disks, distinguishable in stage 17, 18, are now separated from these structures by a narrow network of loose cells. This stratified concentration of cells is the rudiment of the ventral dura mater, and may be traced both laterally and medially to the ganglia. The part lateral to the ganglia passes over into, and becomes indistinguishable from, the dense stratum of the meninx primitiva that forms the more dorsal canal wall. Passing caudad, the ventral dura mater rudiment lies in ever closer proximity to the centra and intervertebral disks, becoming continuous with these structures in the lower cervical segments. It can, however, be identified throughout the thoracic regions.[12]



References

  1. Streeter GL. Developmental Horizons In Human Embryos Description Or Age Groups XIX, XX, XXI, XXII, And XXIII, Being The Fifth Issue Of A Survey Of The Carnegie Collection. (1957) Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ. 611, Contrib. Embryol., 36: 167-196.
  2. Pearson AA. The development of the eyelids. Part I. External features. (1980) J. Anat.: 130(1): 33-42. PMID 7364662 PDF
  3. Khaled Menshawi, Jay P Mohr, Jose Gutierrez A Functional Perspective on the Embryology and Anatomy of the Cerebral Blood Supply. J Stroke: 2015, 17(2);144-58 PubMed 26060802 | J Stroke.
  4. Keibel F. and Mall FP. Manual of Human Embryology II. (1912) J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia.
  5. Congdon ED. Transformation of the aortic-arch system during the development of the human embryo. (1922) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ 277, 14:47-110.
  6. Wells LJ. Development of the human diaphragm and pleural sacs. (1954) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 603, 35: 107-134.
  7. Jirasek JE. Development of the Genital System and Male Pseudohermaphroditism. (1971) Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore.
  8. {{Ref-Wilson1926a))
  9. Gasser RL. Atlas of Human Embryos. (1975) Harper & Row, Hagerstown, Maryland.
  10. O'Rahilly R. The timing and sequence of events in the development of the human endocrine system during the embryonic period proper. (1983) Anat. Embryol., 166: 439-451. PMID 6869855
  11. Crowder RE. The development of the adrenal gland in man, with special reference to origin and ultimate location of cell types and evidence in favor of the "cell migration" theory. (1957) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. 36, 193-210.
  12. Sensenig EC. The early development of the meninges of the spinal cord in human embryos. (1951) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 611,

Additional Images

Historic

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)


Carnegie Stages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | About Stages | Timeline



Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Carnegie stage 19. Retrieved September 25, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Carnegie_stage_19

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G