Carnegie stage 16

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Introduction

Stage16 bf1c.jpg

Facts

Week 6, 37 - 42 days, 8 - 11 mm

Gestational Age GA - week 8

Summary

  • Ectoderm: sensory placodes, lens pit, otocyst,nasal pits moved ventrally, fourth ventricle of brain
  • Mesoderm: heart prominence
  • Head: 1st, 2nd and 3rd pharyngeal arch, forebrain, eye, auricular hillocks
  • Body: heart, liver, umbilical cord, mesonephric ridge
  • Limb: upper and lower limb buds, hand plate, developing arm


See also Carnegie stage 16 Events

Features

  • Eye showing retinal pigment, nasolacrimal groove, nasal pit, fourth ventricle of brain, umbilical cord, 1st and 2nd pharyngeal arches, cervical sinus, heart, developing arm with hand plate, foot plate
  • Identify: nasal pit, nasolacrimal groove, eye, 1st, 2nd and 3rd pharyngeal arches, 1st pharyngeal groove, maxillary and mandibular components of 1st pharyngeal arch, auricular hillocks, fourth ventricle of brain, heart prominence, upper limb bud, mesonephric ridge, lower limb bud, umbilical cord


Stage 16 Links: Week 6 | Head | Lecture - Limb | Lecture - Gastrointestinal | Lecture - Head Development | Science Practical - Gastrointestinal | Science Practical - Head | Carnegie Embryos | Category:Carnegie Stage 16 | Week 6 | Next Stage 17
  Historic Papers: 1906 | 1908 | 1948 stages 15-18
Week: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Carnegie stage: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
Carnegie Stages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | About Stages | Timeline

Kyoto Collection

Stage16 bf1.jpg

View: This is a dorsolateral view of embryo. Amniotic membrane removed.

Image source: Embryology page Created: 19.03.1999

Head
Kyoto731 Stage16-01.jpg

Left lateral view

Kyoto731 Stage16-02.jpg

Left lateral view (labeled)

Human stage16 face 01.jpg

Ventral view of head region. Ventral view of head region (1 mm scale).

Central Nervous System
Human Stage16 neural01.jpg Human Stage16 neural02.jpg
Cranial Nerves 
Nerve Number Name Type Function
CN I Olfactory sensory smell placode
CN II Optic sensory vision
CN III Oculomotor motor extraocular muscles
CN IV Trochlear motor extraocular muscles
CN V Trigeminal motor/sensory proprioception, mastication
CN VI Abducent motor extraocular muscles
CN VII Facial motor/sensory taste, facial expression pons basal plate, cranial neural crest
CN VIII Acoustic sensory hearing/balance placode
CN IX Glossopharyngeal motor/sensory
CN X Vagus motor/sensory medulla basal plate, cranial neural crest
CN XI Accessory motor sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles
CN XII Hypoglossal motor medulla oblongata basal plate
Right lateral view of the central nervous system of embryo at Carnegie stage 16. Scale bar is 1 mm

Movies

Stage16 MRI 3D01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Embryo Stage 16
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Stage16 MRI 3D02 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Embryo CNS
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Stage16 MRI S01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Embryo Stage 16
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Stage16 MRI T01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Embryo Stage 16
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Stage16 MRI C01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Embryo Stage 16
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Stage16 EFIC S01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Embryo Stage 16
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Stage16 EFIC T01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Embryo Stage 16
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Stage16 EFIC C01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Embryo Stage 16
Page | Play


Image source: The Kyoto Collection images are reproduced with the permission of Prof. Kohei Shiota and Prof. Shigehito Yamada, Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan for educational purposes only and cannot be reproduced electronically or in writing without permission.

Scanning EM

Stage16 em01.jpg

Ventral view of head showing upper lip, maxilla and nasal region.

Image Source: Prof Virginia Diewert


Carnegie Collection

Stage16 bf5.jpg Stage16 bf6.jpg Stage16 bf7.jpg Stage16 bf8.jpg

Stage16 bf2.jpg Stage16 bf3.jpg Stage16 bf4.jpg

Carnegie stage 16: Right | Posterior | Anterior | Left | Right | Posterior | Left


Carnegie Collection - Stage 16 
Serial No. Size (mm) Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Plane Thinness (µm) Stain Year Notes
163 E., 9.0 Ch., 35x35x20 Good Formol P Transverse 20 Al. coch. 1899 Used by Bardeen and Lewis
221 E., 7.5 Ch., 40x33x33 Poor Formol P Sagittal 20 Al. coch. 1903 Macerated
383 E., 7.0 Ch., 15x15x15 Poor Formol P Transverse 10 Al. carm., H. & Congo red 1904
397 E., 8.0 Ch., 15x15x15 Poor Formol P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1907
422 E., 9.0 Ch., 30x30x30 Poor Alc. P Transverse 40 Al. coch. 1910 Tubal. Partly macerated
559 E., 8.6 Ch., 20x15x12 Good Formol P Transverse 20 H. & Congo red 1911 Cyclopia. Formerly listed as stage 17
589 E., 11 Ch., 30x13x13 Poor p P Sagittal 50 Al. coch. 1912
617 E., 7.0 Ch., 18x14x12 Good Formol P Transverse 15 Al. coch. 1912 Median in group
636 E., 10 Ch.,28x28x22 Poor Formol P Transverse 50 Al. coch. 1913 Macerated
651f E., 7 Ch., 25x20x15 Poor p p p p p 1913 Spina bifida
675 E., 10 Ch., 50x30x25 Poor Formol P Sagittal 100 Carmine 1915 Abnormal head and limbs
792 E., 8.0 Ch., 40x30x30 Good Formol P Transverse 20 Al. coch. 1913 Advanced
887 E, 9.0 Ch., 31x28x17 Good Formol P Transverse 40 Al. coch. 1914 Near next stage
1121 E., 11.8 Good Corros. acetic P Coronal 40 Al. coch. 1915 Operative. Median in group
1197 E., 10.0 Ch., 23x19x15 Good Formol C Sagittal 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), or. G. 1915 Advanced
1544 E., 7.2 Good Zenker P Sagittal 20 Al. coch. 1916 Tubal. Mechanical injury
1836 E., 11.0 Good Formol P Transverse 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1917 Most-advanced third
4677 E., 9.5 Ch., 48x36x30 Good Formol P Transverse 10 Al. coch. 1924 Median in group
5515 E., 12.0 Ch., 47x37x25 Good Formol C-P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1927 Near next stage
6054 E., 7,0 Ch., 21x17x12 Good Formol C-P Transverse 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1930 Least-advanced third
6507 E., 9.0* Excellent Corros. acetic C-P Coronal 10 & 8 Al. coch. p Middle or most-advanced third
6509 E. 8.1* Excellent Corros. acetic C-P Coronal 10 Al. coch. p Least-adianced or middle third
6510 E., 10.1* Excellent Corros. acetic C-P Coronal 10 Al. coch. p Close to No. 6507. Ag added
6511 E, 8.1* Good Corros. acetic C-P Sagittal 10 Al. coch., iron H. p Surface injured by fixative. Most-advanced third
6512 E., 7.0* Excellent Corros. acetic C-P Transverse 10 Al. coch. p Least-advanced third. Borderline
6513 E., 7.2* Good Corros. acetic C-P Coronal 10 Al. coch. p Surface injured by fixative. Least advanced in group
6514 E., 9 0* Poor Corros. acetic C-P Sagittal 10 Al. coch. p Most-advanced third
6516 E., 10 5* Good Corros acetic C-P Sagittal 8 Al. coch. p Most-advanced third. Double left kidney and ureter
6517 E., 10.5* Excellent Corros. acetic C-P Transverse 8 Al. coch.  ? Close to No. 6516
6686 E., 11.0 Ch., l7x17xP Poor Formol C-P Coronal 20 Al. coch. 1933 Tubal. Partly macerated
6750 E., 10.0 Good Formol C-P Transverse 10 H. & phlox. 1933 Tubal. Advanced
6909 E., 11.0 Good Bouin C-P Coronal 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1934 Tubal. Advanced
6931 E., 8.8 Ch., 3""x 33x16 Good Formol C-P Coronal 10 Al coch., phlox. 1934 Least-advanced third. Type specimen
6950 E.. 9 0 Ch., 3lx20x18 Good Formol C-P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1934 Tubal. Partly fragmented
7?15 E., 9.7 Exc Bouin C-P Coronal 10 H. & phlox 1935 Operative. Less advanced
7629 E., 11.5 Ch., 31x31 Good Formol C-P Coronal 10 Al. coch., phlox 1939 Hysterectomy. Most advanced in group
7804 E., 9.5 Ch., 26x21x16 Good Formol C-P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1940 Least-advanced third
7897 E., 12.2 Ch., 31x24x23 Good Formol C-P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1941 Tubal. Advanced
8098 E., 10.0 Ch., 30 Good Formol C-P Coronal 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1942 Tubal. Median in group
8112 E., 10.9 Excellent Bouin C-P Coronal 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1943 Most-advanced third
8179 E., 11.9 Ch., 23x18x17 Good Formol C-P Coronal 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1943 Tubal
8436 E., 10.9 Ch., 13x15x1? Good Formol P Coronal 10 Azan 1946 Advanced
8692 E., 10 Good Bouin P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1949 Rubella. Medical abortion. Mechanically damaged
8697 E., 11.3 Poor Formol C-P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1949 Perhaps stage 17
8773 E, 11 Excellent Bouin P Coronal 10 Azan 1950
8971 E., 10 Ch., 20.5x14.5x13.7 Poor Formol Transverse 15 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1932 Synophthalmia. Univ. Chicago No. H 1439
9055 E., ca. 10 Excellent Bouin P Transverse 20 Azan & Ag 1953 Damaged
9229 E, 9.5 Excellent Formol P Transverse 6 Ag & (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1954 Stage 15, 16, or 17? Mislaid
Abbreviations
  • Size - E. is the greatest length of the embryo and Ch. is the mean diameter of the chorion.
  • Grade - total grade of the specimen and includes both its original quality and the condition of the mounted sections.
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin Bouin solution)
  • Stain -
  •  ? - unknown or not determined.


iBook - Carnegie Embryos  
link=http://itunes.apple.com/au/book/the-carnegie-staged-embryos/id510004473?mt=11 iTunes link
  • iTunes link | iBook Store
  • Description - Imagine the excitement of seeing this incredible early period of human development for the first time. Now consider that much of our initial understanding of human development is based upon study of historic embryo collections. You can now look at these historic images of the first 8 weeks after fertilisation and explore for yourself the changes that occur in human development during this key period. This current book is designed as an atlas of the Carnegie embryo stages with some brief notes and additional information covering the first 8 weeks of development. These images are from from the beginning of last century and are one of the earliest documented series of human embryos collected for basic research and medical education on development. I hope you enjoy learning about the amazing early events that begin to make and shape us. This is the second book in a series of educational releases from UNSW Embryology.
  • Release: First Edition - Mar 12, 2012 ISBN 978-0-7334-3148-7 Print Length 82 Pages, 25.8 MB Language English.
  • PDF Preview version 3.87 MB (Read the associated information, this is an edited educational preview version with many features not functioning).
  • The current website also includes numerous embryo images from this textbook (see Embryonic Development and Carnegie Embryos).

Madrid Collection

Stage16 bf9.jpg Stage16 bf10.jpg
Human Embryo CRL 10.2 mm (stage 16) Human Embryo CRL 10.5 mm (stage 16)

Image source: The Madrid Collection images are reproduced with the permission of Prof. Rodríguez-Vázquez, Head, Embryology Institute of Complutense University of Madrid. Images are for educational purposes only and cannot be reproduced electronically or in writing without permission.

Madrid Collection Embryos  
Carnegie
Stage
Embryo Days CRL (mm) Section
thickness
Staining Section plane
16 MAR 3 38 8 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin)-Azan frontal
16 BOT9 39 9 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) transverse
16 CN 2 39 9.5 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) sagittal
16 FAUS 4 40 9.7 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) frontal
16 CA 2 40 10 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin)-Azan transverse
16 FE 1 40 10.5 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) transverse

Hill Collection

Hill HH8
HillH8 Stage 16 bf01.jpg HillH8 Stage 16 bf02.jpg
HillH8 Stage 16 bf03.jpg HillH8 Stage 16 bf04.jpg
HillH8 Stage 16 bf05.jpg HillH8 Stage 16 bf06.jpg

Stereo pair animation: right lateral animation | right lateral animation | left lateral animation

Hill HH5
HillH5 Stage 16 bf01.jpg HillH5 Stage 16 bf02.jpg
HillH5 Stage 16 bf03.jpg HillH5 Stage 16 bf04.jpg
HillH5 Stage 16 bf05.jpg HillH5 Stage 16 bf06.jpg
HillH5 Stage 16 bf07.jpg HillH5 Stage 16 bf08.jpg
Links: Hill Collection

Hinrichsen Collection

ME34 001.jpg

Hinrichsen collection Human Embryo ME34 (stage16). Left lateral view of the embryo.

Image source: The Hinrichsen Collection images are reproduced with the permission of Prof. Beate Brand-Saberi, Head, Department of Anatomy and Molecular Embryology, Ruhr-Universität Bochum. Images are for educational purposes only and cannot be reproduced electronically or in writing without permission.


Other Collection Embryos

  • No. BR, 9.75 mm G. L., 8.8 mm. Summarized by Tandler (1907)[1], who, on the basis of the coital history, gave the age as the “38th day.” About stage 16.
  • 9-mm embryo. The peripheral nervous system was described by Masy (1955)[2] in this embryo of stage 16.
  • Huber No. 3, 10 mm. The nuclei of origin of the cranial nerves and the peripheral nervous system were described by Streeter (1908a,b).

[3][4] An advanced example of stage 16.

  • Wetzel (We) embryo, 10 mm. Discussed by v. Hayek (1934)[5] in regard to age, which, based on the coital history, was given as the “40th day.” Probably about stage 16.
  • Carnegie No. 6516, 10.5 mm (corrected). Double ureters described by Wharton (1949)[6].
  • No. H60, University of Missouri, 11 mm. Described briefly by Bonnot and Severs (1906).[7] Probably belongs to stage 16.

Events

  • Hearing - otic vesicle wall thickens prior to appearance of the semicircular ducts.[8] A utriculosaccular diverticulum and spiral ganglion appears. Auricular hillocks present (tragus, crus helicis, helix, and antitragus).
  • Vision - (37 days) Growth of the lens body results in a D-shaped lens cavity. Perilental blood vessels (tunica vasculosa lentis) are visible. Prior to the development of the eyelids, one small sulcus or groove forms above the eye (eyelid groove) and another below it.[9]
  • Cardiovascular
    • Coronary circulation plexus acquires coronary sinus connection.[10]
    • Cerebral artery development of the middle cerebral artery first identified as small buds originating proximal to the anterior cerebral artery on the anterior division of the primitive internal carotid artery.[11]
  • Endocrine[12]
    • Hypophysis - slight indication of the infundibular recess may be seen in some embryos (O'Rahilly 1973 a).
    • Epiphysis - cellular migration in an external direction occurs in the pineal body during stages 16 and 17 (Stadium 2 of Turkewitsch 1933) (O'Rahilly 1968).
    • Thymus - according to Norris (1938), "not until the primordium of the parathyroid [3] has been outlined can the remaining portion of the third pouch be recognized, by exclusion, as the primordium of the endodermal thymus".
    • Parathyroids - parathyrogenic zones are closely related to the third and fourth aortic arches at 9 mm (Politzer and Hann 1935, unstaged embryo). Parathyroid 3 is identifiable on the anterior wall of the third pharyngeal pouch (Weller 1933, Fig. 17) and "does not arise from a dorsal lobule" of the pouch (Norris 1937). The "sudden appearance of well-differentiated clear chief cells in the early primordia of the parathyroids" at 9 mm was emphasized by Norris (1937).
    • Thyroid - has lost its continuity with the pharynx and it consists of two lobes, an isthmus, and a remnant of the pedicle (Weller 1933).
    • Adrenal Cortex. Another type of cell (C3) arises from the coelomic epithelium. Both C1 and C3 cells enter the suprarenal primordium. An "enormous immigration" of C2 cells occurs.[13]
    • Adrenal Medulla - cells of neural origin are migrating into the gland, separating the cortical cells into islands. Nerve fibres from the ganglia ac- company the M1 and M3 cells. The M2 cells remain in the ganglia and become sympathetic ganglion cells.[13]
    • Pancreas - dorsal pancreas and the ventral pancreas are contiguous.[14]
  • Meninges (Spinal Cord) - vertebral rudiments stand out more and more distinctly from the intermediate zone. Over the dorsal surface of the spinal cord the closure membrane is separating into a peripheral and denser body-wall portion and a deeper and looser portion. The latter becomes part of the meninx primitiva, and this can be identified everywhere about the cord. The meninx primitiva has broadened, and its cells are more scattered than in the previous age group. It is deepest ventral to the neural tube and in the lateral parts between adjacent ganglia. The ganglia have migrated so that their ventral tips lie at the level of origin of the ventral nerve root. The vascular channels now surround the spinal ganglia, and small vessels penetrate into the spinal cord. A frontal section through the ganglia shows extensions of the dense lateral concentrations of the vertebral canal, passing medially between each two adjacent ganglia to become continuous with the meninx adjacent to the cord. These extensions are the first indications of the denticulate ligaments of the pia mater. These primordia of the dentate processes are also observed in transverse sections, forming a cellular concentration between the ventralateral part of the neural tube and the ventral part of the neural arch rudiments.[15]

References

  1. Tandler, J. 1907. Ueber einen menschlichen Embryo vom 38. Tage. Anat. Ariz., 31. 49-56.
  2. Masy, S. 1955. Le systeme nerveux peripherique cranien de l'embryon humain de 9 mm. J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol, 3, 30-43.
  3. Streeter GL. The peripheral nervous system in the human embryo at the end of the first month (10 mm) (1908) Amer. J Anat. 8(1): 285–302.
  4. Streeter GL. The nuclei of origin of the cranial nerves in the 10 mm human embryo. (1908) Amer. J Anat. 2:111 - 115.
  5. v. Hayek, H. 1934. Ein menschlicher Embryo vom 40. Tage. Anat. Anz., 78, 315-320.
  6. L R WHARTON Double ureters and associated renal anomalies in early human embryos. Contrib Embryol: 1949, 33(213-221);103-12 PubMed 18130385
  7. Bonnet E. and Severs R. On the structure of a human embryo eleven millimeters in length. (1906) Anat. Anz., 29: 452-459.
  8. Streeter GL. Developmental horizons in human embryos. Description of age groups xv, xvi, xvii, and xviii, being the third issue of a survey of the Carnegie collection. (1948) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. 575, Contrib. to Embryol. 32: 133-203.
  9. Pearson AA. The development of the eyelids. Part I. External features. (1980) J. Anat.: 130(1): 33-42. PMID 7364662 PDF
  10. G M Hutchins, A Kessler-Hanna, G W Moore Development of the coronary arteries in the embryonic human heart. Circulation: 1988, 77(6);1250-7 PubMed 3286038
  11. Khaled Menshawi, Jay P Mohr, Jose Gutierrez A Functional Perspective on the Embryology and Anatomy of the Cerebral Blood Supply. J Stroke: 2015, 17(2);144-58 PubMed 26060802 | J Stroke.
  12. O'Rahilly R. The timing and sequence of events in the development of the human endocrine system during the embryonic period proper. (1983) Anat. Embryol., 166: 439-451. PMID 6869855
  13. 13.0 13.1 Crowder RE. The development of the adrenal gland in man, with special reference to origin and ultimate location of cell types and evidence in favor of the "cell migration" theory. (1957) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. 36, 193-210.
  14. Blechschmidt E. Die prdnatalen Organsysteme des Menschen. (1973) Hippokrates, Stuttgart.
  15. Sensenig EC. The early development of the meninges of the spinal cord in human embryos. (1951) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 611,

Additional Images

Historic Images

Bonnet E. and Severs R. On the structure of a human embryo eleven millimeters in length. (1906) Anat. Anz., 29: 452-459.

Streeter GL. The peripheral nervous system in the human embryo at the end of the first month (10 mm) (1908) Amer. J Anat. 8(1): 285–302.

Congdon ED. Transformation of the aortic-arch system during the development of the human embryo. (1922) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ 277, 14:47-110.

Carnegie Stages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | About Stages | Timeline



Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Carnegie stage 16. Retrieved June 26, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Carnegie_stage_16

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© Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G