Abnormal Development - Teratogens
|Embryology - 29 Jun 2017 Expand to Translate|
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|Educational Use Only - Embryology is an educational resource for learning concepts in embryological development, no clinical information is provided and content should not be used for any other purpose.|
How and why do things go wrong in development? Embryological development is a robust biological system able to cope with many stresses without long-term consequences. When development does go wrong there are generally 3 major types groups: Genetic (inherited), Environmental (maternal) derived and Unknown (not determined or known) abnormalities. Also often not considered, is that pregnancy itself can also expose abnormalities in the mother (congenital heart disease, diabetes, reproductive disorders) that until the pregnancy had gone undetected.
- Infections collectively grouped under the acronym TORCH for Toxoplasmosis, Other organisms (parvovirus, HIV, Epstein-Barr, herpes 6 and 8, varicella, syphilis, enterovirus) , Rubella, Cytomegalovirus and Hepatitis. See also the related topics on maternal hyperthermia and bacterial infections.
- Maternal diet the best characterised is the role of low folic acid and Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) see also abnormal neural development and Neural Tube Defects (NTDs). More recently the focus has been on dietary iodine levels and the role they also play on neural development.
- Maternal drugs effects either prescription drugs (therapeutic chemicals/agents, thalidomide limb development), non-prescription drugs (smoking), and illegal drugs (Cannabis/Marijuana, Methamphetamine/Amphetamine, Cocaine, Heroin, Lysergic Acid Diethylamide). Some therapeutic compounds have teratogenic effects because they are also naturally occurring developmental signals, for example retinoic acid.
- Environment (smoking, chemicals, heavy metals, radiation) and maternal endocrine function (maternal diabetes, thyroid development) and maternal stress.
- Teratogen synergism, different environmental effects can act individually or in combination on the same developing system. For example, neural development can be impacted upon by alcohol (fetal alcohol syndrome), viral infection (rubella) and/or inadequate dietry folate intake (neural tube defects). These effects may also not be seen as a direct effect on a system or systems but result in a reduced birth weight and the potential postnatal developmental effects. Consider also this in relation to the increasing support to the fetal origins hypothesis.
Use the page links below to explore specific teratogens.
|Viral Links: TORCH Infections | Cytomegalovirus | Hepatitis Virus | HIV | Parvovirus | Polio Virus | Rubella Virus | Chickenpox | Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus | Zika Virus | Vaccination | Environmental|
|Bacterial Links: Syphilis | Gonorrhea | Tuberculosis | Listeria | TORCH Infections | Environmental | Category:Bacteria|
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Yanqiu Ou, Michael S Bloom, Zhiqiang Nie, Fengzhen Han, Jinzhuang Mai, Jimei Chen, Shao Lin, Xiaoqing Liu, Jian Zhuang Associations between toxic and essential trace elements in maternal blood and fetal congenital heart defects. Environ Int: 2017, 106;127-134 PubMed 28645012
Ewa Jakubowska-Dogru, Birsen Elibol, Ilknur Dursun, Sinan Yürüker Effects of prenatal binge-like ethanol exposure and maternal stress on postnatal morphological development of hippocampal neurons in rats. Int. J. Dev. Neurosci.: 2017; PubMed 28636875
You Jung Shin, June Seek Choi, Hyun Kyong Ahn, Hyun Mee Ryu, Moon Young Kim, Jung Yeol Han Pregnancy outcomes in women reporting ingestion of levosulpiride in early pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol: 2017;1-4 PubMed 28631490
Emily Hanzlik, Joseph Gigante Microcephaly. Children (Basel): 2017, 4(6); PubMed 28598357
Kyung-Taek Rim Reproductive Toxic Chemicals at Work and Efforts to Protect Workers' Health: A Literature Review. Saf Health Work: 2017, 8(2);143-150 PubMed 28593069
Critical Periods of Development
When studying this topic remember the concept of "critical periods of development" that will affect the overall impact of the above listed factors, as outlined in the table below. This can be extended to the potential differences between prenatal and postnatal effects, for example with infections and outcomes.
|Conceptus||Embryonic development (weeks)||Fetal period (weeks)|
|Loss||Major abnormalities||Functional and Minor abnormalities|
- Im Zomerdijk, R Ruiter, Lma Houweling, Rmc Herings, Smjm Straus, Bh Stricker Dispensing of potentially teratogenic drugs before conception and during pregnancy: a population-based study. BJOG: 2014; PubMed 25316196
- Yoav Mayshar, Ofra Yanuka, Nissim Benvenisty Teratogen screening using transcriptome profiling of differentiating human embryonic stem cells. J. Cell. Mol. Med.: 2011, 15(6);1393-401 PubMed 20561110
- Lim JH, Kim SH, Shin IS, Park NH, Moon C, Kang SS, Kim SH, Park SC, Kim JC. Maternal exposure to multi-wall carbon nanotubes does not induce embryo-fetal developmental toxicity in rats. Birth Defects Res (Part B) 92:69-76, 2011. PMID:21254368
- Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology
- Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology
- Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews
- A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols
Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Abnormal Development - Teratogens. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Teratogens
- © Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G