Abnormal Development - Environmental
|Embryology - 25 Apr 2018 Expand to Translate|
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|Educational Use Only - Embryology is an educational resource for learning concepts in embryological development, no clinical information is provided and content should not be used for any other purpose.|
Materal effects should really be called environmental (in contrast to genetic) removing the association of mother with the deleterious agent. Accepting this caveat, there are several maternal effects from lifestyle, environment and nutrition that can be prevented or decreased by change which is not an option for genetic effects.
Infections, collectively grouped under the acronym TORCH for Toxoplasmosis, Other organisms (parvovirus, HIV, Epstein-Barr, herpes 6 and 8, varicella, syphilis, enterovirus) , Rubella, Cytomegalovirus and Hepatitis. See related pages on maternal hyperthermia, viral and bacterial infections.
Maternal diet the best characterised is the role of low folic acid and Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) see also abnormal neural development and Neural Tube Defects and the sample environmental effects listed below.
Maternal drugs effects either prescription drugs (therapeutic chemicals/agents, thalidomide limb development), non-prescription drugs (alcohol, smoking, herbal drugs), and illegal drugs (Cannabis/Marijuana, Methamphetamine/Amphetamine, Cocaine, Heroin, Lysergic Acid Diethylamide)
Environment (smoking, chemical, heavy metals) and maternal endocrine function (maternal diabetes, thyroid development) and maternal stress.
Different environmental effects can act individually or in combination on the same developing system. For example, neural development can be impacted upon by alcohol (fetal alcohol syndrome), viral infection (rubella) and/or inadequate dietry folate intake (neural tube defects). These effects may also not be seen as a direct effect on a system or systems but result in a reduced birth weight and the potential postnatal developmental effects.
Finally, when studying this topic remember the concept of "critical periods" of development that will affect the overall impact of the above listed factors. This can be extended to the potential differences between prenatal and postnatal effects, for example with infections and outcomes.
This current page provides only a general overview of the topic, use the links below to get detailed information about specific environmental effects.
|Bacterial Links: Syphilis | Gonorrhea | Tuberculosis | Listeria | TORCH Infections | Environmental | Category:Bacteria|
|Abnormality Links: Introduction | Genetic | Environmental | Unknown | Teratogens | Ectopic Implantation | Cardiovascular | Coelomic Cavity | Endocrine | Gastrointestinal Tract | Genital | Head | Integumentary | Musculoskeletal | Limb | Neural | Neural Crest | Renal | Respiratory | Placenta | Sensory | Hearing | Vision | Twinning | Developmental Origins of Health and Disease | ICD-10|
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Jinping Gu, Chenyang Ji, Siqing Yue, Dan Shu, Feng Su, Yinjun Zhang, Yuanyuan Xie, Yi Zhang, Weiping Liu, Meirong Zhao Enantioselective Effects of Metalaxyl Enantiomers in Adolescent Rat Metabolic Profiles Using NMR-Based Metabolomics. Environ. Sci. Technol.: 2018; PubMed 29683314
Ghalib A Bello, Roberto G Lucchini, Susan L Teitelbaum, Moshe Shapiro, Michael A Crane, Andrew C Todd Development of a Physiological Frailty Index for the World Trade Center General Responder Cohort. Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res: 2018, 2018;3725926 PubMed 29681931
Luca Carnevali, Julian Koenig, Andrea Sgoifo, Cristina Ottaviani Autonomic and Brain Morphological Predictors of Stress Resilience. Front Neurosci: 2018, 12;228 PubMed 29681793
Wei Gao, Karen Grewen, Rebecca C Knickmeyer, Anqi Qiu, Andrew Salzwedel, Weili Lin, John H Gilmore A review on neuroimaging studies of genetic and environmental influences on early brain development. Neuroimage: 2018; PubMed 29673965
Carlos Manuel Zapata-Martín Del Campo, Martín Martínez-Rosas, Verónica Guarner-Lans Epigenetic Programming of Synthesis, Release, and/or Receptor Expression of Common Mediators Participating in the Risk/Resilience for Comorbid Stress-Related Disorders and Coronary Artery Disease. Int J Mol Sci: 2018, 19(4); PubMed 29670001
The table below identifies approximate windows of time, "critical periods", that following exposure to teratogens can lead to developmental abnormalities (anomalies, congenital). In general, the effects for each system are more severe (major anomalies) in the embryonic period during organogenesis in the first trimester. Later teratogen exposure are less severe (minor anomalies) in the fetal period during continued growth and differentiation in the second and third trimester.
|Conceptus||Embryonic development (weeks)||Fetal period (weeks)|
|Loss||Major abnormalities||Functional and Minor abnormalities|
The potential of a pesticide or biocide to cause adverse effects in the developing embryo or fetus is an important consideration in any health risk assessment for humans and wildlife.
Report of the 8th Berlin Workshop on Developmental Toxicity held in May 2014.
- "The main aim of the workshop was the continuing harmonization of terminology and innovations for methodologies used in the assessment of embryo- and feto-toxic findings. The following main topics were discussed: harmonized categorization of external, skeletal, visceral and materno-fetal findings into malformations, variations and grey zone anomalies, aspects of developmental anomalies in humans and laboratory animals, and innovations for new methodologies in developmental toxicology. The application of Version 2 terminology in the DevTox database was considered as a useful improvement in the categorization of developmental anomalies."
- Links: DevTox
There is an increasing number of women travelling during pregnancy that may carry some additional environmental risks. The following information is summarised from a recent BMJ article.
- second trimester of pregnancy is considered the safest in which to travel
- air travel may carry risk of miscarriage, preterm birth, and thromboembolism
- obstetric and neonatal care facilities at destinations is varied
- obtain adequate insurance and check with their airline for restrictions on travel
- communicable diseases acquired abroad may increase risks of perinatal morbidity
- Wander PL, Hochner H, Sitlani CM, Enquobahrie DA, Lumley T, Lawrence GM, Burger A, Savitsky B, Manor O, Meiner V, Hesselson S, Kwok PY, Siscovick DS & Friedlander Y. (2014). Maternal genetic variation accounts in part for the associations of maternal size during pregnancy with offspring cardiometabolic risk in adulthood. PLoS ONE , 9, e91835. PMID: 24670385 DOI.
- Palmer KT, Bonzini M & Bonde JP. (2013). Pregnancy: occupational aspects of management: concise guidance. Clin Med (Lond) , 13, 75-9. PMID: 23472500
- Gianicolo EA, Bruni A, Rosati E, Sabina S, Guarino R, Padolecchia G, Leo C, Vigotti MA, Andreassi MG & Latini G. (2012). Congenital anomalies among live births in a polluted area. A ten-year retrospective study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth , 12, 165. PMID: 23270371 DOI.
- Alexander PG & Tuan RS. (2010). Role of environmental factors in axial skeletal dysmorphogenesis. Birth Defects Res. C Embryo Today , 90, 118-32. PMID: 20544699 DOI.
- Zeller R. (2010). The temporal dynamics of vertebrate limb development, teratogenesis and evolution. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. , 20, 384-90. PMID: 20537528 DOI.
- West PR, Weir AM, Smith AM, Donley EL & Cezar GG. (2010). Predicting human developmental toxicity of pharmaceuticals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. , 247, 18-27. PMID: 20493898 DOI.
- Solecki R, Rauch M, Gall A, Buschmann J, Clark R, Fuchs A, Kan H, Heinrich V, Kellner R, Knudsen TB, Li W, Makris SL, Ooshima Y, Paumgartten F, Piersma AH, Schönfelder G, Oelgeschläger M, Schaefer C, Shiota K, Ulbrich B, Ding X & Chahoud I. (2015). Continuing harmonization of terminology and innovations for methodologies in developmental toxicology: Report of the 8th Berlin Workshop on Developmental Toxicity, 14-16 May 2014. Reprod. Toxicol. , 57, 140-6. PMID: 26073002 DOI.
- Hezelgrave, NL, Whitty, CJM, Shennan, AH, and Chappell, LC. Advising on travel during pregnancy BMJ 2011; 342:d2506 doi: 10.1136/bmj.d2506 (Published 28 April 2011) BMJ
- Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) is a monthly journal of peer-reviewed research and news on the impact of the environment on human health. EHP | Pubmed EHP
June 2010 "teratogens" All (25401) Review (3026) Free Full Text (3991) "TORCH Infections" All (183) Review (37) Free Full Text (18)
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.
- REPROTOX - contains summaries on the effects of medications, chemicals, infections, and physical agents on pregnancy, reproduction, and development.
- Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols
Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, April 25) Embryology Abnormal Development - Environmental. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Environmental
- © Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G