Abnormal Development - Environmental
|Embryology - 21 Oct 2017 Expand to Translate|
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|Educational Use Only - Embryology is an educational resource for learning concepts in embryological development, no clinical information is provided and content should not be used for any other purpose.|
Materal effects should really be called environmental (in contrast to genetic) removing the association of mother with the deleterious agent. Accepting this caveat, there are several maternal effects from lifestyle, environment and nutrition that can be prevented or decreased by change which is not an option for genetic effects.
Infections, collectively grouped under the acronym TORCH for Toxoplasmosis, Other organisms (parvovirus, HIV, Epstein-Barr, herpes 6 and 8, varicella, syphilis, enterovirus) , Rubella, Cytomegalovirus and Hepatitis. See related pages on maternal hyperthermia, viral and bacterial infections.
Maternal diet the best characterised is the role of low folic acid and Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) see also abnormal neural development and Neural Tube Defects and the sample environmental effects listed below.
Maternal drugs effects either prescription drugs (therapeutic chemicals/agents, thalidomide limb development), non-prescription drugs (alcohol, smoking, herbal drugs), and illegal drugs (Cannabis/Marijuana, Methamphetamine/Amphetamine, Cocaine, Heroin, Lysergic Acid Diethylamide)
Environment (smoking, chemical, heavy metals) and maternal endocrine function (maternal diabetes, thyroid development) and maternal stress.
Different environmental effects can act individually or in combination on the same developing system. For example, neural development can be impacted upon by alcohol (fetal alcohol syndrome), viral infection (rubella) and/or inadequate dietry folate intake (neural tube defects). These effects may also not be seen as a direct effect on a system or systems but result in a reduced birth weight and the potential postnatal developmental effects.
Finally, when studying this topic remember the concept of "critical periods" of development that will affect the overall impact of the above listed factors. This can be extended to the potential differences between prenatal and postnatal effects, for example with infections and outcomes.
This current page provides only a general overview of the topic, use the links below to get detailed information about specific environmental effects.
|Environmental Links: Introduction | Low Folic Acid | Iodine Deficiency | Nutrition | Drugs | Australian Drug Categories | USA Drug Categories | Thalidomide | Herbal Drugs | Illegal Drugs | Smoking | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | TORCH Infections | Viral Infection | Bacterial Infection | Zoonotic Infection | Toxoplasmosis | Malaria | Maternal Diabetes | Maternal Hypertension | Maternal Hyperthermia | Maternal Inflammation | Maternal Obesity | Hypoxia | Biological Toxins | Chemicals | Heavy Metals | Radiation | Prenatal Diagnosis | Neonatal Diagnosis | International Classification of Diseases | Fetal Origins Hypothesis|
|Bacterial Links: Syphilis | Gonorrhea | Tuberculosis | Listeria | TORCH Infections | Environmental | Category:Bacteria|
|Viral Links: TORCH Infections | Cytomegalovirus | Hepatitis Virus | HIV | Parvovirus | Polio Virus | Rubella Virus | Chickenpox | Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus | Zika Virus | Vaccination | Environmental|
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Hideyuki Honta, Takuya Inamura, Teruko Konishi, Shinobu Satoh, Hiroaki Iwai UDP-arabinopyranose mutase gene expressions are required for the biosynthesis of the arabinose side chain of both pectin and arabinoxyloglucan, and normal leaf expansion in Nicotiana tabacum. J. Plant Res.: 2017; PubMed 29052022
Fernando D Martinez, Stefano Guerra Early Origins of Asthma: Role of Microbial Dysbiosis and Metabolic Dysfunction. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.: 2017; PubMed 29048927
Jana Vitku, Lucie Kolatorova, Richard Hampl Occurrence and reproductive roles of hormones in seminal plasma. Basic Clin Androl: 2017, 27;19 PubMed 29046808
Jia Wang, Jianhua Gong, Li Li, Yanlin Chen, Lingfei Liu, HuaiTing Gu, Xiu Luo, Fang Hou, Jiajia Zhang, Ranran Song Neurexin gene family variants as risk factors for autism spectrum disorder. Autism Res: 2017; PubMed 29045040
F J Murcia Pascual, L Delgado Cotán, V Jiménez Crespo, F Vázquez Rueda, E Rodríguez Cano, M Miño Mora, R M Paredes Esteban [Correlation between prenatal ultrasound and postnatal diagnosis of birth defects]. [Correlación entre la ecografía prenatal y el diagnóstico postnatal de las malformaciones congénitas.] Cir Pediatr: 2017, 30(3);126-130 PubMed 29043688
The table below identifies approximate windows of time, "critical periods", that following exposure to teratogens can lead to developmental abnormalities (anomalies, congenital). In general, the effects for each system are more severe (major anomalies) in the embryonic period during organogenesis in the first trimester. Later teratogen exposure are less severe (minor anomalies) in the fetal period during continued growth and differentiation in the second and third trimester.
|Conceptus||Embryonic development (weeks)||Fetal period (weeks)|
|Loss||Major abnormalities||Functional and Minor abnormalities|
The potential of a pesticide or biocide to cause adverse effects in the developing embryo or fetus is an important consideration in any health risk assessment for humans and wildlife.
Report of the 8th Berlin Workshop on Developmental Toxicity held in May 2014.
- "The main aim of the workshop was the continuing harmonization of terminology and innovations for methodologies used in the assessment of embryo- and fetotoxic findings. The following main topics were discussed: harmonized categorization of external, skeletal, visceral and materno-fetal findings into malformations, variations and grey zone anomalies, aspects of developmental anomalies in humans and laboratory animals, and innovations for new methodologies in developmental toxicology. The application of Version 2 terminology in the DevTox database was considered as a useful improvement in the categorization of developmental anomalies."
- Links: DevTox
There is an increasing number of women travelling during pregnancy that may carry some additional environmental risks. The following information is summarised from a recent BMJ article.
- second trimester of pregnancy is considered the safest in which to travel
- air travel may carry risk of miscarriage, preterm birth, and thromboembolism
- obstetric and neonatal care facilities at destinations is varied
- obtain adequate insurance and check with their airline for restrictions on travel
- communicable diseases acquired abroad may increase risks of perinatal morbidity
- Pandora L Wander, Hagit Hochner, Colleen M Sitlani, Daniel A Enquobahrie, Thomas Lumley, Gabriela M Lawrence, Ayala Burger, Bella Savitsky, Orly Manor, Vardiella Meiner, Stephanie Hesselson, Pui Y Kwok, David S Siscovick, Yechiel Friedlander Maternal genetic variation accounts in part for the associations of maternal size during pregnancy with offspring cardiometabolic risk in adulthood. PLoS ONE: 2014, 9(3);e91835 PubMed 24670385
- Keith T Palmer, Matteo Bonzini, Jens-Peter Ellekilde Bonde, Multidisciplinary Guideline Development Group, Health and Work Development Unit,, Royal College of Physicians, Faculty of Occupational Medicine Pregnancy: occupational aspects of management: concise guidance. Clin Med: 2013, 13(1);75-9 PubMed 23472500
- Emilio Antonio Luca Gianicolo, Antonella Bruni, Enrico Rosati, Saverio Sabina, Roberto Guarino, Gabriella Padolecchia, Carlo Leo, Maria Angela Vigotti, Maria Grazia Andreassi, Giuseppe Latini Congenital anomalies among live births in a polluted area. A ten-year retrospective study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth: 2012, 12;165 PubMed 23270371
- Peter G Alexander, Rocky S Tuan Role of environmental factors in axial skeletal dysmorphogenesis. Birth Defects Res. C Embryo Today: 2010, 90(2);118-32 PubMed 20544699
- Rolf Zeller The temporal dynamics of vertebrate limb development, teratogenesis and evolution. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev.: 2010, 20(4);384-90 PubMed 20537528
- Paul R West, April M Weir, Alan M Smith, Elizabeth L R Donley, Gabriela G Cezar Predicting human developmental toxicity of pharmaceuticals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.: 2010, 247(1);18-27 PubMed 20493898
- Roland Solecki, Martina Rauch, Andrea Gall, Jochen Buschmann, Ruth Clark, Antje Fuchs, Haidong Kan, Verena Heinrich, Rupert Kellner, Thomas B Knudsen, Weihua Li, Susan L Makris, Yojiro Ooshima, Francisco Paumgartten, Aldert H Piersma, Gilbert Schönfelder, Michael Oelgeschläger, Christof Schaefer, Kohei Shiota, Beate Ulbrich, Xuncheng Ding, Ibrahim Chahoud Continuing harmonization of terminology and innovations for methodologies in developmental toxicology: Report of the 8th Berlin Workshop on Developmental Toxicity, 14-16 May 2014. Reprod. Toxicol.: 2015, 57;140-6 PubMed 26073002
- Hezelgrave, NL, Whitty, CJM, Shennan, AH, and Chappell, LC. Advising on travel during pregnancy BMJ 2011; 342:d2506 doi: 10.1136/bmj.d2506 (Published 28 April 2011) BMJ
- Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) is a monthly journal of peer-reviewed research and news on the impact of the environment on human health. EHP | Pubmed EHP
June 2010 "teratogens" All (25401) Review (3026) Free Full Text (3991) "TORCH Infections" All (183) Review (37) Free Full Text (18)
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Abnormal Development - Environmental. Retrieved October 21, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Environmental
- © Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G