Respiratory System Development

From Embryology
Jump to: navigation, search
Embryology - 7 Feb 2016 Facebook linkTwitter linkPinterest link Translate 

Arabic | Chinese (simplified) | French | German | Hebrew | Hindi | Indonesian | Italian | Japanese | Korean | Portuguese | Romanian | Russian | Spanish | Yiddish
These external translations are automated and may not be accurate.

Introduction

Respiratory system overview (stage 13)

The respiratory system does not carry out its physiological function (of gas exchange) until after birth. The respiratory tract, diaphragm and lungs do form early in embryonic development. The respiratory tract is divided anatomically into 2 main parts:

  1. upper respiratory tract, consisting of the nose, nasal cavity and the pharynx
  2. lower respiratory tract consisting of the larynx, trachea, bronchi and the lungs.


In the head/neck region, the pharynx forms a major arched cavity within the phrayngeal arches. The lungs go through 4 distinct histological phases of development and in late fetal development thyroid hormone, respiratory motions and amniotic fliud are thought to have a role in lung maturation. The two main respiratory cell types, squamous alveolar type 1 and alveolar type 2 (surfactant secreting), both arise from the same bi-potetial progenitor cell.[1] The third main cell type are macrophages (dust cells) that arise from blood monocyte cells.


Development of this system is not completed until the last weeks of Fetal development, just before birth. Therefore premature babies have difficulties associated with insufficient surfactant (end month 6 alveolar cells type 2 appear and begin to secrete surfactant).


Respiratory Links: Introduction | Science Lecture | Med Lecture | Stage 13 | Stage 22 | Upper Respiratory Tract | Diaphragm | Histology | Postnatal | Abnormalities | Respiratory Quiz | Category:Respiratory
Historic Embryology
1902 The Nasal Cavities and Olfactory Structures | 1912 Upper Respiratory Tract | 1912 Respiratory | 1914 Phrenic Nerve | 1918 Respiratory images | 1921 Respiratory | 1922 Chick Pulmonary Vessels
Respiratory epithelium cell development.[2]

Some Recent Findings

  • Clonal Dynamics Reveal Two Distinct Populations of Basal Cells in Slow-Turnover Airway Epithelium[2] "We investigated the mouse tracheal epithelial lineage at homeostasis by using long-term clonal analysis and mathematical modeling. This pseudostratified epithelium contains basal cells and secretory and multiciliated luminal cells. Our analysis revealed that basal cells are heterogeneous, comprising approximately equal numbers of multipotent stem cells and committed precursors, which persist in the basal layer for 11 days before differentiating to luminal fate. We confirmed the molecular and functional differences within the basal population by using single-cell qRT-PCR and further lineage labeling. Additionally, we show that self-renewal of short-lived secretory cells is a feature of homeostasis. We have thus revealed early luminal commitment of cells that are morphologically indistinguishable from stem cells."
  • Notch3-Jagged signaling controls the pool of undifferentiated airway progenitors[3] "Basal cells are multipotent airway progenitors that generate distinct epithelial cell phenotypes crucial for homeostasis and repair of the conducting airways. Little is known about how these progenitor cells expand and transition to differentiation to form the pseudostratified airway epithelium in the developing and adult lung. Here, we show by genetic and pharmacological approaches that endogenous activation of Notch3 signaling selectively controls the pool of undifferentiated progenitors of upper airways available for differentiation. This mechanism depends on the availability of Jag1 and Jag2, and is key to generating a population of parabasal cells that later activates Notch1 and Notch2 for secretory-multiciliated cell fate selection." Notch
  • Alveolar progenitor and stem cells in lung development[1] "Alveoli are gas-exchange sacs lined by squamous alveolar type (AT) 1 cells and cuboidal, surfactant-secreting AT2 cells. Classical studies suggested that AT1 arise from AT2 cells, but recent studies propose other sources. Here we use molecular markers, lineage tracing and clonal analysis to map alveolar progenitors throughout the mouse lifespan. We show that, during development, AT1 and AT2 cells arise directly from a bipotent progenitor, whereas after birth new AT1 cells derive from rare, self-renewing, long-lived, mature AT2 cells that produce slowly expanding clonal foci of alveolar renewal."
  • Lung epithelial branching program antagonizes alveolar differentiation[4] "Mammalian organs, including the lung and kidney, often adopt a branched structure to achieve high efficiency and capacity of their physiological functions. Formation of a functional lung requires two developmental processes: branching morphogenesis, which builds a tree-like tubular network, and alveolar differentiation, which generates specialized epithelial cells for gas exchange. ...We thus propose that lung epithelial progenitors continuously balance between branching morphogenesis and alveolar differentiation, and such a balance is mediated by dual-function regulators, including Kras and Sox9. The resulting temporal delay of differentiation by the branching program may provide new insights to lung immaturity in preterm neonates and the increase in organ complexity during evolution."
  • Suppression of embryonic lung branching morphogenesis[5] "The role of HOM/C homeobox genes on rat embryonic lung branching morphogenesis was investigated using the lung bud explant culture system in an air/liquid interface. ...These results suggest a critical role for homeobox b3 and b4 genes in lung airway branching morphogenesis."
  • Retinoic acid-dependent network in the foregut controls formation of the mouse lung primordium[6] "The developmental abnormalities associated with disruption of signaling by retinoic acid (RA), the biologically active form of vitamin A, have been known for decades from studies in animal models and humans. These include defects in the respiratory system, such as lung hypoplasia and agenesis. ....The data in this study suggest that disruption of Wnt/Tgfbeta/Fgf10 interactions represents the molecular basis for the classically reported failure to form lung buds in vitamin A deficiency."

Clinical

  • Lung Function and Respiratory Symptoms at 11 Years in Extremely Preterm Children[7] "Following extremely preterm birth, impaired lung function and increased respiratory morbidity persist into middle childhood, especially those with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Many of these children may not be receiving appropriate treatment."
  • Pediatric lung transplantation.[8] "Lung transplantation is an accepted therapy for selected pediatric patients with severe end-stage vascular or parenchymal lung disease. Collaboration between the patients' primary care physicians, the lung transplant team, patients, and patients' families is essential. The challenges of this treatment include the limited availability of suitable donor organs, the toxicity of immunosuppressive medications needed to prevent rejection, the prevention and treatment of obliterative bronchiolitis, and maximizing growth, development, and quality of life of the recipients. This article describes the current status of pediatric lung transplantation, indications for listing, evaluation of recipient and donor, updates on the operative procedure,graft dysfunction, and the risk factors, outcomes, and future directions."
More recent papers
Mark Hill.jpg
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches


Search term: Lung Embryology

V A Ferretti, A Segal-Eiras, C G Barbeito, M V Croce Temporal and spatial expression of Muc2 and Muc5ac mucins during rat respiratory and digestive tracts development. Res. Vet. Sci.: 2016, 104;136-45 PubMed 26850552

Piotr Dziegiel, Bartosz Pula, Christopher Kobierzycki, Mariusz Stasiolek, Marzenna Podhorska-Okolow The Role of Metallothioneins in Carcinogenesis. Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol: 2016, 218;29-63 PubMed 26847566

Daniel J Klionsky, Kotb Abdelmohsen, Akihisa Abe, Md Joynal Abedin, Hagai Abeliovich, Abraham Acevedo Arozena, Hiroaki Adachi, Christopher M Adams, Peter D Adams, Khosrow Adeli, Peter J Adhihetty, Sharon G Adler, Galila Agam, Rajesh Agarwal, Manish K Aghi, Maria Agnello, Patrizia Agostinis, Patricia V Aguilar, Julio Aguirre-Ghiso, Edoardo M Airoldi, Slimane Ait-Si-Ali, Takahiko Akematsu, Emmanuel T Akporiaye, Mohamed Al-Rubeai, Guillermo M Albaiceta, Chris Albanese, Diego Albani, Matthew L Albert, Jesus Aldudo, Hana Algül, Mehrdad Alirezaei, Iraide Alloza, Alexandru Almasan, Maylin Almonte-Beceril, Emad S Alnemri, Covadonga Alonso, Nihal Altan-Bonnet, Dario C Altieri, Silvia Alvarez, Lydia Alvarez-Erviti, Sandro Alves, Giuseppina Amadoro, Atsuo Amano, Consuelo Amantini, Santiago Ambrosio, Ivano Amelio, Amal O Amer, Mohamed Amessou, Angelika Amon, Zhenyi An, Frank A Anania, Stig U Andersen, Usha P Andley, Catherine K Andreadi, Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie, Alberto Anel, David K Ann, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Manuela Antonioli, Hiroshi Aoki, Nadezda Apostolova, Saveria Aquila, Katia Aquilano, Koichi Araki, Eli Arama, Agustin Aranda, Jun Araya, Alexandre Arcaro, Esperanza Arias, Hirokazu Arimoto, Aileen R Ariosa, Jane L Armstrong, Thierry Arnould, Ivica Arsov, Katsuhiko Asanuma, Valerie Askanas, Eric Asselin, Ryuichiro Atarashi, Sally S Atherton, Julie D Atkin, Laura D Attardi, Patrick Auberger, Georg Auburger, Laure Aurelian, Riccardo Autelli, Laura Avagliano, Maria Laura Avantaggiati, Limor Avrahami, Suresh Awale, Neelam Azad, Tiziana Bachetti, Jonathan M Backer, Dong-Hun Bae, Jae-Sung Bae, Ok-Nam Bae, Soo Han Bae, Eric H Baehrecke, Seung-Hoon Baek, Stephen Baghdiguian, Agnieszka Bagniewska-Zadworna, Hua Bai, Jie Bai, Xue-Yuan Bai, Yannick Bailly, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy Balaji, Walter Balduini, Andrea Ballabio, Rena Balzan, Rajkumar Banerjee, Gábor Bánhegyi, Haijun Bao, Benoit Barbeau, Maria D Barrachina, Esther Barreiro, Bonnie Bartel, Alberto Bartolomé, Diane C Bassham, Maria Teresa Bassi, Robert C Bast, Alakananda Basu, Maria Teresa Batista, Henri Batoko, Maurizio Battino, Kyle Bauckman, Bradley L Baumgarner, K Ulrich Bayer, Rupert Beale, Jean-François Beaulieu, George R Beck, Christoph Becker, J David Beckham, Pierre-André Bédard, Patrick J Bednarski, Thomas J Begley, Christian Behl, Christian Behrends, Georg Mn Behrens, Kevin E Behrns, Eloy Bejarano, Amine Belaid, Francesca Belleudi, Giovanni Bénard, Guy Berchem, Daniele Bergamaschi, Matteo Bergami, Ben Berkhout, Laura Berliocchi, Amélie Bernard, Monique Bernard, Francesca Bernassola, Anne Bertolotti, Amanda S Bess, Sébastien Besteiro, Saverio Bettuzzi, Savita Bhalla, Shalmoli Bhattacharyya, Sujit K Bhutia, Caroline Biagosch, Michele Wolfe Bianchi, Martine Biard-Piechaczyk, Viktor Billes, Claudia Bincoletto, Baris Bingol, Sara W Bird, Marc Bitoun, Ivana Bjedov, Craig Blackstone, Lionel Blanc, Guillermo A Blanco, Heidi Kiil Blomhoff, Emilio Boada-Romero, Stefan Böckler, Marianne Boes, Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia, Lawrence H Boise, Alessandra Bolino, Andrea Boman, Paolo Bonaldo, Matteo Bordi, Jürgen Bosch, Luis M Botana, Joelle Botti, German Bou, Marina Bouché, Marion Bouchecareilh, Marie-Josée Boucher, Michael E Boulton, Sebastien G Bouret, Patricia Boya, Michaël Boyer-Guittaut, Peter V Bozhkov, Nathan Brady, Vania Mm Braga, Claudio Brancolini, Gerhard H Braus, José M Bravo-San Pedro, Lisa A Brennan, Emery H Bresnick, Patrick Brest, Dave Bridges, Marie-Agnès Bringer, Marisa Brini, Glauber C Brito, Bertha Brodin, Paul S Brookes, Eric J Brown, Karen Brown, Hal E Broxmeyer, Alain Bruhat, Patricia Chakur Brum, John H Brumell, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri, Robert J Bryson-Richardson, Shilpa Buch, Alastair M Buchan, Hikmet Budak, Dmitry V Bulavin, Scott J Bultman, Geert Bultynck, Vladimir Bumbasirevic, Yan Burelle, Robert E Burke, Margit Burmeister, Peter Bütikofer, Laura Caberlotto, Ken Cadwell, Monika Cahova, Dongsheng Cai, Jingjing Cai, Qian Cai, Sara Calatayud, Nadine Camougrand, Michelangelo Campanella, Grant R Campbell, Matthew Campbell, Silvia Campello, Robin Candau, Isabella Caniggia, Lavinia Cantoni, Lizhi Cao, Allan B Caplan, Michele Caraglia, Claudio Cardinali, Sandra Morais Cardoso, Jennifer S Carew, Laura A Carleton, Cathleen R Carlin, Silvia Carloni, Sven R Carlsson, Didac Carmona-Gutierrez, Leticia Am Carneiro, Oliana Carnevali, Serena Carra, Alice Carrier, Bernadette Carroll, Caty Casas, Josefina Casas, Giuliana Cassinelli, Perrine Castets, Susana Castro-Obregon, Gabriella Cavallini, Isabella Ceccherini, Francesco Cecconi, Arthur I Cederbaum, Valentín Ceña, Simone Cenci, Claudia Cerella, Davide Cervia, Silvia Cetrullo, Hassan Chaachouay, Han-Jung Chae, Andrei S Chagin, Chee-Yin Chai, Gopal Chakrabarti, Georgios Chamilos, Edmond Yw Chan, Matthew Tv Chan, Dhyan Chandra, Pallavi Chandra, Chih-Peng Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Ta Yuan Chang, John C Chatham, Saurabh Chatterjee, Santosh Chauhan, Yongsheng Che, Michael E Cheetham, Rajkumar Cheluvappa, Chun-Jung Chen, Gang Chen, Guang-Chao Chen, Guoqiang Chen, Hongzhuan Chen, Jeff W Chen, Jian-Kang Chen, Min Chen, Mingzhou Chen, Peiwen Chen, Qi Chen, Quan Chen, Shang-Der Chen, Si Chen, Steve S-L Chen, Wei Chen, Wei-Jung Chen, Wen Qiang Chen, Wenli Chen, Xiangmei Chen, Yau-Hung Chen, Ye-Guang Chen, Yin Chen, Yingyu Chen, Yongshun Chen, Yu-Jen Chen, Yue-Qin Chen, Yujie Chen, Zhen Chen, Zhong Chen, Alan Cheng, Christopher Hk Cheng, Hua Cheng, Heesun Cheong, Sara Cherry, Jason Chesney, Chun Hei Antonio Cheung, Eric Chevet, Hsiang Cheng Chi, Sung-Gil Chi, Fulvio Chiacchiera, Hui-Ling Chiang, Roberto Chiarelli, Mario Chiariello, Marcello Chieppa, Lih-Shen Chin, Mario Chiong, Gigi Nc Chiu, Dong-Hyung Cho, Ssang-Goo Cho, William C Cho, Yong-Yeon Cho, Young-Seok Cho, Augustine Mk Choi, Eui-Ju Choi, Eun-Kyoung Choi, Jayoung Choi, Mary E Choi, Seung-Il Choi, Tsui-Fen Chou, Salem Chouaib, Divaker Choubey, Vinay Choubey, Kuan-Chih Chow, Kamal Chowdhury, Charleen T Chu, Tsung-Hsien Chuang, Taehoon Chun, Hyewon Chung, Taijoon Chung, Yuen-Li Chung, Yong-Joon Chwae, Valentina Cianfanelli, Roberto Ciarcia, Iwona A Ciechomska, Maria Rosa Ciriolo, Mara Cirone, Sofie Claerhout, Michael J Clague, Joan Clària, Peter Gh Clarke, Robert Clarke, Emilio Clementi, Cédric Cleyrat, Miriam Cnop, Eliana M Coccia, Tiziana Cocco, Patrice Codogno, Jörn Coers, Ezra Ew Cohen, David Colecchia, Luisa Coletto, Núria S Coll, Emma Colucci-Guyon, Sergio Comincini, Maria Condello, Katherine L Cook, Graham H Coombs, Cynthia D Cooper, J Mark Cooper, Isabelle Coppens, Maria Tiziana Corasaniti, Marco Corazzari, Ramon Corbalan, Elisabeth Corcelle-Termeau, Mario D Cordero, Cristina Corral-Ramos, Olga Corti, Andrea Cossarizza, Paola Costelli, Safia Costes, Susan L Cotman, Ana Coto-Montes, Sandra Cottet, Eduardo Couve, Lori R Covey, L Ashley Cowart, Jeffery S Cox, Fraser P Coxon, Carolyn B Coyne, Mark S Cragg, Rolf J Craven, Tiziana Crepaldi, Jose L Crespo, Alfredo Criollo, Valeria Crippa, Maria Teresa Cruz, Ana Maria Cuervo, Jose M Cuezva, Taixing Cui, Pedro R Cutillas, Mark J Czaja, Maria F Czyzyk-Krzeska, Ruben K Dagda, Uta Dahmen, Chunsun Dai, Wenjie Dai, Yun Dai, Kevin N Dalby, Luisa Dalla Valle, Guillaume Dalmasso, Marcello D'Amelio, Markus Damme, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud, Catherine Dargemont, Victor M Darley-Usmar, Srinivasan Dasarathy, Biplab Dasgupta, Srikanta Dash, Crispin R Dass, Hazel Marie Davey, Lester M Davids, David Dávila, Roger J Davis, Ted M Dawson, Valina L Dawson, Paula Daza, Jackie de Belleroche, Paul de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz de Figueiredo, José de la Fuente, Luisa De Martino, Antonella De Matteis, Guido Ry De Meyer, Angelo De Milito, Mauro De Santi, Wanderley de Souza, Vincenzo De Tata, Daniela De Zio, Jayanta Debnath, Reinhard Dechant, Jean-Paul Decuypere, Shane Deegan, Benjamin Dehay, Barbara Del Bello, Dominic P Del Re, Régis Delage-Mourroux, Lea Md Delbridge, Louise Deldicque, Elizabeth Delorme-Axford, Yizhen Deng, Joern Dengjel, Melanie Denizot, Paul Dent, Channing J Der, Vojo Deretic, Benoît Derrien, Eric Deutsch, Timothy P Devarenne, Rodney J Devenish, Sabrina Di Bartolomeo, Nicola Di Daniele, Fabio Di Domenico, Alessia Di Nardo, Simone Di Paola, Antonio Di Pietro, Livia Di Renzo, Aaron DiAntonio, Guillermo Díaz-Araya, Ines Díaz-Laviada, Maria T Diaz-Meco, Javier Diaz-Nido, Chad A Dickey, Robert C Dickson, Marc Diederich, Paul Digard, Ivan Dikic, Savithrama P Dinesh-Kumar, Chan Ding, Wen-Xing Ding, Zufeng Ding, Luciana Dini, Jörg Hw Distler, Abhinav Diwan, Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny, Kostyantyn Dmytruk, Renwick Cj Dobson, Volker Doetsch, Karol Dokladny, Svetlana Dokudovskaya, Massimo Donadelli, X Charlie Dong, Xiaonan Dong, Zheng Dong, Terrence M Donohue, Kelly S Doran, Gabriella D'Orazi, Gerald W Dorn, Victor Dosenko, Sami Dridi, Liat Drucker, Jie Du, Li-Lin Du, Lihuan Du, André du Toit, Priyamvada Dua, Lei Duan, Pu Duann, Vikash Kumar Dubey, Michael R Duchen, Michel A Duchosal, Helene Duez, Isabelle Dugail, Verónica I Dumit, Mara C Duncan, Elaine A Dunlop, William A Dunn, Nicolas Dupont, Luc Dupuis, Raúl V Durán, Thomas M Durcan, Stéphane Duvezin-Caubet, Umamaheswar Duvvuri, Vinay Eapen, Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Arnaud Echard, Leopold Eckhart, Charles L Edelstein, Aimee L Edinger, Ludwig Eichinger, Tobias Eisenberg, Avital Eisenberg-Lerner, N Tony Eissa, Wafik S El-Deiry, Victoria El-Khoury, Zvulun Elazar, Hagit Eldar-Finkelman, Chris Jh Elliott, Enzo Emanuele, Urban Emmenegger, Nikolai Engedal, Anna-Mart Engelbrecht, Simone Engelender, Jorrit M Enserink, Ralf Erdmann, Jekaterina Erenpreisa, Rajaraman Eri, Jason L Eriksen, Andreja Erman, Ricardo Escalante, Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen, Lucile Espert, Lorena Esteban-Martínez, Thomas J Evans, Mario Fabri, Gemma Fabrias, Cinzia Fabrizi, Antonio Facchiano, Nils J Færgeman, Alberto Faggioni, W Douglas Fairlie, Chunhai Fan, Daping Fan, Jie Fan, Shengyun Fang, Manolis Fanto, Alessandro Fanzani, Thomas Farkas, Mathias Faure, Francois B Favier, Howard Fearnhead, Massimo Federici, Erkang Fei, Tania C Felizardo, Hua Feng, Yibin Feng, Yuchen Feng, Thomas A Ferguson, Álvaro F Fernández, Maite G Fernandez-Barrena, Jose C Fernandez-Checa, Arsenio Fernández-López, Martin E Fernandez-Zapico, Olivier Feron, Elisabetta Ferraro, Carmen Veríssima Ferreira-Halder, Laszlo Fesus, Ralph Feuer, Fabienne C Fiesel, Eduardo C Filippi-Chiela, Giuseppe Filomeni, Gian Maria Fimia, John H Fingert, Steven Finkbeiner, Toren Finkel, Filomena Fiorito, Paul B Fisher, Marc Flajolet, Flavio Flamigni, Oliver Florey, Salvatore Florio, R Andres Floto, Marco Folini, Carlo Follo, Edward A Fon, Francesco Fornai, Franco Fortunato, Alessandro Fraldi, Rodrigo Franco, Arnaud Francois, Aurélie François, Lisa B Frankel, Iain Dc Fraser, Norbert Frey, Damien G Freyssenet, Christian Frezza, Scott L Friedman, Daniel E Frigo, Dongxu Fu, José M Fuentes, Juan Fueyo, Yoshio Fujitani, Yuuki Fujiwara, Mikihiro Fujiya, Mitsunori Fukuda, Simone Fulda, Carmela Fusco, Bozena Gabryel, Matthias Gaestel, Philippe Gailly, Malgorzata Gajewska, Sehamuddin Galadari, Gad Galili, Inmaculada Galindo, Maria F Galindo, Giovanna Galliciotti, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Luca Galluzzi, Vincent Galy, Noor Gammoh, Sam Gandy, Anand K Ganesan, Swamynathan Ganesan, Ian G Ganley, Monique Gannagé, Fen-Biao Gao, Feng Gao, Jian-Xin Gao, Lorena García Nannig, Eleonora García Véscovi, Marina Garcia-Macía, Carmen Garcia-Ruiz, Abhishek D Garg, Pramod Kumar Garg, Ricardo Gargini, Nils Christian Gassen, Damián Gatica, Evelina Gatti, Julie Gavard, Evripidis Gavathiotis, Liang Ge, Pengfei Ge, Shengfang Ge, Po-Wu Gean, Vania Gelmetti, Armando A Genazzani, Jiefei Geng, Pascal Genschik, Lisa Gerner, Jason E Gestwicki, David A Gewirtz, Saeid Ghavami, Eric Ghigo, Debabrata Ghosh, Anna Maria Giammarioli, Francesca Giampieri, Claudia Giampietri, Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Derrick J Gibbings, Lara Gibellini, Spencer B Gibson, Vanessa Ginet, Antonio Giordano, Flaviano Giorgini, Elisa Giovannetti, Stephen E Girardin, Suzana Gispert, Sandy Giuliano, Candece L Gladson, Alvaro Glavic, Martin Gleave, Nelly Godefroy, Robert M Gogal, Kuppan Gokulan, Gustavo H Goldman, Delia Goletti, Michael S Goligorsky, Aldrin V Gomes, Ligia C Gomes, Hernando Gomez, Candelaria Gomez-Manzano, Rubén Gómez-Sánchez, Dawit Ap Gonçalves, Ebru Goncu, Qingqiu Gong, Céline Gongora, Carlos B Gonzalez, Pedro Gonzalez-Alegre, Pilar Gonzalez-Cabo, Rosa Ana González-Polo, Ing Swie Goping, Carlos Gorbea, Nikolai V Gorbunov, Daphne R Goring, Adrienne M Gorman, Sharon M Gorski, Sandro Goruppi, Shino Goto-Yamada, Cecilia Gotor, Roberta A Gottlieb, Illana Gozes, Devrim Gozuacik, Yacine Graba, Martin Graef, Giovanna E Granato, Gary Dean Grant, Steven Grant, Giovanni Luca Gravina, Douglas R Green, Alexander Greenhough, Michael T Greenwood, Benedetto Grimaldi, Frédéric Gros, Charles Grose, Jean-Francois Groulx, Florian Gruber, Paolo Grumati, Tilman Grune, Jun-Lin Guan, Kun-Liang Guan, Barbara Guerra, Carlos Guillen, Kailash Gulshan, Jan Gunst, Chuanyong Guo, Lei Guo, Ming Guo, Wenjie Guo, Xu-Guang Guo, Andrea A Gust, Åsa B Gustafsson, Elaine Gutierrez, Maximiliano G Gutierrez, Ho-Shin Gwak, Albert Haas, James E Haber, Shinji Hadano, Monica Hagedorn, David R Hahn, Andrew J Halayko, Anne Hamacher-Brady, Kozo Hamada, Ahmed Hamai, Andrea Hamann, Maho Hamasaki, Isabelle Hamer, Qutayba Hamid, Ester M Hammond, Feng Han, Weidong Han, James T Handa, John A Hanover, Malene Hansen, Masaru Harada, Ljubica Harhaji-Trajkovic, J Wade Harper, Abdel Halim Harrath, Adrian L Harris, James Harris, Udo Hasler, Peter Hasselblatt, Kazuhisa Hasui, Robert G Hawley, Teresa S Hawley, Congcong He, Cynthia Y He, Fengtian He, Gu He, Rong-Rong He, Xian-Hui He, You-Wen He, Yu-Ying He, Joan K Heath, Marie-Josée Hébert, Robert A Heinzen, Gudmundur Vignir Helgason, Michael Hensel, Elizabeth P Henske, Chengtao Her, Paul K Herman, Agustín Hernández, Carlos Hernandez, Sonia Hernández-Tiedra, Claudio Hetz, P Robin Hiesinger, Katsumi Higaki, Sabine Hilfiker, Bradford G Hill, Joseph A Hill, William D Hill, Keisuke Hino, Daniel Hofius, Paul Hofman, Günter U Höglinger, Jörg Höhfeld, Marina K Holz, Yonggeun Hong, David A Hood, Jeroen Jm Hoozemans, Thorsten Hoppe, Chin Hsu, Chin-Yuan Hsu, Li-Chung Hsu, Dong Hu, Guochang Hu, Hong-Ming Hu, Hongbo Hu, Ming Chang Hu, Yu-Chen Hu, Zhuo-Wei Hu, Fang Hua, Ya Hua, Canhua Huang, Huey-Lan Huang, Kuo-How Huang, Kuo-Yang Huang, Shile Huang, Shiqian Huang, Wei-Pang Huang, Yi-Ran Huang, Yong Huang, Yunfei Huang, Tobias B Huber, Patricia Huebbe, Won-Ki Huh, Juha J Hulmi, Gang Min Hur, James H Hurley, Zvenyslava Husak, Sabah Na Hussain, Salik Hussain, Jung Jin Hwang, Seungmin Hwang, Thomas Is Hwang, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Yuzuru Imai, Carol Imbriano, Megumi Inomata, Takeshi Into, Valentina Iovane, Juan L Iovanna, Renato V Iozzo, Nancy Y Ip, Javier E Irazoqui, Pablo Iribarren, Yoshitaka Isaka, Aleksandra J Isakovic, Harry Ischiropoulos, Jeffrey S Isenberg, Mohammad Ishaq, Hiroyuki Ishida, Isao Ishii, Jane E Ishmael, Ciro Isidoro, Ken-Ichi Isobe, Erika Isono, Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas, Koji Itahana, Eisuke Itakura, Andrei I Ivanov, Anand Krishnan V Iyer, José M Izquierdo, Yotaro Izumi, Valentina Izzo, Marja Jäättelä, Nadia Jaber, Daniel John Jackson, William T Jackson, Tony George Jacob, Thomas S Jacques, Chinnaswamy Jagannath, Ashish Jain, Nihar Ranjan Jana, Byoung Kuk Jang, Alkesh Jani, Bassam Janji, Paulo Roberto Jannig, Patric J Jansson, Steve Jean, Marina Jendrach, Ju-Hong Jeon, Niels Jessen, Eui-Bae Jeung, Kailiang Jia, Lijun Jia, Hong Jiang, Hongchi Jiang, Liwen Jiang, Teng Jiang, Xiaoyan Jiang, Xuejun Jiang, Xuejun Jiang, Ying Jiang, Yongjun Jiang, Alberto Jiménez, Cheng Jin, Hongchuan Jin, Lei Jin, Meiyan Jin, Shengkan Jin, Umesh Kumar Jinwal, Eun-Kyeong Jo, Terje Johansen, Daniel E Johnson, Gail Vw Johnson, James D Johnson, Eric Jonasch, Chris Jones, Leo Ab Joosten, Joaquin Jordan, Anna-Maria Joseph, Bertrand Joseph, Annie M Joubert, Dianwen Ju, Jingfang Ju, Hsueh-Fen Juan, Katrin Juenemann, Gábor Juhász, Hye Seung Jung, Jae U Jung, Yong-Keun Jung, Heinz Jungbluth, Matthew J Justice, Barry Jutten, Nadeem O Kaakoush, Kai Kaarniranta, Allen Kaasik, Tomohiro Kabuta, Bertrand Kaeffer, Katarina Kågedal, Alon Kahana, Shingo Kajimura, Or Kakhlon, Manjula Kalia, Dhan V Kalvakolanu, Yoshiaki Kamada, Konstantinos Kambas, Vitaliy O Kaminskyy, Harm H Kampinga, Mustapha Kandouz, Chanhee Kang, Rui Kang, Tae-Cheon Kang, Tomotake Kanki, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, Haruo Kanno, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Marc Kantorow, Maria Kaparakis-Liaskos, Orsolya Kapuy, Vassiliki Karantza, Md Razaul Karim, Parimal Karmakar, Arthur Kaser, Susmita Kaushik, Thomas Kawula, A Murat Kaynar, Po-Yuan Ke, Zun-Ji Ke, John H Kehrl, Kate E Keller, Jongsook Kim Kemper, Anne K Kenworthy, Oliver Kepp, Andreas Kern, Santosh Kesari, David Kessel, Robin Ketteler, Isis do Carmo Kettelhut, Bilon Khambu, Muzamil Majid Khan, Vinoth Km Khandelwal, Sangeeta Khare, Juliann G Kiang, Amy A Kiger, Akio Kihara, Arianna L Kim, Cheol Hyeon Kim, Deok Ryong Kim, Do-Hyung Kim, Eung Kweon Kim, Hye Young Kim, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Jae-Sung Kim, Jeong Hun Kim, Jin Cheon Kim, Jin Hyoung Kim, Kwang Woon Kim, Michael D Kim, Moon-Moo Kim, Peter K Kim, Seong Who Kim, Soo-Youl Kim, Yong-Sun Kim, Yonghyun Kim, Adi Kimchi, Alec C Kimmelman, Tomonori Kimura, Jason S King, Karla Kirkegaard, Vladimir Kirkin, Lorrie A Kirshenbaum, Shuji Kishi, Yasuo Kitajima, Katsuhiko Kitamoto, Yasushi Kitaoka, Kaio Kitazato, Rudolf A Kley, Walter T Klimecki, Michael Klinkenberg, Jochen Klucken, Helene Knævelsrud, Erwin Knecht, Laura Knuppertz, Jiunn-Liang Ko, Satoru Kobayashi, Jan C Koch, Christelle Koechlin-Ramonatxo, Ulrich Koenig, Young Ho Koh, Katja Köhler, Sepp D Kohlwein, Masato Koike, Masaaki Komatsu, Eiki Kominami, Dexin Kong, Hee Jeong Kong, Eumorphia G Konstantakou, Benjamin T Kopp, Tamas Korcsmaros, Laura Korhonen, Viktor I Korolchuk, Nadya V Koshkina, Yanjun Kou, Michael I Koukourakis, Constantinos Koumenis, Attila L Kovács, Tibor Kovács, Werner J Kovacs, Daisuke Koya, Claudine Kraft, Dimitri Krainc, Helmut Kramer, Tamara Kravic-Stevovic, Wilhelm Krek, Carole Kretz-Remy, Roswitha Krick, Malathi Krishnamurthy, Janos Kriston-Vizi, Guido Kroemer, Michael C Kruer, Rejko Kruger, Nicholas T Ktistakis, Kazuyuki Kuchitsu, Christian Kuhn, Addanki Pratap Kumar, Anuj Kumar, Ashok Kumar, Deepak Kumar, Dhiraj Kumar, Rakesh Kumar, Sharad Kumar, Mondira Kundu, Hsing-Jien Kung, Atsushi Kuno, Sheng-Han Kuo, Jeff Kuret, Tino Kurz, Terry Kwok, Taeg Kyu Kwon, Yong Tae Kwon, Irene Kyrmizi, Albert R La Spada, Frank Lafont, Tim Lahm, Aparna Lakkaraju, Truong Lam, Trond Lamark, Steve Lancel, Terry H Landowski, Darius Jr Lane, Jon D Lane, Cinzia Lanzi, Pierre Lapaquette, Louis R Lapierre, Jocelyn Laporte, Johanna Laukkarinen, Gordon W Laurie, Sergio Lavandero, Lena Lavie, Matthew J LaVoie, Betty Yuen Kwan Law, Helen Ka-Wai Law, Kelsey B Law, Robert Layfield, Pedro A Lazo, Laurent Le Cam, Karine G Le Roch, Hervé Le Stunff, Vijittra Leardkamolkarn, Marc Lecuit, Byung-Hoon Lee, Che-Hsin Lee, Erinna F Lee, Gyun Min Lee, He-Jin Lee, Hsinyu Lee, Jae Keun Lee, Jongdae Lee, Ju-Hyun Lee, Jun Hee Lee, Michael Lee, Myung-Shik Lee, Patty J Lee, Sam W Lee, Seung-Jae Lee, Shiow-Ju Lee, Stella Y Lee, Sug Hyung Lee, Sung Sik Lee, Sung-Joon Lee, Sunhee Lee, Ying-Ray Lee, Yong J Lee, Young H Lee, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Sylvain Lefort, Renaud Legouis, Jinzhi Lei, Qun-Ying Lei, David A Leib, Gil Leibowitz, Istvan Lekli, Stéphane D Lemaire, John J Lemasters, Marius K Lemberg, Antoinette Lemoine, Shuilong Leng, Guido Lenz, Paola Lenzi, Lilach O Lerman, Daniele Lettieri Barbato, Julia I-Ju Leu, Hing Y Leung, Beth Levine, Patrick A Lewis, Frank Lezoualc'h, Chi Li, Faqiang Li, Feng-Jun Li, Jun Li, Ke Li, Lian Li, Min Li, Min Li, Qiang Li, Rui Li, Sheng Li, Wei Li, Wei Li, Xiaotao Li, Yumin Li, Jiqin Lian, Chengyu Liang, Qiangrong Liang, Yulin Liao, Joana Liberal, Pawel P Liberski, Pearl Lie, Andrew P Lieberman, Hyunjung Jade Lim, Kah-Leong Lim, Kyu Lim, Raquel T Lima, Chang-Shen Lin, Chiou-Feng Lin, Fang Lin, Fangming Lin, Fu-Cheng Lin, Kui Lin, Kwang-Huei Lin, Pei-Hui Lin, Tianwei Lin, Wan-Wan Lin, Yee-Shin Lin, Yong Lin, Rafael Linden, Dan Lindholm, Lisa M Lindqvist, Paul Lingor, Andreas Linkermann, Lance A Liotta, Marta M Lipinski, Vitor A Lira, Michael P Lisanti, Paloma B Liton, Bo Liu, Chong Liu, Chun-Feng Liu, Fei Liu, Hung-Jen Liu, Jianxun Liu, Jing-Jing Liu, Jing-Lan Liu, Ke Liu, Leyuan Liu, Liang Liu, Quentin Liu, Rong-Yu Liu, Shiming Liu, Shuwen Liu, Wei Liu, Xian-De Liu, Xiangguo Liu, Xiao-Hong Liu, Xinfeng Liu, Xu Liu, Xueqin Liu, Yang Liu, Yule Liu, Zexian Liu, Zhe Liu, Juan P Liuzzi, Gérard Lizard, Mila Ljujic, Irfan J Lodhi, Susan E Logue, Bal L Lokeshwar, Yun Chau Long, Sagar Lonial, Benjamin Loos, Carlos López-Otín, Cristina López-Vicario, Mar Lorente, Philip L Lorenzi, Péter Lõrincz, Marek Los, Michael T Lotze, Penny E Lovat, Binfeng Lu, Bo Lu, Jiahong Lu, Qing Lu, She-Min Lu, Shuyan Lu, Yingying Lu, Frédéric Luciano, Shirley Luckhart, John Milton Lucocq, Paula Ludovico, Aurelia Lugea, Nicholas W Lukacs, Julian J Lum, Anders H Lund, Honglin Luo, Jia Luo, Shouqing Luo, Claudio Luparello, Timothy Lyons, Jianjie Ma, Yi Ma, Yong Ma, Zhenyi Ma, Juliano Machado, Glaucia M Machado-Santelli, Fernando Macian, Gustavo C MacIntosh, Jeffrey P MacKeigan, Kay F Macleod, John D MacMicking, Lee Ann MacMillan-Crow, Frank Madeo, Muniswamy Madesh, Julio Madrigal-Matute, Akiko Maeda, Tatsuya Maeda, Gustavo Maegawa, Emilia Maellaro, Hannelore Maes, Marta Magariños, Kenneth Maiese, Tapas K Maiti, Luigi Maiuri, Maria Chiara Maiuri, Carl G Maki, Roland Malli, Walter Malorni, Alina Maloyan, Fathia Mami-Chouaib, Na Man, Joseph D Mancias, Eva-Maria Mandelkow, Michael A Mandell, Angelo A Manfredi, Serge N Manié, Claudia Manzoni, Kai Mao, Zixu Mao, Zong-Wan Mao, Philippe Marambaud, Anna Maria Marconi, Zvonimir Marelja, Gabriella Marfe, Marta Margeta, Eva Margittai, Muriel Mari, Francesca V Mariani, Concepcio Marin, Sara Marinelli, Guillermo Mariño, Ivanka Markovic, Rebecca Marquez, Alberto M Martelli, Sascha Martens, Katie R Martin, Seamus J Martin, Shaun Martin, Miguel A Martin-Acebes, Paloma Martín-Sanz, Camille Martinand-Mari, Wim Martinet, Jennifer Martinez, Nuria Martinez-Lopez, Ubaldo Martinez-Outschoorn, Moisés Martínez-Velázquez, Marta Martinez-Vicente, Waleska Kerllen Martins, Hirosato Mashima, James A Mastrianni, Giuseppe Matarese, Paola Matarrese, Roberto Mateo, Satoaki Matoba, Naomichi Matsumoto, Takehiko Matsushita, Akira Matsuura, Takeshi Matsuzawa, Mark P Mattson, Soledad Matus, Norma Maugeri, Caroline Mauvezin, Andreas Mayer, Dusica Maysinger, Guillermo D Mazzolini, Mary Kate McBrayer, Kimberly McCall, Craig McCormick, Gerald M McInerney, Skye C McIver, Sharon McKenna, John J McMahon, Iain A McNeish, Fatima Mechta-Grigoriou, Jan Paul Medema, Diego L Medina, Klara Megyeri, Maryam Mehrpour, Jawahar L Mehta, Yide Mei, Ute-Christiane Meier, Alfred J Meijer, Alicia Meléndez, Gerry Melino, Sonia Melino, Edesio Jose Tenorio de Melo, Maria A Mena, Marc D Meneghini, Javier A Menendez, Regina Menezes, Liesu Meng, Ling-Hua Meng, Songshu Meng, Rossella Menghini, A Sue Menko, Rubem Fs Menna-Barreto, Manoj B Menon, Marco A Meraz-Ríos, Giuseppe Merla, Luciano Merlini, Angelica M Merlot, Andreas Meryk, Stefania Meschini, Joel N Meyer, Man-Tian Mi, Chao-Yu Miao, Lucia Micale, Simon Michaeli, Carine Michiels, Anna Rita Migliaccio, Anastasia Susie Mihailidou, Dalibor Mijaljica, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba, Enrico Milan, Leonor Miller-Fleming, Gordon B Mills, Ian G Mills, Georgia Minakaki, Berge A Minassian, Xiu-Fen Ming, Farida Minibayeva, Elena A Minina, Justine D Mintern, Saverio Minucci, Antonio Miranda-Vizuete, Claire H Mitchell, Shigeki Miyamoto, Keisuke Miyazawa, Noboru Mizushima, Katarzyna Mnich, Baharia Mograbi, Simin Mohseni, Luis Ferreira Moita, Marco Molinari, Maurizio Molinari, Andreas Buch Møller, Bertrand Mollereau, Faustino Mollinedo, Marco Mongillo, Martha M Monick, Serena Montagnaro, Craig Montell, Darren J Moore, Michael N Moore, Rodrigo Mora-Rodriguez, Paula I Moreira, Etienne Morel, Maria Beatrice Morelli, Sandra Moreno, Michael J Morgan, Arnaud Moris, Yuji Moriyasu, Janna L Morrison, Lynda A Morrison, Eugenia Morselli, Jorge Moscat, Pope L Moseley, Serge Mostowy, Elisa Motori, Denis Mottet, Jeremy C Mottram, Charbel E-H Moussa, Vassiliki E Mpakou, Hasan Mukhtar, Jean M Mulcahy Levy, Sylviane Muller, Raquel Muñoz-Moreno, Cristina Muñoz-Pinedo, Christian Münz, Maureen E Murphy, James T Murray, Aditya Murthy, Indira U Mysorekar, Ivan R Nabi, Massimo Nabissi, Gustavo A Nader, Yukitoshi Nagahara, Yoshitaka Nagai, Kazuhiro Nagata, Anika Nagelkerke, Péter Nagy, Samisubbu R Naidu, Sreejayan Nair, Hiroyasu Nakano, Hitoshi Nakatogawa, Meera Nanjundan, Gennaro Napolitano, Naweed I Naqvi, Roberta Nardacci, Derek P Narendra, Masashi Narita, Anna Chiara Nascimbeni, Ramesh Natarajan, Luiz C Navegantes, Steffan T Nawrocki, Taras Y Nazarko, Volodymyr Y Nazarko, Thomas Neill, Luca M Neri, Mihai G Netea, Romana T Netea-Maier, Bruno M Neves, Paul A Ney, Ioannis P Nezis, Hang Tt Nguyen, Huu Phuc Nguyen, Anne-Sophie Nicot, Hilde Nilsen, Per Nilsson, Mikio Nishimura, Ichizo Nishino, Mireia Niso-Santano, Hua Niu, Ralph A Nixon, Vincent Co Njar, Takeshi Noda, Angelika A Noegel, Elsie Magdalena Nolte, Erik Norberg, Koenraad K Norga, Sakineh Kazemi Noureini, Shoji Notomi, Lucia Notterpek, Karin Nowikovsky, Nobuyuki Nukina, Thorsten Nürnberger, Valerie B O'Donnell, Tracey O'Donovan, Peter J O'Dwyer, Ina Oehme, Clara L Oeste, Michinaga Ogawa, Besim Ogretmen, Yuji Ogura, Young J Oh, Masaki Ohmuraya, Takayuki Ohshima, Rani Ojha, Koji Okamoto, Toshiro Okazaki, F Javier Oliver, Karin Ollinger, Stefan Olsson, Daniel P Orban, Paulina Ordonez, Idil Orhon, Laszlo Orosz, Eyleen J O'Rourke, Helena Orozco, Angel L Ortega, Elena Ortona, Laura D Osellame, Junko Oshima, Shigeru Oshima, Heinz D Osiewacz, Takanobu Otomo, Kinya Otsu, Jing-Hsiung James Ou, Tiago F Outeiro, Dong-Yun Ouyang, Hongjiao Ouyang, Michael Overholtzer, Michelle A Ozbun, P Hande Ozdinler, Bulent Ozpolat, Consiglia Pacelli, Paolo Paganetti, Guylène Page, Gilles Pages, Ugo Pagnini, Beata Pajak, Stephen C Pak, Karolina Pakos-Zebrucka, Nazzy Pakpour, Zdena Palková, Francesca Palladino, Kathrin Pallauf, Nicolas Pallet, Marta Palmieri, Søren R Paludan, Camilla Palumbo, Silvia Palumbo, Olatz Pampliega, Hongming Pan, Wei Pan, Theocharis Panaretakis, Aseem Pandey, Areti Pantazopoulou, Zuzana Papackova, Daniela L Papademetrio, Issidora Papassideri, Alessio Papini, Nirmala Parajuli, Julian Pardo, Vrajesh V Parekh, Giancarlo Parenti, Jong-In Park, Junsoo Park, Ohkmae K Park, Roy Parker, Rosanna Parlato, Jan B Parys, Katherine R Parzych, Jean-Max Pasquet, Benoit Pasquier, Kishore Bs Pasumarthi, Daniel Patschan, Cam Patterson, Sophie Pattingre, Scott Pattison, Arnim Pause, Hermann Pavenstädt, Flaminia Pavone, Zully Pedrozo, Fernando J Peña, Miguel A Peñalva, Mario Pende, Jianxin Peng, Fabio Penna, Josef M Penninger, Anna Pensalfini, Salvatore Pepe, Gustavo Js Pereira, Paulo C Pereira, Verónica Pérez-de la Cruz, María Esther Pérez-Pérez, Diego Pérez-Rodríguez, Dolores Pérez-Sala, Celine Perier, Andras Perl, David H Perlmutter, Ida Perrotta, Shazib Pervaiz, Maija Pesonen, Jeffrey E Pessin, Godefridus J Peters, Morten Petersen, Irina Petrache, Basil J Petrof, Goran Petrovski, James M Phang, Mauro Piacentini, Marina Pierdominici, Philippe Pierre, Valérie Pierrefite-Carle, Federico Pietrocola, Felipe X Pimentel-Muiños, Mario Pinar, Benjamin Pineda, Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski, Marcello Pinti, Paolo Pinton, Bilal Piperdi, James M Piret, Leonidas C Platanias, Harald W Platta, Edward D Plowey, Stefanie Pöggeler, Marc Poirot, Peter Polčic, Angelo Poletti, Audrey H Poon, Hana Popelka, Blagovesta Popova, Izabela Poprawa, Shibu M Poulose, Joanna Poulton, Scott K Powers, Ted Powers, Mercedes Pozuelo-Rubio, Krisna Prak, Reinhild Prange, Mark Prescott, Muriel Priault, Sharon Prince, Richard L Proia, Tassula Proikas-Cezanne, Holger Prokisch, Vasilis J Promponas, Karin Przyklenk, Rosa Puertollano, Subbiah Pugazhenthi, Luigi Puglielli, Aurora Pujol, Julien Puyal, Dohun Pyeon, Xin Qi, Wen-Bin Qian, Zheng-Hong Qin, Yu Qiu, Ziwei Qu, Joe Quadrilatero, Frederick Quinn, Nina Raben, Hannah Rabinowich, Flavia Radogna, Michael J Ragusa, Mohamed Rahmani, Komal Raina, Sasanka Ramanadham, Rajagopal Ramesh, Abdelhaq Rami, Sarron Randall-Demllo, Felix Randow, Hai Rao, V Ashutosh Rao, Blake B Rasmussen, Tobias M Rasse, Edward A Ratovitski, Pierre-Emmanuel Rautou, Swapan K Ray, Babak Razani, Bruce H Reed, Fulvio Reggiori, Markus Rehm, Andreas S Reichert, Theo Rein, David J Reiner, Eric Reits, Jun Ren, Xingcong Ren, Maurizio Renna, Jane Eb Reusch, Jose L Revuelta, Leticia Reyes, Alireza R Rezaie, Robert I Richards, Des R Richardson, Clémence Richetta, Michael A Riehle, Bertrand H Rihn, Yasuko Rikihisa, Brigit E Riley, Gerald Rimbach, Maria Rita Rippo, Konstantinos Ritis, Federica Rizzi, Elizete Rizzo, Peter J Roach, Jeffrey Robbins, Michel Roberge, Gabriela Roca, Maria Carmela Roccheri, Sonia Rocha, Cecilia Mp Rodrigues, Clara I Rodríguez, Santiago Rodriguez de Cordoba, Natalia Rodriguez-Muela, Jeroen Roelofs, Vladimir V Rogov, Troy T Rohn, Bärbel Rohrer, Davide Romanelli, Luigina Romani, Patricia Silvia Romano, M Isabel G Roncero, Jose Luis Rosa, Alicia Rosello, Kirill V Rosen, Philip Rosenstiel, Magdalena Rost-Roszkowska, Kevin A Roth, Gael Roué, Mustapha Rouis, Kasper M Rouschop, Daniel T Ruan, Diego Ruano, David C Rubinsztein, Edmund B Rucker, Assaf Rudich, Emil Rudolf, Ruediger Rudolf, Markus A Ruegg, Carmen Ruiz-Roldan, Avnika Ashok Ruparelia, Paola Rusmini, David W Russ, Gian Luigi Russo, Giuseppe Russo, Rossella Russo, Tor Erik Rusten, Victoria Ryabovol, Kevin M Ryan, Stefan W Ryter, David M Sabatini, Michael Sacher, Carsten Sachse, Michael N Sack, Junichi Sadoshima, Paul Saftig, Ronit Sagi-Eisenberg, Sumit Sahni, Pothana Saikumar, Tsunenori Saito, Tatsuya Saitoh, Koichi Sakakura, Machiko Sakoh-Nakatogawa, Yasuhito Sakuraba, María Salazar-Roa, Paolo Salomoni, Ashok K Saluja, Paul M Salvaterra, Rosa Salvioli, Afshin Samali, Anthony Mj Sanchez, José A Sánchez-Alcázar, Ricardo Sanchez-Prieto, Marco Sandri, Miguel A Sanjuan, Stefano Santaguida, Laura Santambrogio, Giorgio Santoni, Claudia Nunes Dos Santos, Shweta Saran, Marco Sardiello, Graeme Sargent, Pallabi Sarkar, Sovan Sarkar, Maria Rosa Sarrias, Minnie M Sarwal, Chihiro Sasakawa, Motoko Sasaki, Miklos Sass, Ken Sato, Miyuki Sato, Joseph Satriano, Niramol Savaraj, Svetlana Saveljeva, Liliana Schaefer, Ulrich E Schaible, Michael Scharl, Hermann M Schatzl, Randy Schekman, Wiep Scheper, Alfonso Schiavi, Hyman M Schipper, Hana Schmeisser, Jens Schmidt, Ingo Schmitz, Bianca E Schneider, E Marion Schneider, Jaime L Schneider, Eric A Schon, Miriam J Schönenberger, Axel H Schönthal, Daniel F Schorderet, Bernd Schröder, Sebastian Schuck, Ryan J Schulze, Melanie Schwarten, Thomas L Schwarz, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Kathleen Scotto, A Ivana Scovassi, Robert A Screaton, Mark Screen, Hugo Seca, Simon Sedej, Laura Segatori, Nava Segev, Per O Seglen, Jose M Seguí-Simarro, Juan Segura-Aguilar, Ekihiro Seki, Christian Sell, Iban Selliez, Clay F Semenkovich, Gregg L Semenza, Utpal Sen, Andreas L Serra, Ana Serrano-Puebla, Hiromi Sesaki, Takao Setoguchi, Carmine Settembre, John J Shacka, Ayesha N Shajahan-Haq, Irving M Shapiro, Shweta Sharma, Hua She, C-K James Shen, Chiung-Chyi Shen, Han-Ming Shen, Sanbing Shen, Weili Shen, Rui Sheng, Xianyong Sheng, Zu-Hang Sheng, Trevor G Shepherd, Junyan Shi, Qiang Shi, Qinghua Shi, Yuguang Shi, Shusaku Shibutani, Kenichi Shibuya, Yoshihiro Shidoji, Jeng-Jer Shieh, Chwen-Ming Shih, Yohta Shimada, Shigeomi Shimizu, Dong Wook Shin, Mari L Shinohara, Michiko Shintani, Takahiro Shintani, Tetsuo Shioi, Ken Shirabe, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov, Orian Shirihai, Gordon C Shore, Chih-Wen Shu, Deepak Shukla, Andriy A Sibirny, Valentina Sica, Christina J Sigurdson, Einar M Sigurdsson, Puran Singh Sijwali, Beata Sikorska, Wilian A Silveira, Sandrine Silvente-Poirot, Gary A Silverman, Jan Simak, Thomas Simmet, Anna Katharina Simon, Hans-Uwe Simon, Cristiano Simone, Matias Simons, Anne Simonsen, Rajat Singh, Shivendra V Singh, Shrawan K Singh, Debasish Sinha, Sangita Sinha, Frank A Sinicrope, Agnieszka Sirko, Kapil Sirohi, Balindiwe Jn Sishi, Annie Sittler, Parco M Siu, Efthimios Sivridis, Anna Skwarska, Ruth Slack, Iva Slaninová, Nikolai Slavov, Soraya S Smaili, Keiran Sm Smalley, Duncan R Smith, Stefaan J Soenen, Scott A Soleimanpour, Anita Solhaug, Kumaravel Somasundaram, Jin H Son, Avinash Sonawane, Chunjuan Song, Fuyong Song, Hyun Kyu Song, Ju-Xian Song, Wei Song, Kai Y Soo, Anil K Sood, Tuck Wah Soong, Virawudh Soontornniyomkij, Maurizio Sorice, Federica Sotgia, David R Soto-Pantoja, Areechun Sotthibundhu, Maria João Sousa, Herman P Spaink, Paul N Span, Anne Spang, Janet D Sparks, Peter G Speck, Stephen A Spector, Claudia D Spies, Wolfdieter Springer, Daret St Clair, Alessandra Stacchiotti, Bart Staels, Michael T Stang, Daniel T Starczynowski, Petro Starokadomskyy, Clemens Steegborn, John W Steele, Leonidas Stefanis, Joan Steffan, Christine M Stellrecht, Harald Stenmark, Tomasz M Stepkowski, Stęphan T Stern, Craig Stevens, Brent R Stockwell, Veronika Stoka, Zuzana Storchova, Björn Stork, Vassilis Stratoulias, Dimitrios J Stravopodis, Pavel Strnad, Anne Marie Strohecker, Anna-Lena Ström, Per Stromhaug, Jiri Stulik, Yu-Xiong Su, Zhaoliang Su, Carlos S Subauste, Srinivasa Subramaniam, Carolyn M Sue, Sang Won Suh, Xinbing Sui, Supawadee Sukseree, David Sulzer, Fang-Lin Sun, Jiaren Sun, Jun Sun, Shi-Yong Sun, Yang Sun, Yi Sun, Yingjie Sun, Vinod Sundaramoorthy, Joseph Sung, Hidekazu Suzuki, Kuninori Suzuki, Naoki Suzuki, Tadashi Suzuki, Yuichiro J Suzuki, Michele S Swanson, Charles Swanton, Karl Swärd, Ghanshyam Swarup, Sean T Sweeney, Paul W Sylvester, Zsuzsanna Szatmari, Eva Szegezdi, Peter W Szlosarek, Heinrich Taegtmeyer, Marco Tafani, Emmanuel Taillebourg, Stephen Wg Tait, Krisztina Takacs-Vellai, Yoshinori Takahashi, Szabolcs Takáts, Genzou Takemura, Nagio Takigawa, Nicholas J Talbot, Elena Tamagno, Jerome Tamburini, Cai-Ping Tan, Lan Tan, Mei Lan Tan, Ming Tan, Yee-Joo Tan, Keiji Tanaka, Masaki Tanaka, Daolin Tang, Dingzhong Tang, Guomei Tang, Isei Tanida, Kunikazu Tanji, Bakhos A Tannous, Jose A Tapia, Inmaculada Tasset-Cuevas, Marc Tatar, Iman Tavassoly, Nektarios Tavernarakis, Allen Taylor, Graham S Taylor, Gregory A Taylor, J Paul Taylor, Mark J Taylor, Elena V Tchetina, Andrew R Tee, Fatima Teixeira-Clerc, Sucheta Telang, Tewin Tencomnao, Ba-Bie Teng, Ru-Jeng Teng, Faraj Terro, Gianluca Tettamanti, Arianne L Theiss, Anne E Theron, Kelly Jean Thomas, Marcos P Thomé, Paul G Thomes, Andrew Thorburn, Jeremy Thorner, Thomas Thum, Michael Thumm, Teresa Lm Thurston, Ling Tian, Andreas Till, Jenny Pan-Yun Ting, Vladimir I Titorenko, Lilach Toker, Stefano Toldo, Sharon A Tooze, Ivan Topisirovic, Maria Lyngaas Torgersen, Liliana Torosantucci, Alicia Torriglia, Maria Rosaria Torrisi, Cathy Tournier, Roberto Towns, Vladimir Trajkovic, Leonardo H Travassos, Gemma Triola, Durga Nand Tripathi, Daniela Trisciuoglio, Rodrigo Troncoso, Ioannis P Trougakos, Anita C Truttmann, Kuen-Jer Tsai, Mario P Tschan, Yi-Hsin Tseng, Takayuki Tsukuba, Allan Tsung, Andrey S Tsvetkov, Shuiping Tu, Hsing-Yu Tuan, Marco Tucci, David A Tumbarello, Boris Turk, Vito Turk, Robin Fb Turner, Anders A Tveita, Suresh C Tyagi, Makoto Ubukata, Yasuo Uchiyama, Andrej Udelnow, Takashi Ueno, Midori Umekawa, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Benjamin R Underwood, Christian Ungermann, Rodrigo P Ureshino, Ryo Ushioda, Vladimir N Uversky, Néstor L Uzcátegui, Thomas Vaccari, Maria I Vaccaro, Libuše Váchová, Helin Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg, Rut Valdor, Enza Maria Valente, Francois Vallette, Angela M Valverde, Greet Van den Berghe, Ludo Van Den Bosch, Gijs R van den Brink, F Gisou van der Goot, Ida J van der Klei, Luc Jw van der Laan, Wouter G van Doorn, Marjolein van Egmond, Kenneth L van Golen, Luc Van Kaer, Menno van Lookeren Campagne, Peter Vandenabeele, Wim Vandenberghe, Ilse Vanhorebeek, Isabel Varela-Nieto, M Helena Vasconcelos, Radovan Vasko, Demetrios G Vavvas, Ignacio Vega-Naredo, Guillermo Velasco, Athanassios D Velentzas, Panagiotis D Velentzas, Tibor Vellai, Edo Vellenga, Mikkel Holm Vendelbo, Kartik Venkatachalam, Natascia Ventura, Salvador Ventura, Patrícia St Veras, Mireille Verdier, Beata G Vertessy, Andrea Viale, Michel Vidal, Helena LA Vieira, Richard D Vierstra, Nadarajah Vigneswaran, Neeraj Vij, Miquel Vila, Margarita Villar, Victor H Villar, Joan Villarroya, Cécile Vindis, Giampietro Viola, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Giovanni Vitale, Dan T Vogl, Olga V Voitsekhovskaja, Clarissa von Haefen, Karin von Schwarzenberg, Daniel E Voth, Valérie Vouret-Craviari, Kristina Vuori, Jatin M Vyas, Christian Waeber, Cheryl Lyn Walker, Mark J Walker, Jochen Walter, Lei Wan, Xiangbo Wan, Bo Wang, Caihong Wang, Chao-Yung Wang, Chengshu Wang, Chenran Wang, Chuangui Wang, Dong Wang, Fen Wang, Fuxin Wang, Guanghui Wang, Hai-Jie Wang, Haichao Wang, Hong-Gang Wang, Hongmin Wang, Horng-Dar Wang, Jing Wang, Junjun Wang, Mei Wang, Mei-Qing Wang, Pei-Yu Wang, Peng Wang, Richard C Wang, Shuo Wang, Ting-Fang Wang, Xian Wang, Xiao-Jia Wang, Xiao-Wei Wang, Xin Wang, Xuejun Wang, Yan Wang, Yanming Wang, Ying Wang, Ying-Jan Wang, Yipeng Wang, Yu Wang, Yu Tian Wang, Yuqing Wang, Zhi-Nong Wang, Pablo Wappner, Carl Ward, Diane McVey Ward, Gary Warnes, Hirotaka Watada, Yoshihisa Watanabe, Kei Watase, Timothy E Weaver, Colin D Weekes, Jiwu Wei, Thomas Weide, Conrad C Weihl, Günther Weindl, Simone Nardin Weis, Longping Wen, Xin Wen, Yunfei Wen, Benedikt Westermann, Cornelia M Weyand, Anthony R White, Eileen White, J Lindsay Whitton, Alexander J Whitworth, Joëlle Wiels, Franziska Wild, Manon E Wildenberg, Tom Wileman, Deepti Srinivas Wilkinson, Simon Wilkinson, Dieter Willbold, Chris Williams, Katherine Williams, Peter R Williamson, Konstanze F Winklhofer, Steven S Witkin, Stephanie E Wohlgemuth, Thomas Wollert, Ernst J Wolvetang, Esther Wong, G William Wong, Richard W Wong, Vincent Kam Wai Wong, Elizabeth A Woodcock, Karen L Wright, Chunlai Wu, Defeng Wu, Gen Sheng Wu, Jian Wu, Junfang Wu, Mian Wu, Min Wu, Shengzhou Wu, William Kk Wu, Yaohua Wu, Zhenlong Wu, Cristina Pr Xavier, Ramnik J Xavier, Gui-Xian Xia, Tian Xia, Weiliang Xia, Yong Xia, Hengyi Xiao, Jian Xiao, Shi Xiao, Wuhan Xiao, Chuan-Ming Xie, Zhiping Xie, Zhonglin Xie, Maria Xilouri, Yuyan Xiong, Chuanshan Xu, Congfeng Xu, Feng Xu, Haoxing Xu, Hongwei Xu, Jian Xu, Jianzhen Xu, Jinxian Xu, Liang Xu, Xiaolei Xu, Yangqing Xu, Ye Xu, Zhi-Xiang Xu, Ziheng Xu, Yu Xue, Takahiro Yamada, Ai Yamamoto, Koji Yamanaka, Shunhei Yamashina, Shigeko Yamashiro, Bing Yan, Bo Yan, Xianghua Yan, Zhen Yan, Yasuo Yanagi, Dun-Sheng Yang, Jin-Ming Yang, Liu Yang, Minghua Yang, Pei-Ming Yang, Peixin Yang, Qian Yang, Wannian Yang, Wei Yuan Yang, Xuesong Yang, Yi Yang, Ying Yang, Zhifen Yang, Zhihong Yang, Meng-Chao Yao, Pamela J Yao, Xiaofeng Yao, Zhenyu Yao, Zhiyuan Yao, Linda S Yasui, Mingxiang Ye, Barry Yedvobnick, Behzad Yeganeh, Elizabeth S Yeh, Patricia L Yeyati, Fan Yi, Long Yi, Xiao-Ming Yin, Calvin K Yip, Yeong-Min Yoo, Young Hyun Yoo, Seung-Yong Yoon, Ken-Ichi Yoshida, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Ken H Young, Huixin Yu, Jane J Yu, Jin-Tai Yu, Jun Yu, Li Yu, W Haung Yu, Xiao-Fang Yu, Zhengping Yu, Junying Yuan, Zhi-Min Yuan, Beatrice Yjt Yue, Jianbo Yue, Zhenyu Yue, David N Zacks, Eldad Zacksenhaus, Nadia Zaffaroni, Tania Zaglia, Zahra Zakeri, Vincent Zecchini, Jinsheng Zeng, Min Zeng, Qi Zeng, Antonis S Zervos, Donna D Zhang, Fan Zhang, Guo Zhang, Guo-Chang Zhang, Hao Zhang, Hong Zhang, Hong Zhang, Hongbing Zhang, Jian Zhang, Jian Zhang, Jiangwei Zhang, Jianhua Zhang, Jing-Pu Zhang, Li Zhang, Lin Zhang, Lin Zhang, Long Zhang, Ming-Yong Zhang, Xiangnan Zhang, Xu Dong Zhang, Yan Zhang, Yang Zhang, Yanjin Zhang, Yingmei Zhang, Yunjiao Zhang, Mei Zhao, Wei-Li Zhao, Xiaonan Zhao, Yan G Zhao, Ying Zhao, Yongchao Zhao, Yu-Xia Zhao, Zhendong Zhao, Zhizhuang J Zhao, Dexian Zheng, Xi-Long Zheng, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Boris Zhivotovsky, Qing Zhong, Guang-Zhou Zhou, Guofei Zhou, Huiping Zhou, Shu-Feng Zhou, Xu-Jie Zhou, Hongxin Zhu, Hua Zhu, Wei-Guo Zhu, Wenhua Zhu, Xiao-Feng Zhu, Yuhua Zhu, Shi-Mei Zhuang, Xiaohong Zhuang, Elio Ziparo, Christos E Zois, Teresa Zoladek, Wei-Xing Zong, Antonio Zorzano, Susu M Zughaier Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition). Autophagy: 2016, 12(1);1-222 PubMed 26799652

Agnieszka Juchniewicz, Wiesława Niklińska, Oksana Kowalczuk, Wojciech Laudański, Anetta Sulewska, Piotr Dziegielewski, Robert Milewski, Wojciech Naumnik, Mirosław Kozłowski, Jacek Nikliński Prognostic value of vascular endothelial growth factor-C and podoplanin mRNA expression in esophageal cancer. Oncol Lett: 2015, 10(6);3668-3674 PubMed 26788189

Weihong Ren, B O Zhang, Jie Ma, Wencai Li, Jianyun Lan, Hui Men, Qinxian Zhang EML4-ALK translocation is associated with early onset of disease and other clinicopathological features in Chinese female never-smokers with non-small-cell lung cancer. Oncol Lett: 2015, 10(6);3385-3392 PubMed 26788139

Textbooks

  • Human Embryology Larson Chapter 9 p229-260
  • The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (6th ed.) Moore and Persaud Chapter 12 p271-302
  • Before We Are Born (5th ed.) Moore and Persaud Chapter 13 p255-287
  • Essentials of Human Embryology Larson Chapter 9 p123-146
  • Human Embryology Fitzgerald and Fitzgerald Chapter 19,20 p119-123
  • Anatomy of the Human Body 1918 Henry Gray The Respiratory Apparatus

Objectives

  • Describe the development of the respiratory system from the endodermal and mesodermal components.
  • Describe the main steps in the development of the lungs.
  • Describe the development of the diaphragm and thoracic cavities.
  • List the respiratory changes before and after birth.
  • Describe the developmental aberrations responsible for the following malformations: tracheo - oesophageal fistula (T.O.F); oesphageal atresia; diaphragmatic hernia; lobar emphysema.


Development Overview

Human Embryonic Lung Development
Bailey287.jpg Bailey288.jpg Bailey289.jpg
CRL 4.3 mm, Week 4-5, Stage 12 to 13 CRL 8.5 mm, Week 5, Stage 15 to 16 CRL 10.5 mm, Week 6 Stage 16 to 17

Week 4 - laryngotracheal groove forms on floor foregut.

Week 5 - left and right lung buds push into the pericardioperitoneal canals (primordia of pleural cavity)

Week 6 - descent of heart and lungs into thorax. Pleuroperitoneal foramen closes.

Week 7 - enlargement of liver stops descent of heart and lungs.

Month 3-6 - lungs appear glandular, end month 6 alveolar cells type 2 appear and begin to secrete surfactant.

Month 7 - respiratory bronchioles proliferate and end in alveolar ducts and sacs.

Lung Development Stages

Lung alveoli development cartoon.jpg

The sequence is most important rather than the actual timing, which is variable in the existing literature.

Human Lung Stages

Stage Human Features
Embryonic week 4 to 5 lung buds originate as an outgrowth from the ventral wall of the foregut where lobar division occurs
Pseudoglandular week 5 to 17 conducting epithelial tubes surrounded by thick mesenchyme are formed, extensive airway branching
Canalicular week 16 to 25 bronchioles are produced, increasing number of capillaries in close contact with cuboidal epithelium and the beginning of alveolar epithelium development
Saccular week 24 to 40 alveolar ducts and air sacs are developed
Alveolar late fetal to 8 years secondary septation occurs, marked increase of the number and size of capillaries and alveoli
         

Embryonic

  • Endoderm - tubular ventral growth from foregut pharynx.
  • Mesoderm - mesenchyme of lung buds.
  • Intraembryonic coelom - pleural cavities elongated spaces connecting pericardial and peritoneal spaces.

Pseudoglandular stage

  • week 5 - 17
  • tubular branching of the human lung airways continues
  • by 2 months all segmental bronchi are present.
  • lungs have appearance of a glandlike structure.
  • stage is critical for the formation of all conducting airways.
  • lined with tall columnar epithelium, the more distal structures are lined with cuboidal epithelium.
Human right lung 7-8 weeks.jpg

Human lung pseudoglandular stage[9]

Canalicular stage

  • week 16 - 24
  • Lung morphology changes dramatically
  • differentiation of the pulmonary epithelium results in the formation of the future air-blood tissue barrier.
  • Surfactant synthesis and the canalization of the lung parenchyma by capillaries begin.
  • future gas exchange regions can be distinguished from the future conducting airways of the lungs.

Saccular stage

Alveolar sac structure
  • week 24 to near term.
  • most peripheral airways form widened airspaces, termed saccules.
  • saccules widen and lengthen the airspace (by the addition of new generations).
  • future gas exchange region expands significantly.
  • Fibroblastic cells also undergo differentiation, they produce extracellular matrix, collagen, and elastin. May have a role in epithelial differentiation and control of surfactant secretion
  • The vascular tree also grows in length and diameter during this time.

Alveolar stage

  • near term through postnatal period.
  • 1-3 years postnatally alveoli continue to form through a septation process increasing the gas exchange surface area.
  • microvascular maturation occurs during this period.
  • respiratory motions and amniotic fluid are thought to have a role in lung maturation.

Premature babies have difficulties associated with insufficient surfactant (end month 6 alveolar cells type 2 appear and begin to secrete surfactant).

Respiratory Species Comparison

Mouse lung development[10]
Gestational age (days)
Species Term Embryonic Pseudoglandular Canalicular Saccular
Human 280 < 42 52 - 112 112 - 168 168
Primate 168 < 42 57 - 80 80 - 140 140
Sheep 150 < 40 40 - 80 80 - 120 120
Rabbit 32 < 18 21 - 24 24 - 27 27
Rat 22 < 13 16 - 19 19 - 20 21
Mouse 20 < 9 16 18 19

Table modified from[11]

Mouse

The following images are from a recent study of the development of bronchial branching in he mouse between E10 to E14.[12]

Mesenchyme (red) and epithelium (blue) the study used knockout mice to show the role of Wnt signalling in branching morphogenesis.

Mouse respiratory 36 to 60 somites.jpg

Mouse respiratory 44 to 60 somites.jpg

Links: Wnt | Mouse Development


Embryonic Respiratory Development

Lung development stage13-22.jpg

Pseudoglandular Respiratory Development

Human lung pseudoglandular.jpg

Pseudoglandular period identified in this paper (GA weeks 12 to 16)

Human lung at pseudoglandular stage showing E- and N-cadherin and β-catenin localization.[13]

Endocrine Lung

Neonatal Human Fetal Rabbit
Neonatal human pulmonary neuroendocrine cell EM01.jpg Fetal rabbit neuroepithelial body 01.jpg
Pulmonary neuroendocrine cell (EM)[14] Neuroepithelial body[14]

Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs)

  • develop in late embryonic to early fetal period.[15][16]
  • later in mid-fetal period clusters of these cells form neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs).
  • first cell type to differentiate in the airway epithelium.
    • differentiation regulated by proneural genes - mammalian homolog of the achaete-scute complex (Mash-1) and hairy and enhancer of split1 (Hes-1).[17]
  • located in the fetal lung at bronchiole branching points.
  • may stimulate mitosis to increase branching.
  • secrete 2 peptides - gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP)


Links: Endocrine - Other Tissues | OMIM - GRP | OMIM - CGRP

Lung Histology

Fetal lung histology.jpg
Fetal lung histology


Links: Respiratory System - Histology


Birth Changes

At birth the lung epithelium changes from a prenatal secretory to a postnatal absorptive function. Several factors have been identified as influencing this transport change including: epinephrine, oxygen, glucocorticoids, and thyroid hormones (for review see [18])

Upper Respiratory Tract

Adult upper respiratory tract conducting system
  • part of foregut development
  • anatomically the nose, nasal cavity and the pharynx
  • the pharynx forms a major arched cavity within the pharyngeal arches

Movies

The animations below allow a comparison of early and late embryonic lung development. Compare the size and relative position of the respiratory structures and their anatomical relationship to the developing gastrointestinal tract.

Stage13-GIT-icon.jpg
 ‎‎Gastrointestinal
Page | Play
Early embryo (stage 13)

3 dimensional reconstruction based upon a serial reconstruction from individual Carnegie stage 13 embryo slice images.

Stage22-GIT-icon.jpg
 ‎‎Gastrointestinal
Page | Play
Late embryo (stage 22)

3 dimensional reconstruction based upon a serial reconstruction from individual embryo slice images Carnegie stage 22, 27 mm Human embryo, approximate day 56.

Lung Cardiovascular

Links: Cardiovascular System Development

Pulmonary Circulation

  • pulmonary arteries and veins arise by vasculogenesis[19]

Pulmonary Veins

  • vasculogenesis in the mesenchyme surrounding the terminal buds during the pseudoglandular stage.
    • vasculogenesis - describes the formation of new blood vessels from pluripotent precursor cells.
  • angiogenesis in the canalicular and alveolar stages.
    • angiogenesis - describes the formation of new vessels from pre-existing vessels.


See also review [20]

Bronchial Circulation

Bronchial Arteries

  • vascularising the walls of the airways and the large pulmonary vessels providing giving oxygen and nutrients.
  • extend within the bronchial tree to the periphery of the alveolar ducts.
  • not found in the lungs until around 8 weeks of gestation.
    • one or two small vessels extend from the dorsal aorta and run into the lung alongside the cartilage plates of the main bronchus.

Bronchial Veins

  • small bronchial veins within the airway wall drain into the pulmonary veins.
  • large bronchial veins seen close to the hilum and drain into the cardinal veins and the right atrium.

See review [20]

Molecular

Mouse respiratory Tbx4 and Tbx5 model[21]
Mouse respiratory development[22]
Fibroblast growth factor signaling[22]
  • Nkx2-1 (Titf1) - ventral wall of the anterior foregut, identifies the future trachea.
  • Localized Fgf10 expression not required for lung branching but prevents epithelial differentiation[23] "As the lung buds grow out, proximal epithelial cells become further and further displaced from the distal source of Fgf10 and differentiate into bronchial epithelial cells. Interestingly, our data presented here show that once epithelial cells are committed to the Sox2-positive airway epithelial cell fate, Fgf10 prevents ciliated cell differentiation and promotes basal cell differentiation."
  • Opposing Fgf and Bmp activities regulate the specification of olfactory sensory and respiratory epithelial cell fates[24] " In this study, we provide evidence that in both chick and mouse, Bmp signals promote respiratory epithelial character, whereas Fgf signals are required for the generation of sensory epithelial cells. Moreover, olfactory placodal cells can switch between sensory and respiratory epithelial cell fates in response to Fgf and Bmp activity, respectively. Our results provide evidence that Fgf activity suppresses and restricts the ability of Bmp signals to induce respiratory cell fate in the nasal epithelium."
  • Heparan sulfate in lung morphogenesis[25] "Heparan sulfate (HS) is a structurally complex polysaccharide located on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, where it participates in numerous biological processes through interactions with a vast number of regulatory proteins such as growth factors and morphogens. ...he potential contribution of HS to abnormalities of lung development has yet to be explored to any significant extent, which is somewhat surprising given the abnormal lung phenotype exhibited by mutant mice synthesizing abnormal HS."
  • Signaling via Alk5 controls the ontogeny of lung Clara cells[26] "Clara cells, together with ciliated and pulmonary neuroendocrine cells, make up the epithelium of the bronchioles along the conducting airways. Clara cells are also known as progenitor or stem cells during lung regeneration after injury. ...Using lung epithelial cells, we show that Alk5-regulated Hes1 expression is stimulated through Pten and the MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways. Thus, the signaling pathway by which TGFbeta/ALK5 regulates Clara cell differentiation may entail inhibition of Pten expression, which in turn activates ERK and AKT phosphorylation."
  • Wt1 and retinoic acid signaling in the subcoelomic mesenchyme control the development of the pleuropericardial membranes and the sinus horns[27] "Pericardium and sinus horn formation are coupled and depend on the expansion and correct temporal release of pleuropericardial membranes from the underlying subcoelomic mesenchyme. Wt1 and downstream Raldh2/retinoic acid signaling are crucial regulators of this process."


Links: Sox | StemBook - Specification and patterning of the respiratory system

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Tushar J Desai, Douglas G Brownfield, Mark A Krasnow Alveolar progenitor and stem cells in lung development, renewal and cancer. Nature: 2014, 507(7491);190-4 PubMed 24499815
  2. 2.0 2.1 Julie K Watson, Steffen Rulands, Adam C Wilkinson, Aline Wuidart, Marielle Ousset, Alexandra Van Keymeulen, Berthold Göttgens, Cédric Blanpain, Benjamin D Simons, Emma L Rawlins Clonal Dynamics Reveal Two Distinct Populations of Basal Cells in Slow-Turnover Airway Epithelium. Cell Rep: 2015, 12(1);90-101 PubMed 26119728 | Cell Rep.
  3. Munemasa Mori, John E Mahoney, Maria R Stupnikov, Jesus R Paez-Cortez, Aleksander D Szymaniak, Xaralabos Varelas, Dan B Herrick, James Schwob, Hong Zhang, Wellington V Cardoso Notch3-Jagged signaling controls the pool of undifferentiated airway progenitors. Development: 2015, 142(2);258-67 PubMed 25564622
  4. Daniel R Chang, Denise Martinez Alanis, Rachel K Miller, Hong Ji, Haruhiko Akiyama, Pierre D McCrea, Jichao Chen Lung epithelial branching program antagonizes alveolar differentiation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2013, 110(45);18042-51 PubMed 24058167
  5. Tatsuya Yoshimi, Fumiko Hashimoto, Shigeru Takahashi, Yuji Takahashi Suppression of embryonic lung branching morphogenesis by antisense oligonucleotides against HOM/C homeobox factors. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim.: 2010, 46(8);664-72 PubMed 20535580
  6. Felicia Chen, Yuxia Cao, Jun Qian, Fengzhi Shao, Karen Niederreither, Wellington V Cardoso A retinoic acid-dependent network in the foregut controls formation of the mouse lung primordium. J. Clin. Invest.: 2010, 120(6);2040-8 PubMed 20484817
  7. Joseph Fawke, Sooky Lum, Jane Kirkby, Enid Hennessy, Neil Marlow, Victoria Rowell, Sue Thomas, Janet Stocks Lung function and respiratory symptoms at 11 years in children born extremely preterm: the EPICure study. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.: 2010, 182(2);237-45 PubMed 20378729
  8. M Solomon, H Grasemann, S Keshavjee Pediatric lung transplantation. Pediatr. Clin. North Am.: 2010, 57(2);375-91, table of contents PubMed 20371042
  9. Shinichi Abe, Masahito Yamamoto, Taku Noguchi, Toshihito Yoshimoto, Hideaki Kinoshita, Satoru Matsunaga, Gen Murakami, Jose Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez Fetal development of the minor lung segment. Anat Cell Biol: 2014, 47(1);12-7 PubMed 24693478 | Anat Cell Biol.
  10. Hongwei Yu, Andy Wessels, Jianliang Chen, Aimee L Phelps, John Oatis, G Stephen Tint, Shailendra B Patel Late gestational lung hypoplasia in a mouse model of the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2004, 4;1 PubMed 15005800 | BMC Developmental Biology
  11. K E Pinkerton, J P Joad The mammalian respiratory system and critical windows of exposure for children's health. Environ. Health Perspect.: 2000, 108 Suppl 3;457-62 PubMed 10852845 | PMC1637815 | Environ Health Perspect.
  12. Rachel S Kadzik, Ethan David Cohen, Michael P Morley, Kathleen M Stewart, Min Min Lu, Edward E Morrisey Wnt ligand/Frizzled 2 receptor signaling regulates tube shape and branch-point formation in the lung through control of epithelial cell shape. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2014, 111(34);12444-9 PubMed 25114215 PMC4151720 | Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.
  13. Kaarteenaho R, Lappi-Blanco E, Lehtonen S. Epithelial N-cadherin and nuclear β-catenin are up-regulated during early development of human lung. BMC Dev Biol. 2010 Nov 16;10:113. PMID: 21080917 | PMC2995473 | BMC Dev Biol.
  14. 14.0 14.1 R P DiAugustine, K S Sonstegard Neuroendocrinelike (small granule) epithelial cells of the lung. Environ. Health Perspect.: 1984, 55;271-95 PubMed 6376101
  15. E Cutz Neuroendocrine cells of the lung. An overview of morphologic characteristics and development. Exp. Lung Res.: 1982, 3(3-4);185-208 PubMed 6188605
  16. E Cutz, J E Gillan, A C Bryan Neuroendocrine cells in the developing human lung: morphologic and functional considerations. Pediatr. Pulmonol.: 1985, 1(3 Suppl);S21-9 PubMed 3906540
  17. Suzanne McGovern, Jie Pan, Guillermo Oliver, Ernest Cutz, Herman Yeger The role of hypoxia and neurogenic genes (Mash-1 and Prox-1) in the developmental programming and maturation of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells in fetal mouse lung. Lab. Invest.: 2010, 90(2);180-95 PubMed 20027181
  18. Pierre M Barker, Richard E Olver Invited review: Clearance of lung liquid during the perinatal period. J. Appl. Physiol.: 2002, 93(4);1542-8 PubMed 12235057
  19. Susan M Hall, Alison A Hislop, Sheila G Haworth Origin, differentiation, and maturation of human pulmonary veins. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.: 2002, 26(3);333-40 PubMed 11867341
  20. 20.0 20.1 Alison A Hislop Airway and blood vessel interaction during lung development. J. Anat.: 2002, 201(4);325-34 PubMed 12430957
  21. Ripla Arora, Ross J Metzger, Virginia E Papaioannou Multiple roles and interactions of Tbx4 and Tbx5 in development of the respiratory system. PLoS Genet.: 2012, 8(8);e1002866 PubMed 22876201 | PLoS Genet.
  22. 22.0 22.1 Cardoso WV, Kotton DN. Specification and patterning of the respiratory system. StemBook [Internet]. Cambridge (MA): Harvard Stem Cell Institute; 2008 Jul 16. PMID20614584 | StemBook - Specification and patterning of the respiratory system
  23. Thomas Volckaert, Alice Campbell, Erik Dill, Changgong Li, Parviz Minoo, Stijn De Langhe Localized Fgf10 expression is not required for lung branching morphogenesis but prevents differentiation of epithelial progenitors. Development: 2013, 140(18);3731-42 PubMed 23924632
  24. Esther Maier, Jonas von Hofsten, Hanna Nord, Marie Fernandes, Hunki Paek, Jean M Hébert, Lena Gunhaga Opposing Fgf and Bmp activities regulate the specification of olfactory sensory and respiratory epithelial cell fates. Development: 2010, 137(10);1601-11 PubMed 20392740
  25. Sophie M Thompson, Edwin C Jesudason, Jeremy E Turnbull, David G Fernig Heparan sulfate in lung morphogenesis: The elephant in the room. Birth Defects Res. C Embryo Today: 2010, 90(1);32-44 PubMed 20301217
  26. Yiming Xing, Changgong Li, Aimin Li, Somyoth Sridurongrit, Caterina Tiozzo, Saverio Bellusci, Zea Borok, Vesa Kaartinen, Parviz Minoo Signaling via Alk5 controls the ontogeny of lung Clara cells. Development: 2010, 137(5);825-33 PubMed 20147383
  27. Julia Norden, Thomas Grieskamp, Ekkehart Lausch, Bram van Wijk, Maurice J B van den Hoff, Christoph Englert, Marianne Petry, Mathilda T M Mommersteeg, Vincent M Christoffels, Karen Niederreither, Andreas Kispert Wt1 and retinoic acid signaling in the subcoelomic mesenchyme control the development of the pleuropericardial membranes and the sinus horns. Circ. Res.: 2010, 106(7);1212-20 PubMed 20185795


Reviews

David Warburton, Ahmed El-Hashash, Gianni Carraro, Caterina Tiozzo, Frederic Sala, Orquidea Rogers, Stijn De Langhe, Paul J Kemp, Daniela Riccardi, John Torday, Saverio Bellusci, Wei Shi, Sharon R Lubkin, Edwin Jesudason Lung organogenesis. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol.: 2010, 90;73-158 PubMed 20691848

Edward E Morrisey, Brigid L M Hogan Preparing for the first breath: genetic and cellular mechanisms in lung development. Dev. Cell: 2010, 18(1);8-23 PubMed 20152174

Peter H Burri Structural aspects of postnatal lung development - alveolar formation and growth. Biol. Neonate: 2006, 89(4);313-22 PubMed 16770071

Mala R Chinoy Lung growth and development. Front. Biosci.: 2003, 8;d392-415 PubMed 12456356

P H Burri Fetal and postnatal development of the lung. Annu. Rev. Physiol.: 1984, 46;617-28 PubMed 6370120


Articles

Sonja I Mund, Marco Stampanoni, Johannes C Schittny Developmental alveolarization of the mouse lung. Dev. Dyn.: 2008, 237(8);2108-16 PubMed 18651668

Peter H Burri Structural aspects of postnatal lung development - alveolar formation and growth. Biol. Neonate: 2006, 89(4);313-22 PubMed 16770071

Susan M Hall, Alison A Hislop, Sheila G Haworth Origin, differentiation, and maturation of human pulmonary veins. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.: 2002, 26(3);333-40 PubMed 11867341

S M Hall, A A Hislop, C M Pierce, S G Haworth Prenatal origins of human intrapulmonary arteries: formation and smooth muscle maturation. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.: 2000, 23(2);194-203 PubMed 10919986

M P Sparrow, M Weichselbaum, P B McCray Development of the innervation and airway smooth muscle in human fetal lung. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.: 1999, 20(4);550-60 PubMed 10100986


Search PubMed

Search April 2010

  • Respiratory System Development - All (30795) Review (3706) Free Full Text (7943)
  • Respiratory Development - All (28939) Review (5876) Free Full Text (7203)

Search Pubmed: Respiratory System Development | Respiratory Development

Additional Images

Upper Respiratory Tract

Lower Respiratory Tract

Diaphragm

External Links

External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name.


System Links: Introduction | Cardiovascular | Coelomic Cavity | Endocrine | Gastrointestinal Tract | Genital | Head | Immune | Integumentary | Musculoskeletal | Neural | Neural Crest | Placenta | Renal | Respiratory | Sensory | Birth



Glossary Links

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols



Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2016) Embryology Respiratory System Development. Retrieved February 7, 2016, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Respiratory_System_Development

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2016, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G