Developmental Signals - LIM-homeodomain

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The human and mouse genomes each contain at least 12 genes encoding LIM homeodomain (LIM-HD) transcription factors.[1]

This transcription factor family contain two amino terminal LIM domains and a characteristic DNA binding homeodomain.

Factor Links: AMH | hCG | BMP | sonic hedgehog | bHLH | HOX | FGF | FOX | Hippo | LIM | Nanog | NGF | Nodal | Notch | PAX | retinoic acid | SIX | Slit2/Robo1 | SOX | TBX | TGF-beta | VEGF | WNT | Category:Molecular

Some Recent Findings

  • Lhx2, an evolutionarily conserved, multifunctional regulator of forebrain development[2]"A hundred years after Lhx2 ortholog apterous was identified as a critical regulator of wing development in Drosophila, LIM-HD gene family members have proved to be versatile and powerful components of the molecular machinery that executes the blueprint of embryogenesis across vertebrate and invertebrate species. Here, we focus on the spatio-temporally varied functions of LIM-homeodomain transcription factor LHX2 in the developing mouse forebrain. Right from its earliest known role in telencephalic and eye field patterning, to the control of the neuron-glia cell fate switch, and the regulation of axon pathfinding and dendritic arborization in late embryonic stages, LHX2 has been identified as a fundamental, temporally dynamic, always necessary, and often sufficient factor in a range of critical developmental phenomena. While Lhx2 mutant phenotypes have been characterized in detail in multiple brain structures, only recently have we advanced in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which this factor acts. Common themes emerge from how this multifunctional molecule controls a range of developmental steps in distinct forebrain structures. Examining these shared features, and noting unique aspects of LHX2 function is likely to inform our understanding of how a single factor can bring about a diversity of effects and play central and critical roles across systems and stages. The parallels in LHX2 and APTEROUS functions, and the protein complexes they participate in, offer insights into evolutionary strategies that conserve tool kits and deploy them to play new, yet familiar roles in species separated by hundreds of millions of years."
More recent papers  
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Search term: homeodomain LIM homeodomain

<pubmed limit=5>LIM homeodomain</pubmed>
<pubmed limit=5>Lhx2</pubmed>

Older papers  
These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.

See also the Discussion Page for other references listed by year and References on this current page.



LH2 is expressed in the rodent in both developing and adult central nervous system.

OMIM - Lhx2

Human LIM


Developmental patterning signal.


LH2 is expressed in the rodent in both developing and adult central nervous system.

Links: neural

Signaling Pathway

Additional Images


  1. Hunter CS & Rhodes SJ. (2005). LIM-homeodomain genes in mammalian development and human disease. Mol. Biol. Rep. , 32, 67-77. PMID: 16022279
  2. Chou SJ & Tole S. (2018). Lhx2, an evolutionarily conserved, multifunctional regulator of forebrain development. Brain Res. , , . PMID: 29522720 DOI.


Mallo M, Wellik DM & Deschamps J. (2010). Hox genes and regional patterning of the vertebrate body plan. Dev. Biol. , 344, 7-15. PMID: 20435029 DOI.


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2024, June 12) Embryology Developmental Signals - LIM-homeodomain. Retrieved from

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