Carnegie stage 11

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Introduction

Stage11 bf2.jpg Stage11 sem6.jpg

Facts

Week 4, 23 - 26 days, 2.5 - 4.5 mm, Somite Number 13 - 20

Gestational Age GA - week 6

Summary

  • Ectoderm: Neural tube continues to close, Rostral neuropore closes
  • Mesoderm: continued segmentation of paraxial mesoderm (13 - 20 somite pairs), heart tube bending

This early week 4 embryonic stage shows key features of heart tube and neural plate to tube development.

The embryo is still transparent enough to view the underlying somite and transverse septum development.


See also Carnegie stage 11 Events

The embryo is still quite small and is comparable in size to the external yolk sac.

There are a number of different images and resources available for this embryonic stage including:

Lateral (right) view of embryo

Features

rostral neuropore closing, forebrain, neural tube in region of developing spinal cord, somites, caudal neuropore, connecting stalk, amnion

Identify: heart, rostral (cranial, anterior) neuropore closing, forebrain, neural tube in region of developing spinal cord, somites, caudal neuropore, connecting stalk, amnion

Stage 11 Links: Week 4 | Somitogenesis | Placodes | Lecture - Mesoderm | Lecture - Ectoderm | Lecture - Early Vascular | Science Practical | Carnegie Embryos | Category:Carnegie Stage 11 | Next Stage 12
  Historic Papers: 1908 | 1920 | 1923 somites 20 | 1928 somites 17-23 | 1959 stage 11 | 1964 dysraphism
Week: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Carnegie stage: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
Carnegie Stages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | About Stages | Timeline

Bright Field

Stage11 bf1.jpg Stage11 bf3.jpg Stage11 bf5.jpg
Embryo dorsal view Embryo ventral with 1 mm scale bar Embryo lateral view


Select image below to open full-size.


Stage 11 Images: BF1 - dorsal view | BF2 - lateral view | BF3 - ventral with scale bar | BF4 - ventral view | BF5 - lateral view | BF6 - ventral view | BF7 - Kyoto embryo | BF8 - ventral head | BF9 - ventral head | BF10 - dorsal neural | BF11 - ventral embryo and yolk sac | Scanning EM embryo | Carnegie stage 11

Scanning EM

Stage11 sem13.jpg

This is a scanning EM of the embryo dorsal view showing the neural tube closing with open neuropores and the paired somites visible through the thin ectoderm. Features: surface ectoderm, neural tube, cranial (anterior) neuropore, caudal (posterior) neuropore, somites, heart, cut edge of amnion, 24 days, 13 somite pairs.

Stage11 sem11.jpg

This is a scanning EM of the embryo fractured close to the midline to show the hindbrain rhombomeres. Features: surface ectoderm, neural tube, hindbrain rhombomeres, forebrain, buccopharyngeal membrane, yolk sac, 25 days, 19 somite pairs.

Stage11 sem20.jpg

This is a scanning EM of the embryo superior dorsal view showing the paired otic placodes sinking into the surface at the level of the hindbrain. Features: surface ectoderm, paired otic placodes, pharyngeal arches heart, 25 days, 19 somite pairs.

Stage11 sem5.jpg

This is a scanning EM of the embryo dorsolateral view showing the neural tube closing with open neuropores and the paired somites visible through the thin ectoderm. Features: surface ectoderm, neural tube, cranial (anterior) neuropore, caudal (posterior) neuropore, somites, heart, cut edge of amnion, 24 days, 13 somite pairs.

Stage11 sem10.jpg

This is a scanning EM of the embryo fractured to show the neural tube, notochord and somites. Features: surface ectoderm, neural tube, notochord, somites, somitocoels, dorsal aortas, gastrointestinal tract, 25 days, 19 somite pairs.

Stage11 sem100.jpg

This is a labeled version of the scanning EM of the fractured embryo.

Cranial End of Embryo
Stage11 sem8.jpg Stage11 sem81.jpg

Buccopharyngeal Membrane

The degenerating buccopharyngeal membrane is shown at the floor of the stomodeum.

Stage11 sem3b.jpg Stage11 sem3b.gif

Neuropores

Neural Crest

Stage11 sem21.jpg Scanning EM showing low power image of whole embryo and region shown in detail box right of neural crest cells.
Links: Neural Crest Development

Image Source: Scanning electron micrographs of the Carnegie stages of the early human embryos are reproduced with the permission of Prof Kathy Sulik, from embryos collected by Dr. Vekemans and Tania Attié-Bitach. Images are for educational purposes only and cannot be reproduced electronically or in writing without permission.

Kyoto Collection

Stage11 bf7.jpgStage11 bf71.jpg

View: This is a left dorsolateral view of embryo. Amniotic membrane removed.


Stage11 K17941-01.jpg

View: Transverse section (scale bar 0.5 mm)


Image source: The Kyoto Collection images are reproduced with the permission of Prof. Kohei Shiota and Prof. Shigehito Yamada, Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan for educational purposes only and cannot be reproduced electronically or in writing without permission.

Carnegie Collection

Stage11 bf13.jpg Stage11 bf14.jpg Stage11 bf15.jpg Stage11 bf16.jpg

Carnegie stage 11: 6344 dorsolateral | 6344 dorsal | 6784 ventral | 6050 right
iBook - Carnegie Embryos  
link=http://itunes.apple.com/au/book/the-carnegie-staged-embryos/id510004473?mt=11 iTunes link
  • iTunes link | iBook Store
  • Description - Imagine the excitement of seeing this incredible early period of human development for the first time. Now consider that much of our initial understanding of human development is based upon study of historic embryo collections. You can now look at these historic images of the first 8 weeks after fertilisation and explore for yourself the changes that occur in human development during this key period. This current book is designed as an atlas of the Carnegie embryo stages with some brief notes and additional information covering the first 8 weeks of development. These images are from from the beginning of last century and are one of the earliest documented series of human embryos collected for basic research and medical education on development. I hope you enjoy learning about the amazing early events that begin to make and shape us. This is the second book in a series of educational releases from UNSW Embryology.
  • Release: First Edition - Mar 12, 2012 ISBN 978-0-7334-3148-7 Print Length 82 Pages, 25.8 MB Language English.
  • PDF Preview version 3.87 MB (Read the associated information, this is an edited educational preview version with many features not functioning).
  • The current website also includes numerous embryo images from this textbook (see Embryonic Development and Carnegie Embryos).


Carnegie Collection - Stage 11 
Serial No. Pairs of somites Size (mm) Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Plane Thinness (µm) Stain Year Notes
12 14 E, 2.1 Ch, 13 Poor P Transverse 10 Al. carm. 1893
164 18 E, 3.5 Ch, 14 Good Formol P Transverse 20 Al. carm. 1913
318 13/14 E, 2.5 Ch, 16 Good P Transverse 25 Al. carm. 1905
470 17 E, 4.3 Ch, 16 Good Formol P Transverse 10 Al. carm. . 1910
779 14 E, 2.75 Good C Transverse 15 Al. coch. 1913 Dysraphism. Noted by Dekaban (1964)[1]
1182b E, 3 Ch, 15x12x5 Good Formol  ? Transverse 20 Al. carm. 1915
2053 20 E, 3.1 Ch, 12 Exc. Formol P Trans. 10 Al. coch. 1918 Most advanced in group. Ag added to slide 2
Monographs by Davis (1923)[2] and Congdon (1922)[3]
4315 17 E, 4.7 Ch, 23x10.4X11 Excellent  ? C-P Transverse 10 I.H. & E. 1923 Univ. Chicago No. 951. Wen (1928)[4]
4529 14 E, 2.4 Ch, 21 Excellent Formol P Transverse 10 Al. coch, or. G. 1924 Heuser (1930)[5]
4783 13 E, 2.3 Fair  ?  ? Transverse 5 I.H. 1924 Wallin (1913)[6]
4877 13 E, 2 Ch, 15 Good Formol P Transverse 15 Al. coch. 1925
5072 17 E, 3 Good Formol P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1925 Tubal. Type specimen. Atwell (1930)[7]
6050 19/21 E.,3 Ch, 10 Good Formol C-P Cor. 10 Al. coch. 1930 Advanced
6344 13 E, 2.5 Ch, 17 Excellent Formol C-P Transverse 6 Al. coch. 1931 Least advanced in group
6784 17 E, 5 Ch, 16 Excellent Formol C-P Transverse 6 I.H, or. G. 1933
7358 16 E, ? Ch, 15 Poor Alc, formol p Oblique 25 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1936
7611 16 E., 2.4 Ch., 12 Excellent Bouin C-P Transverse 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1938
Template:CE7665 19 E., 4.36 Excellent  ? C-P Transverse 6 1939 Univ. Chicago No. H 1516
Template:CE7702 17 E, 3.7 Ch., 14 Good Formol C-P Transverse 10 Al. coch. 1940 Returned to B M Patten
7851 13 E., 4.3 Ch, 18 Excellent Formol C-P Transverse 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1940 Slightly injured
Template:CE8005 16/17 E, 3 Excellent Bouin C-P Transverse 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1942 Tubal.
8116 17 E, 14 Ch.. 17 Good Formol p Sagittal 8 Azan 1953
8962 15 E, 1.55 Good  ? * Sagittal  ?  ? 1952 Tubal. Univ. Chicago No. H 810
Abbreviations
  • Size - E. is the greatest length of the embryo and Ch. is the mean diameter of the chorion.
  • Grade - total grade of the specimen and includes both its original quality and the condition of the mounted sections.
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin (Bouin solution)
  •  ? - unknown or not determined.
References
  1. Dekaban AS. and Bartelmez GW. Complete Dysraphism in 14 Somite Human Embryo. (1964) A Contribution To Normal And Abnormal Morphogenesis. Am. J. Anat. 115: 27-38. PMID 14199785
  2. Davis CL. Description of a human embryo having twenty paired somites. (1923) Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ. 332, Contrib. Embryol., 15: 1-51.
  3. Congdon ED. Transformation of the aortic-arch system during the development of the human embryo. (1922) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ 277, 14:47-110.
  4. Wen IC. The anatomy of human embryos with seventeen to twenty-three pairs of somites (1928) J. Comp. Neural., 45: 301-376.
  5. Heuser CH. A human embryo with 14 pairs of somites. (1930) Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ. 414, Contrib. Embryol., 22:135-153.
  6. Wallin IE. A human embryo of thirteen somites. (1913) Amer. J Anat. 15(3): 319-331.
  7. Atwell WJ. A human embryo with seventeen pairs of somites. (1930) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 407, 21: 1-24.

Historic Embryology

Harvard Collection No. 714

Keibel Collection Pfannenstiel III

Keibel F. and Elze C. Normal Plates of the Development of the Human Embryo (Homo sapiens). (1908) Vol. 8 in series by Keibel F. Normal plates of the development of vertebrates (Normentafeln zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbelthiere) Fisher, Jena., Germany. Shown as Embryo No.6 (Plate 1 fig. Vr. and Plate 2 fig. Vv.). Text-Book of Embryology (1921) Fig. 84

Low A. Description of a human embryo of 13-14 mesodermic somites. (1908) J Anat Physiol. 42(3): 237-51. PMID 17232769 | PMC1289161

Chicago Collection H951

Wen IC. The anatomy of human embryos with seventeen to twenty-three pairs of somites (1928) J. Comp. Neural., 45: 301-376. H951 is a University of Chicago Collection 17 somite embryo.

Carnegie Collection

Davis CL. Description of a human embryo having twenty paired somites. (1923) Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ. 332, Contrib. Embryol., 15: 1-51.

Heuser CH. A human embryo with 14 pairs of somites. (1930) Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ. 414, Contrib. Embryol., 22:135-153.

Atwell WJ. A human embryo with seventeen pairs of somites. (1930) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 407, 21: 1-24.

Histology


Stage 11 histology links: optic pit | optic vesicle-hindbrain | neural tube roof plate 1 | neural tube roof plate 2

Events

  • Cardiovascular - heart beating and peristaltic flow begins.[1]
  • Hearing - at 16 somites the otic pit is formed and lies dorsal to the second pharyngeal groove (cleft).[2]
  • Vision - right and left optic primordia meet at the optic chiasma forming a U-shaped rim.[3]
  • Gastrointestinal - cloacal membrane is located on the ventral surface of the caudal part of the body wall, in a central oval depression.
  • Meninges (Spinal Cord) - migration of cells from the somites has increased in embryos and the neural crests have undergone rapid development. Extending ventrally from the neural crests, and appearing to be continuous with them, is a single layered strand of cells. This extends along the lateral edge of the neural tube and contains cells which are more flattened and elongated than those migrating from the somite.[4]


References

  1. de Vries PA. and Saunders JBdeCH. Development of the ventricles and spiral outflow tract in the human heart. (1962) Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ. 621, Contrib. Embryol., 37: 87-114.
  2. Bartelmez GW. and Evans HM. Development of the human embryo during the period of somite formation, including embryos with 2 to 16 pairs of somites. (1926) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 362, 17: 1-67.
  3. A A Pearson The development of the eyelids. Part I. External features. J. Anat.: 1980, 130(Pt 1);33-42 PubMed 7364662
  4. Sensenig EC. The early development of the meninges of the spinal cord in human embryos. (1951) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 611,

Additional References

Mizoguti H. A fifteen-somite human embryo. (1989) Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol. 116:1-102. PMID: 2610025

F Müller, R O'Rahilly The development of the human brain and the closure of the rostral neuropore at stage 11. Anat. Embryol.: 1986, 175(2);205-22 PubMed 3826651



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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Carnegie stage 11. Retrieved August 23, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Carnegie_stage_11

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© Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G