Carnegie Stage Comparison

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Introduction

Stages are based on the external and/or internal morphological development of the vertebrate embryo, and are not directly dependent on either age or size. The human embryonic period proper is divided into 23 Carnegie stages. Criteria beyond morphological features include age in days, number of somites present, and embryonic length.


As this staging can be applied to all vertebrates, and most vertebrate embryos develop during the embryonic period in much the same way, we can directly compare the timing of development for different species.


From the table you can see that to reach the end of embryonic development, Carnegie stage 23, can take from as little as 10 days in chickens to nearly 60 days in humans. Carnegie is the name of a historical US Institute that historically categorised these developmental stages.


Please note that these species comparisons are approximate only with some variations found in the scientific literature. There was also a 1954 paper comparing human and mouse stages.[1]

Links: Embryonic Development | Carnegie Stage Comparison | Carnegie Institution - Contributions to Embryology | Human Embryo Collections


Carnegie Stages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | About Stages | Timeline

Species Comparison of Carnegie Stages

Carnegie stages species comparison.jpg

Data For Carnegie Stages Comparison Graph (Species/Days)

Species Stage
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Human[2] Days 20 22 24 28 30 33 36 40 42 44 48 52 54 55 58
baboon[3] Days 23 25 27 28 29 30 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47
monkey[4] Days 21 22 25 28 29 30 32 34 36 37 38 40 42 44 46
marmoset[5] Days 57 60 64 67 74
mouse[6] Days 9 9.5 10 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5 16
rat[7] Days 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5 16 16.5 17 17.5
hamster[8] Days 10 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5 16 16.5 17
guinea pig[9][10] Days 14.5 15 15.5 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 29
rabbit[11] Days 8 8.5 9.5 10.5 11 12 12.5 13.5 14 14.5 15.5 16 16.5 17 18
sheep[12] Days 15 16 17.5 18.5 19.5 20.5 22 23 24.5 25.5 27.5 29.5 30 33
pig[13] Days 14 15 16 17 18 19 20.5 21.5 23 24 25.5 27.5 29 30.5 32.5
chicken[14] Days 1 1.5 2 2.25 2.5 3 3.25 3.75 4.75 5.5 6.25 7.25 7.75 8.5 10
dog Days 27 28 29 30 34 36 37
bat[15] Days 40 44 46 50 54 60 70 80

Table References

  1. OTIS EM & BRENT R. (1954). Equivalent ages in mouse and human embryos. Anat. Rec. , 120, 33-63. PMID: 13207763
  2. O'Rahilly R. (1979). Early human development and the chief sources of information on staged human embryos. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. , 9, 273-80. PMID: 400868
  3. Hendrickx Embryology of the baboon. University of Chicago Press.
  4. Hendrickx and Sawey Embryology of the rhesus monkey. The Rhesus Monkey, Bourne (ed), Academic Press, NY (1975)
  5. Phillips IR. (1976). The embryology of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol , 52, 3-47. PMID: 827927
  6. Theiler K. The House Mouse: Atlas of Mouse Development (1972, 1989) Springer-Verlag, NY. Online
  7. Witschi E. Rat Development. In: Growth Including Reproduction and Morphological Development. (1962) Altman PL. and Dittmer DS. ed. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., Washington DC, pp. 304-314.
  8. ten Donkelaar HJ, Geysberts LG & Dederen PJ. (1979). Stages in the prenatal development of the Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus). Anat. Embryol. , 156, 1-28. PMID: 453550
  9. Harman MT. and Dobrovolny P. The development of the external form of the guinea-pig (Cavia cobaya) between the ages of 11 days and 20 days of gestation. (1932) Amer. J Anat. 49(3) : 351-378.
  10. Harman MT. and Dobrovolny P. The development of the external form of the guinea-pig (Cavia cobaya) between the ages of 21 days and 35 days of gestation. (1933) J. of Morphology, 54(3): 493-519.
  11. Edwards, JA. The external development of the rabbit and rat embryo. In: D.H.M. Woollam, Editor, Advances in Teratology Vol. 3, Logos Press, London (1968)
  12. Bryden MM, Evans HE & Binns W. (1972). Embryology of the sheep. I. Extraembryonic membranes and the development of body form. J. Morphol. , 138, 169-85. PMID: 5078578 DOI.
  13. Marrable , AW. The Embryonic Pig: A Chronological Account. Pitman Medical, London (1971)
  14. Hamburger V & Hamilton HL. (1992). A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. 1951. Dev. Dyn. , 195, 231-72. PMID: 1304821 DOI.
  15. Cretekos CJ, Weatherbee SD, Chen CH, Badwaik NK, Niswander L, Behringer RR & Rasweiler JJ. (2005). Embryonic staging system for the short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata, a model organism for the mammalian order Chiroptera, based upon timed pregnancies in captive-bred animals. Dev. Dyn. , 233, 721-38. PMID: 15861401 DOI.

Earlier Stage Timing

Species Embryonic Comparison Timeline
Carnegie Stage
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Human Days 1 2-3 4-5 5-6 7-12 13-15 15-17 17-19 20 22 24 28 30 33 36 40 42 44 48 52 54 55 58
Mouse Days 1 2 3 E4.5 E5.0 E6.0 E7.0 E8.0 E9.0 E9.5 E10 E10.5 E11 E11.5 E12 E12.5 E13 E13.5 E14 E14.5 E15 E15.5 E16
Rat Days 1 3.5 4-5 5 6 7.5 8.5 9 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5 16 16.5 17 17.5
Note these Carnegie stages are only approximate day timings for average of embryos. Links: Carnegie Stage Comparison
Table References  
Human

O'Rahilly R. (1979). Early human development and the chief sources of information on staged human embryos. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. , 9, 273-80. PMID: 400868

Mouse
Theiler K. The House Mouse: Atlas of Mouse Development (1972, 1989) Springer-Verlag, NY. Online
OTIS EM & BRENT R. (1954). Equivalent ages in mouse and human embryos. Anat. Rec. , 120, 33-63. PMID: 13207763

Rat
Witschi E. Rat Development. In: Growth Including Reproduction and Morphological Development. (1962) Altman PL. and Dittmer DS. ed. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., Washington DC, pp. 304-314.
Pérez-Cano FJ, Franch À, Castellote C & Castell M. (2012). The suckling rat as a model for immunonutrition studies in early life. Clin. Dev. Immunol. , 2012, 537310. PMID: 22899949 DOI.

Heart Development Staging

The table below is from a 2016 review of human heart development.[1]


Human Mouse
Carnegie
Stage
Post-ovulatory
Days
Size (mm)
Greatest Length
Theiler
Stage
Post-conception
Days
Size (mm)
Crown-rump
11 24 2.5 - 4.5 14 9 - 9.5 2.1
12 26 3 - 5 15 9.5 - 10.25 2.5
13 28 4 - 6 16 10.25 - 10.5 3.6
14 32 5 - 7 17 10.5 4.1
15 33 7 - 9 18 11 4.6
16 37 8 - 11 19 11.5 6 - 7
17 41 11 - 14 20 12 7
18 44 13 - 17 21 12.5 - 13 8.2
19 47.5 16 - 18 21 12.5 - 13 8.2
20 50.5 18 - 22 22 13.5 - 14 9.1
21 52 22 - 24 22 13.5 - 14 9.1
22 54 23 - 28 22 13.5 - 14 9.1
23 56.5 27 - 31 22 13.5 - 14 9.1
26 17.5 - 18 17.8

Notes: Carnegie Stages | Theiler Stage | Post-conception Days | Carnegie Stage Comparison

Reference: Anderson RH. Teratogenecity in the setting of cardiac development and maldevelopment. (2016)

Table 1. Comparison of Human and Murine Development  
Human Mouse
Carnegie
Stage
Post-ovulatory
Days
Size (mm)
Greatest Length
Theiler
Stage
Post-conception
Days
Size (mm)
Crown-rump
11 24 2.5 - 4.5 14 9 - 9.5 2.1
12 26 3 - 5 15 9.5 - 10.25 2.5
13 28 4 - 6 16 10.25 - 10.5 3.6
14 32 5 - 7 17 10.5 4.1
15 33 7 - 9 18 11 4.6
16 37 8 - 11 19 11.5 6 - 7
17 41 11 - 14 20 12 7
18 44 13 - 17 21 12.5 - 13 8.2
19 47.5 16 - 18 21 12.5 - 13 8.2
20 50.5 18 - 22 22 13.5 - 14 9.1
21 52 22 - 24 22 13.5 - 14 9.1
22 54 23 - 28 22 13.5 - 14 9.1
23 56.5 27 - 31 22 13.5 - 14 9.1
26 17.5 - 18 17.8

Notes: Human Embryonic Development | Carnegie Stages | Mouse Development | Theiler Stage | Post-conception Days | Carnegie Stage Comparison

Reference: Anderson RH. Teratogenecity in the setting of cardiac development and maldevelopment. (2016)

Growth

The following growth data is from Mall (1910)[2]


References



Glossary Links

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, July 19) Embryology Carnegie Stage Comparison. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Carnegie_Stage_Comparison

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© Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G