Rat Development

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Introduction

Rat.jpg

Rats (taxon - rattus) are readily available as inbred, outbred and mutant strains. They have been generally beaten as a model by their rodent mice brethren, as the molecular tools that became available (stem cells, knockout genes, etc).


Rat embryos do have the advantage of being much larger than mouse embryos and easy to breed. Another advantage of rats is in vision development studies, as that retinal development continues postnatally (most vertebrate neurological systems are difficult to access during periods of development). Rat development is also generally 1 day behind that of mouse. (The table below gives details relating to the staging of rat development). Below this are a list of internet resources relating to the rat.


Rat Links: Introduction | Stages | Rat Timeline | Albino Rat Development (1915) | Category:Rat

Some Recent Findings

  • Cross-Species Genome Wide Expression Analysis during Pluripotent Cell Determination in Mouse and Rat Preimplantation Embryos[1] "The transition between morula and blastocyst stage during preimplantation development represents the first differentiation event of embryogenesis. Morula cells undergo the first cellular specialization and produce two well-defined populations of cells, the trophoblast and the inner cell mass (ICM). ... This is the first study investigating the gene expression changes during the transition from morula to blastocyst in the rat preimplantation development. Our data show that in the pluripotent pool of cells of the rat and mouse preimplantation embryo substantial differential regulation of genes is present, which might explain the difficulties observed for the derivation and culture of rat ESCs using mouse conditions."
  • Generation of germline-competent rat induced pluripotent stem cells[2] "Our data clearly demonstrate that using only three reprogramming factors (Oct3/4, Klf4, and Sox2) rat somatic cells can be reprogrammed into a ground state. Our generated riPSCs exhibited germline transmission in either rat-rat intraspecific or mouse-rat interspecific chimeras."
  • Comparison of staging systems for the gastrulation and early neurulation period in rodents[3]"Because there is no standard developmental staging system for the early postimplantation period of rodent embryos, investigators must now choose between a variety of systems that differ significantly. We have reviewed many of these staging systems and have summarized the ambiguities within them and the inconsistencies among them. In order to compare systems, we first obtained a consensus of the order of developmental events from the literature, and then attempted to fit existing systems into this order taking into account inconsistencies in terminology and blurred borderlines between stages."
More recent papers
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches


Search term: Rat Embryology

Nurcan Yurtsever Kum, Yavuz F Yilmaz, Seren G Gurgen, Rauf O Kum, Muge Ozcan, Adnan Unal Effects of parenteral papaverine and piracetam administration on cochlea following acoustic trauma. Noise Health: 2018, 20(93);47-52 PubMed 29676295

A Güven Bağla, M Içkin Gülen, F Ercan, F Aşgün, E Ercan, C Bakar Changes in kidney tissue and effects of erythropoietin after acute heart failure. Biotech Histochem: 2018;1-14 PubMed 29671622

Fabiana Almeida Curylofo-Zotti, Muna S Elburki, Priscilla Aparecida Oliveira, Paulo Sérgio Cerri, Leandro Alves Santos, Hsi-Ming Lee, Francis Johnson, Lorne M Golub, Carlos Rossa, Morgana Rodrigues Guimarães-Stabili Differential effects of natural Curcumin and chemically modified curcumin on inflammation and bone resorption in model of experimental periodontitis. Arch. Oral Biol.: 2018, 91;42-50 PubMed 29669267

Merdan Serin, Dincer Altinel, Cem Leblebici, Burcu Biltekin, Mert Celikten, Fatih Irmak, Sevgi Kurt Yazar Preoperative subcutaneous sildenafil injection increases random flap survival in rats. Acta Cir Bras: 2018, 33(3);216-222 PubMed 29668772

Hui Xie, Wei-Cheng Lu Inhibition of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 decreases the expressions of caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 after focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rats. Neuropathology: 2018; PubMed 29665111

Species Stages Comparison

The table below gives an approximate comparison of human, mouse and rat embryos based upon Carnegie staging.

Species Stage
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Human Days 1 2-3 4-5 5-6 7-12 13-15 15-17 17-19 20 22 24 28 30 33 36 40 42 44 48 52 54 55 58
Mouse Days 1 2 3 4 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 9.5 E10 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5 16
Rat Days 1 3.5 4-5 5 6 7.5 8.5 9 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5 16 16.5 17 17.5
Note these Carnegie stages are only approximate day timings for average of embryos. Links: Carnegie Stage Comparison
References  
Human

O'Rahilly R. (1979). Early human development and the chief sources of information on staged human embryos. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. , 9, 273-80. PMID: 400868

Mouse
The House Mouse: Atlas of Mouse Development by Theiler Springer-Verlag, NY (1972, 1989). | online book
OTIS EM & BRENT R. (1954). Equivalent ages in mouse and human embryos. Anat. Rec. , 120, 33-63. PMID: 13207763

Rat
Witschi, E. (1962) Development: Rat. In: Growth Including Reproduction and Morphological Development. Altman, P. L. , and D. S. Dittmer, ed. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., Washington DC, pp. 304-314.
Pérez-Cano FJ, Franch À, Castellote C & Castell M. (2012). The suckling rat as a model for immunonutrition studies in early life. Clin. Dev. Immunol. , 2012, 537310. PMID: 22899949 DOI.


Postnatal Animal Models Mouse Rat Pig
Pregnancy period (days) 18 – 21 21 – 23 110 – 118
Placenta type Discoidal, decidual
hemoendothelial choroidea
Discoidal, decidual
hemoendothelial choroidea
Epitheliochorial
Litter size 6 – 12 6 – 15 11 – 16
Birth weight (g) 0.5 – 1.5 3 – 5 900 – 1600
Weaning weight male/female (g) 18 – 25/16 – 25 55 – 90/45 – 80 6000 – 8000
Suckling period (days) 21–28 21 28–49
Solid diet beginning (days) 10 12 12 – 15
Puberty male/female (week) 4 – 6/5 6/6 – 8 20 – 28
Life expectancy (years) 1 - 2 2 - 3 14 – 18
PMID 13207763

Rat oocyte 01.jpg

Rat oocytes showing metaphase plate[4]


Links: Rat Timeline

Placenta Development

For review of the rat placenta.[5]

Adrenal and Gonad Development

Adrenal and gonad steroidogenic factor 1 expression.jpg

Adrenal and gonad steroidogenic factor 1 expression[6]

References

  1. Casanova EA, Okoniewski MJ & Cinelli P. (2012). Cross-species genome wide expression analysis during pluripotent cell determination in mouse and rat preimplantation embryos. PLoS ONE , 7, e47107. PMID: 23077551 DOI.
  2. Hamanaka S, Yamaguchi T, Kobayashi T, Kato-Itoh M, Yamazaki S, Sato H, Umino A, Wakiyama Y, Arai M, Sanbo M, Hirabayashi M & Nakauchi H. (2011). Generation of germline-competent rat induced pluripotent stem cells. PLoS ONE , 6, e22008. PMID: 21789202 DOI.
  3. Fujinaga M, Brown NA & Baden JM. (1992). Comparison of staging systems for the gastrulation and early neurulation period in rodents: a proposed new system. Teratology , 46, 183-90. PMID: 1440421 DOI.
  4. Webb RL, Findlay KA, Green MA, Beckett TL & Murphy MP. (2010). Efficient activation of reconstructed rat embryos by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. PLoS ONE , 5, e9799. PMID: 20333307 DOI.
  5. Furukawa S, Hayashi S, Usuda K, Abe M, Hagio S & Ogawa I. (2011). Toxicological pathology in the rat placenta. J Toxicol Pathol , 24, 95-111. PMID: 22272049 DOI.
  6. Val P, Lefrançois-Martinez AM, Veyssière G & Martinez A. (2003). SF-1 a key player in the development and differentiation of steroidogenic tissues. Nucl. Recept. , 1, 8. PMID: 14594453 DOI.

Reviews

Articles

Kito S, Yano H, Ohta Y & Tsukamoto S. (2010). Superovulatory response, oocyte spontaneous activation, and embryo development in WMN/Nrs inbred rats. Exp. Anim. , 59, 35-45. PMID: 20224168

Sheng Y, Lin CC, Yue J, Sukhwani M, Shuttleworth JJ, Chu T & Orwig KE. (2010). Generation and characterization of a Tet-On (rtTA-M2) transgenic rat. BMC Dev. Biol. , 10, 17. PMID: 20158911 DOI.

Ahmed RP, Haider KH, Shujia J, Afzal MR & Ashraf M. (2010). Sonic Hedgehog gene delivery to the rodent heart promotes angiogenesis via iNOS/netrin-1/PKC pathway. PLoS ONE , 5, e8576. PMID: 20052412 DOI.

Search PubMed

Search Pubmed: Rat Development

Additional Images

Historic Images


Links: Bailey, F.R. and Miller, A.M. (1921)

External Links

External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.

  • Rat Genome Database RGD

Simon N Twigger, Mary Shimoyama, Susan Bromberg, Anne E Kwitek, Howard J Jacob, RGD Team The Rat Genome Database, update 2007--easing the path from disease to data and back again. Nucleic Acids Res.: 2007, 35(Database issue);D658-62 PubMed 17151068


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 ‎‎Mouse E13 microCT
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 ‎‎Mouse E14 microCT
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 ‎‎Mouse E15 microCT
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 ‎‎Mouse Head Plexus
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, April 22) Embryology Rat Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Rat_Development

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© Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G