Rat Development

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Introduction

Rat.jpg

Rats (taxon - rattus) are readily available as inbred, outbred and mutant strains. They have been generally beaten as a model by their rodent mice brethren, as the molecular tools that became available (stem cells, knockout genes, etc).


Rat embryos do have the advantage of being much larger than mouse embryos and easy to breed. Another advantage of rats is in vision development studies, as that retinal development continues postnatally (most vertebrate neurological systems are difficult to access during periods of development). Rat development is also generally 1 day behind that of mouse. (The table below gives details relating to the staging of rat development). Below this are a list of internet resources relating to the rat.


Rat Links: Introduction | Stages | Rat Timeline | Albino Rat Development (1915) | Category:Rat

Some Recent Findings

  • Cross-Species Genome Wide Expression Analysis during Pluripotent Cell Determination in Mouse and Rat Preimplantation Embryos[1] "The transition between morula and blastocyst stage during preimplantation development represents the first differentiation event of embryogenesis. Morula cells undergo the first cellular specialization and produce two well-defined populations of cells, the trophoblast and the inner cell mass (ICM). ... This is the first study investigating the gene expression changes during the transition from morula to blastocyst in the rat preimplantation development. Our data show that in the pluripotent pool of cells of the rat and mouse preimplantation embryo substantial differential regulation of genes is present, which might explain the difficulties observed for the derivation and culture of rat ESCs using mouse conditions."
  • Generation of germline-competent rat induced pluripotent stem cells [2] "Our data clearly demonstrate that using only three reprogramming factors (Oct3/4, Klf4, and Sox2) rat somatic cells can be reprogrammed into a ground state. Our generated riPSCs exhibited germline transmission in either rat-rat intraspecific or mouse-rat interspecific chimeras."
  • Comparison of staging systems for the gastrulation and early neurulation period in rodents[3]"Because there is no standard developmental staging system for the early postimplantation period of rodent embryos, investigators must now choose between a variety of systems that differ significantly. We have reviewed many of these staging systems and have summarized the ambiguities within them and the inconsistencies among them. In order to compare systems, we first obtained a consensus of the order of developmental events from the literature, and then attempted to fit existing systems into this order taking into account inconsistencies in terminology and blurred borderlines between stages."
More recent papers
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches


Search term: Rat Embryology

Aslı Ozmen, Gozde Unek, Emin Turkay Korgun Effect of glucocorticoids on mechanisms of placental angiogenesis. Placenta: 2017, 52;41-48 PubMed 28454696

Meral Erdal Erbatur, Şaban Cem Sezen, Aslıhan Cavunt Bayraktar, Mustafa Arslan, Mustafa Kavutçu, Muhammed Enes Aydın Effects of dexmedetomidine on renal tissue after lower limb ischemia reperfusion injury in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Libyan J Med: 2017, 12(1);1270021 PubMed 28452604

Ayse G Kebapcilar, Tolgay T Ilhan, Duygu Dursunoglu, Levent Kebapcilar, Suleyman H Ipekci, Suleyman Baldane, Mustafa G Ucar, Cem O Kirac, Kubra Kurt, Cetin Celik Efficacy comparison of oral rosuvastatin versus oral progesterone and bevacizumab on regression of surgically endometriotic implants in rats. Gynecol. Endocrinol.: 2017;1-5 PubMed 28452240

Badreldin H Ali, Turan Karaca, Yousuf Al Suleimani, Mohammed Al Za'abi, Jamila Al Kalbani, Mohammed Ashique, Abderrahim Nemmar The effect of swimming exercise on adenine-induced kidney disease in rats, and the influence of curcumin or lisinopril thereon. PLoS ONE: 2017, 12(4);e0176316 PubMed 28445490

Sezin Demirel, Mehmet Emir Yalvac, Sidika Tapsin, Serap Akyuz, Esin Ak, Sule Cetinel, Aysen Yarat, Fikrettin Sahin Tooth replantation with adipose tissue stem cells and fibrin sealant: microscopic analysis of rat's teeth. Springerplus: 2016, 5(1);656 PubMed 28443212

Species Stages Comparison

The table below gives an approximate comparison of human, mouse and rat embryos based upon Carnegie staging.

Species Stage
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Human Days 1 2-3 4-5 5-6 7-12 13-15 15-17 17-19 20 22 24 28 30 33 36 40 42 44 48 52 54 55 58
Mouse Days 1 2 3 4 5 6 7.0 8.0 9.0 9.5 E10 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5 16
Rat Days 1 3.5 4-5 5 6 7.5 8.5 9 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5 16 16.5 17 17.5
Note these Carnegie stages are only approximate day timings for average of embryos. Links: Carnegie Stage Comparison
References  
Human

R O'Rahilly Early human development and the chief sources of information on staged human embryos. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.: 1979, 9(4);273-80 PubMed 400868


Mouse
The House Mouse: Atlas of Mouse Development by Theiler Springer-Verlag, NY (1972, 1989). | online book
E M OTIS, R BRENT Equivalent ages in mouse and human embryos. Anat. Rec.: 1954, 120(1);33-63 PubMed 13207763


Rat
Witschi, E. (1962) Development: Rat. In: Growth Including Reproduction and Morphological Development. Altman, P. L. , and D. S. Dittmer, ed. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., Washington DC, pp. 304-314.
Francisco J Pérez-Cano, Àngels Franch, Cristina Castellote, Margarida Castell The suckling rat as a model for immunonutrition studies in early life. Clin. Dev. Immunol.: 2012, 2012;537310 PubMed 22899949


Postnatal Animal Models Mouse Rat Pig
Pregnancy period (days) 18 – 21 21 – 23 110 – 118
Placenta type Discoidal, decidual
hemoendothelial choroidea
Discoidal, decidual
hemoendothelial choroidea
Epitheliochorial
Litter size 6 – 12 6 – 15 11 – 16
Birth weight (g) 0.5 – 1.5 3 – 5 900 – 1600
Weaning weight male/female (g) 18 – 25/16 – 25 55 – 90/45 – 80 6000 – 8000
Suckling period (days) 21–28 21 28–49
Solid diet beginning (days) 10 12 12 – 15
Puberty male/female (week) 4 – 6/5 6/6 – 8 20 – 28
Life expectancy (years) 1 - 2 2 - 3 14 – 18
PMID 13207763

Rat oocyte 01.jpg

Rat oocytes showing metaphase plate[4]


Links: Rat Timeline

Placenta Development

For review of the rat placenta.[5]

Adrenal and Gonad Development

Adrenal and gonad steroidogenic factor 1 expression.jpg

Adrenal and gonad steroidogenic factor 1 expression[6]

References

  1. > Elisa A Casanova, Michal J Okoniewski, Paolo Cinelli Cross-species genome wide expression analysis during pluripotent cell determination in mouse and rat preimplantation embryos. PLoS ONE: 2012, 7(10);e47107 PubMed 23077551
  2. Sanae Hamanaka, Tomoyuki Yamaguchi, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Megumi Kato-Itoh, Satoshi Yamazaki, Hideyuki Sato, Ayumi Umino, Yukiko Wakiyama, Mami Arai, Makoto Sanbo, Masumi Hirabayashi, Hiromitsu Nakauchi Generation of germline-competent rat induced pluripotent stem cells. PLoS ONE: 2011, 6(7);e22008 PubMed 21789202 | PLoS ONE
  3. M Fujinaga, N A Brown, J M Baden Comparison of staging systems for the gastrulation and early neurulation period in rodents: a proposed new system. Teratology: 1992, 46(2);183-90 PubMed 1440421
  4. Robin L Webb, Kirk A Findlay, Michael A Green, Tina L Beckett, M Paul Murphy Efficient activation of reconstructed rat embryos by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. PLoS ONE: 2010, 5(3);e9799 PubMed 20333307 | PLoS One.
  5. Satoshi Furukawa, Seigo Hayashi, Koji Usuda, Masayoshi Abe, Soichiro Hagio, Izumi Ogawa Toxicological pathology in the rat placenta. J Toxicol Pathol: 2011, 24(2);95-111 PubMed 22272049 | PMC3234607 | [https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/tox/24/2/24_2_95/_article }
  6. Pierre Val, Anne-Marie Lefrançois-Martinez, Georges Veyssière, Antoine Martinez SF-1 a key player in the development and differentiation of steroidogenic tissues. Nucl. Recept.: 2003, 1(1);8 PubMed 14594453 | Nucl Recept.

Reviews

Articles

Seiji Kito, Hiroko Yano, Yuki Ohta, Satoshi Tsukamoto Superovulatory response, oocyte spontaneous activation, and embryo development in WMN/Nrs inbred rats. Exp. Anim.: 2010, 59(1);35-45 PubMed 20224168

Yi Sheng, Chih-Cheng Lin, Junming Yue, Meena Sukhwani, Jennifer J Shuttleworth, Tianjiao Chu, Kyle E Orwig Generation and characterization of a Tet-On (rtTA-M2) transgenic rat. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2010, 10;17 PubMed 20158911

Rafeeq P H Ahmed, Khawaja Husnain Haider, Jiang Shujia, Muhammad Rizwan Afzal, Muhammad Ashraf Sonic Hedgehog gene delivery to the rodent heart promotes angiogenesis via iNOS/netrin-1/PKC pathway. PLoS ONE: 2010, 5(1);e8576 PubMed 20052412


Search PubMed

Search Pubmed: Rat Development

Additional Images

Historic Images


Links: Bailey, F.R. and Miller, A.M. (1921)

External Links

External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.

  • Rat Genome Database RGD

Simon N Twigger, Mary Shimoyama, Susan Bromberg, Anne E Kwitek, Howard J Jacob, RGD Team The Rat Genome Database, update 2007--easing the path from disease to data and back again. Nucleic Acids Res.: 2007, 35(Database issue);D658-62 PubMed 17151068


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Rat Development. Retrieved May 1, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Rat_Development

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© Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G