|Embryology - 23 Mar 2017 Expand to Translate|
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Rats (taxon - rattus) are readily available as inbred, outbred and mutant strains. They have been generally beaten as a model by their rodent mice brethren, as the molecular tools that became available (stem cells, knockout genes, etc).
Rat embryos do have the advantage of being much larger than mouse embryos and easy to breed. Another advantage of rats is in vision development studies, as that retinal development continues postnatally (most vertebrate neurological systems are difficult to access during periods of development). Rat development is also generally 1 day behind that of mouse. (The table below gives details relating to the staging of rat development). Below this are a list of internet resources relating to the rat.
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Ozan Luay Abbas, Orhan Özatik, Yunus Kasm Terzi, Fikriye Yasemin Özatik, Rukiye Nar, Gamze Turna The Notch Signaling System Is Involved in the Regulation of Reparative Angiogenesis in the Zone of Stasis. J Burn Care Res: 2017; PubMed 28319529
José de Castro Souza Junior Neto, Lígia Reis de Moura Estevão, Liriane Baratella-Evêncio, Marcela Gabriela Feitosa Vieira, Ricardo Santos Simões, Rinaldo Florencio-Silva, Luís Evêncio-Luz, Joaquim Evêncio-Neto Mast cell concentration and skin wound contraction in rats treated with Ximenia americana L. Acta Cir Bras: 2017, 32(2);148-156 PubMed 28300877
Xiaofan Hu, Yulin Dong, Xiaohang Jin, Chunkui Zhang, Ting Zhang, Jie Zhao, Juan Shi, Jinlian Li The novel and potent anti-depressive action of triptolide and its influences on hippocampal neuroinflammation in a rat model of depression comorbidity of chronic pain. Brain Behav. Immun.: 2017; PubMed 28300618
M F Sönmez, Ş Ozdemir, M Guzel, E Kaymak The ameliorative effects of vinpocetine on apoptosis and HSP-70 expression in testicular torsion in rats. Biotech Histochem: 2017, 92(2);92-99 PubMed 28296551
M Cakir, H Duzova, A Taslidere, G Orhan, F Ozyalin Protective effects of salusin-α and salusin-β on renal ischemia/reperfusion damage and their levels in ischemic acute renal failure. Biotech Histochem: 2017, 92(2);122-133 PubMed 28296550
Species Stages Comparison
The table below gives an approximate comparison of human, mouse and rat embryos based upon Carnegie staging.
|Note these Carnegie stages are only approximate day timings for average of embryos. Links: Carnegie Stage Comparison
|Postnatal Animal Models||Mouse||Rat||Pig|
|Pregnancy period (days)||18 – 21||21 – 23||110 – 118|
|Placenta type|| Discoidal, decidual
| Discoidal, decidual
|Litter size||6 – 12||6 – 15||11 – 16|
|Birth weight (g)||0.5 – 1.5||3 – 5||900 – 1600|
|Weaning weight male/female (g)||18 – 25/16 – 25||55 – 90/45 – 80||6000 – 8000|
|Suckling period (days)||21–28||21||28–49|
|Solid diet beginning (days)||10||12||12 – 15|
|Puberty male/female (week)||4 – 6/5||6/6 – 8||20 – 28|
|Life expectancy (years)||1 - 2||2 - 3||14 – 18|
Rat oocytes showing metaphase plate
- Links: Rat Timeline
For review of the rat placenta.
Adrenal and Gonad Development
Adrenal and gonad steroidogenic factor 1 expression
- > Elisa A Casanova, Michal J Okoniewski, Paolo Cinelli Cross-species genome wide expression analysis during pluripotent cell determination in mouse and rat preimplantation embryos. PLoS ONE: 2012, 7(10);e47107 PubMed 23077551
- Sanae Hamanaka, Tomoyuki Yamaguchi, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Megumi Kato-Itoh, Satoshi Yamazaki, Hideyuki Sato, Ayumi Umino, Yukiko Wakiyama, Mami Arai, Makoto Sanbo, Masumi Hirabayashi, Hiromitsu Nakauchi Generation of germline-competent rat induced pluripotent stem cells. PLoS ONE: 2011, 6(7);e22008 PubMed 21789202 | PLoS ONE
- M Fujinaga, N A Brown, J M Baden Comparison of staging systems for the gastrulation and early neurulation period in rodents: a proposed new system. Teratology: 1992, 46(2);183-90 PubMed 1440421
- Robin L Webb, Kirk A Findlay, Michael A Green, Tina L Beckett, M Paul Murphy Efficient activation of reconstructed rat embryos by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. PLoS ONE: 2010, 5(3);e9799 PubMed 20333307 | PLoS One.
- Satoshi Furukawa, Seigo Hayashi, Koji Usuda, Masayoshi Abe, Soichiro Hagio, Izumi Ogawa Toxicological pathology in the rat placenta. J Toxicol Pathol: 2011, 24(2);95-111 PubMed 22272049 | PMC3234607 | [https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/tox/24/2/24_2_95/_article }
- Pierre Val, Anne-Marie Lefrançois-Martinez, Georges Veyssière, Antoine Martinez SF-1 a key player in the development and differentiation of steroidogenic tissues. Nucl. Recept.: 2003, 1(1);8 PubMed 14594453 | Nucl Recept.
Seiji Kito, Hiroko Yano, Yuki Ohta, Satoshi Tsukamoto Superovulatory response, oocyte spontaneous activation, and embryo development in WMN/Nrs inbred rats. Exp. Anim.: 2010, 59(1);35-45 PubMed 20224168
Yi Sheng, Chih-Cheng Lin, Junming Yue, Meena Sukhwani, Jennifer J Shuttleworth, Tianjiao Chu, Kyle E Orwig Generation and characterization of a Tet-On (rtTA-M2) transgenic rat. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2010, 10;17 PubMed 20158911
Rafeeq P H Ahmed, Khawaja Husnain Haider, Jiang Shujia, Muhammad Rizwan Afzal, Muhammad Ashraf Sonic Hedgehog gene delivery to the rodent heart promotes angiogenesis via iNOS/netrin-1/PKC pathway. PLoS ONE: 2010, 5(1);e8576 PubMed 20052412
Search Pubmed: Rat Development
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.
- Rat Genome Database RGD
Simon N Twigger, Mary Shimoyama, Susan Bromberg, Anne E Kwitek, Howard J Jacob, RGD Team The Rat Genome Database, update 2007--easing the path from disease to data and back again. Nucleic Acids Res.: 2007, 35(Database issue);D658-62 PubMed 17151068
|Animal Development: Axolotl | Bat | Cat | Chicken | Cow | Dog | Dolphin | Echidna | Fly | Frog | Grasshopper | Guinea Pig | Hamster | Kangaroo | Koala | Lizard | Medaka | Mouse | Pig | Platypus | Rabbit | Rat | Sea Squirt | Sea Urchin | Sheep | Worm | Zebrafish | Life Cycles | Development Timetable | K12|
Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Rat Development. Retrieved March 23, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Rat_Development