|Embryology - 1 May 2017 Expand to Translate|
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Rats (taxon - rattus) are readily available as inbred, outbred and mutant strains. They have been generally beaten as a model by their rodent mice brethren, as the molecular tools that became available (stem cells, knockout genes, etc).
Rat embryos do have the advantage of being much larger than mouse embryos and easy to breed. Another advantage of rats is in vision development studies, as that retinal development continues postnatally (most vertebrate neurological systems are difficult to access during periods of development). Rat development is also generally 1 day behind that of mouse. (The table below gives details relating to the staging of rat development). Below this are a list of internet resources relating to the rat.
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Aslı Ozmen, Gozde Unek, Emin Turkay Korgun Effect of glucocorticoids on mechanisms of placental angiogenesis. Placenta: 2017, 52;41-48 PubMed 28454696
Meral Erdal Erbatur, Şaban Cem Sezen, Aslıhan Cavunt Bayraktar, Mustafa Arslan, Mustafa Kavutçu, Muhammed Enes Aydın Effects of dexmedetomidine on renal tissue after lower limb ischemia reperfusion injury in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Libyan J Med: 2017, 12(1);1270021 PubMed 28452604
Ayse G Kebapcilar, Tolgay T Ilhan, Duygu Dursunoglu, Levent Kebapcilar, Suleyman H Ipekci, Suleyman Baldane, Mustafa G Ucar, Cem O Kirac, Kubra Kurt, Cetin Celik Efficacy comparison of oral rosuvastatin versus oral progesterone and bevacizumab on regression of surgically endometriotic implants in rats. Gynecol. Endocrinol.: 2017;1-5 PubMed 28452240
Badreldin H Ali, Turan Karaca, Yousuf Al Suleimani, Mohammed Al Za'abi, Jamila Al Kalbani, Mohammed Ashique, Abderrahim Nemmar The effect of swimming exercise on adenine-induced kidney disease in rats, and the influence of curcumin or lisinopril thereon. PLoS ONE: 2017, 12(4);e0176316 PubMed 28445490
Sezin Demirel, Mehmet Emir Yalvac, Sidika Tapsin, Serap Akyuz, Esin Ak, Sule Cetinel, Aysen Yarat, Fikrettin Sahin Tooth replantation with adipose tissue stem cells and fibrin sealant: microscopic analysis of rat's teeth. Springerplus: 2016, 5(1);656 PubMed 28443212
Species Stages Comparison
The table below gives an approximate comparison of human, mouse and rat embryos based upon Carnegie staging.
|Note these Carnegie stages are only approximate day timings for average of embryos. Links: Carnegie Stage Comparison
|Postnatal Animal Models||Mouse||Rat||Pig|
|Pregnancy period (days)||18 – 21||21 – 23||110 – 118|
|Placenta type|| Discoidal, decidual
| Discoidal, decidual
|Litter size||6 – 12||6 – 15||11 – 16|
|Birth weight (g)||0.5 – 1.5||3 – 5||900 – 1600|
|Weaning weight male/female (g)||18 – 25/16 – 25||55 – 90/45 – 80||6000 – 8000|
|Suckling period (days)||21–28||21||28–49|
|Solid diet beginning (days)||10||12||12 – 15|
|Puberty male/female (week)||4 – 6/5||6/6 – 8||20 – 28|
|Life expectancy (years)||1 - 2||2 - 3||14 – 18|
Rat oocytes showing metaphase plate
- Links: Rat Timeline
For review of the rat placenta.
Adrenal and Gonad Development
Adrenal and gonad steroidogenic factor 1 expression
- > Elisa A Casanova, Michal J Okoniewski, Paolo Cinelli Cross-species genome wide expression analysis during pluripotent cell determination in mouse and rat preimplantation embryos. PLoS ONE: 2012, 7(10);e47107 PubMed 23077551
- Sanae Hamanaka, Tomoyuki Yamaguchi, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Megumi Kato-Itoh, Satoshi Yamazaki, Hideyuki Sato, Ayumi Umino, Yukiko Wakiyama, Mami Arai, Makoto Sanbo, Masumi Hirabayashi, Hiromitsu Nakauchi Generation of germline-competent rat induced pluripotent stem cells. PLoS ONE: 2011, 6(7);e22008 PubMed 21789202 | PLoS ONE
- M Fujinaga, N A Brown, J M Baden Comparison of staging systems for the gastrulation and early neurulation period in rodents: a proposed new system. Teratology: 1992, 46(2);183-90 PubMed 1440421
- Robin L Webb, Kirk A Findlay, Michael A Green, Tina L Beckett, M Paul Murphy Efficient activation of reconstructed rat embryos by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. PLoS ONE: 2010, 5(3);e9799 PubMed 20333307 | PLoS One.
- Satoshi Furukawa, Seigo Hayashi, Koji Usuda, Masayoshi Abe, Soichiro Hagio, Izumi Ogawa Toxicological pathology in the rat placenta. J Toxicol Pathol: 2011, 24(2);95-111 PubMed 22272049 | PMC3234607 | [https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/tox/24/2/24_2_95/_article }
- Pierre Val, Anne-Marie Lefrançois-Martinez, Georges Veyssière, Antoine Martinez SF-1 a key player in the development and differentiation of steroidogenic tissues. Nucl. Recept.: 2003, 1(1);8 PubMed 14594453 | Nucl Recept.
Seiji Kito, Hiroko Yano, Yuki Ohta, Satoshi Tsukamoto Superovulatory response, oocyte spontaneous activation, and embryo development in WMN/Nrs inbred rats. Exp. Anim.: 2010, 59(1);35-45 PubMed 20224168
Yi Sheng, Chih-Cheng Lin, Junming Yue, Meena Sukhwani, Jennifer J Shuttleworth, Tianjiao Chu, Kyle E Orwig Generation and characterization of a Tet-On (rtTA-M2) transgenic rat. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2010, 10;17 PubMed 20158911
Rafeeq P H Ahmed, Khawaja Husnain Haider, Jiang Shujia, Muhammad Rizwan Afzal, Muhammad Ashraf Sonic Hedgehog gene delivery to the rodent heart promotes angiogenesis via iNOS/netrin-1/PKC pathway. PLoS ONE: 2010, 5(1);e8576 PubMed 20052412
Search Pubmed: Rat Development
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.
- Rat Genome Database RGD
Simon N Twigger, Mary Shimoyama, Susan Bromberg, Anne E Kwitek, Howard J Jacob, RGD Team The Rat Genome Database, update 2007--easing the path from disease to data and back again. Nucleic Acids Res.: 2007, 35(Database issue);D658-62 PubMed 17151068
|Animal Development: Axolotl | Bat | Cat | Chicken | Cow | Dog | Dolphin | Echidna | Fly | Frog | Grasshopper | Guinea Pig | Hamster | Kangaroo | Koala | Lizard | Medaka | Mouse | Pig | Platypus | Rabbit | Rat | Sea Squirt | Sea Urchin | Sheep | Worm | Zebrafish | Life Cycles | Development Timetable | K12|
Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Rat Development. Retrieved May 1, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Rat_Development