Buccopharyngeal membrane

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Introduction

Human Embryo Stage 11 buccopharyngeal membrane
Buccopharyngeal membrane - degenerating
Buccopharyngeal membrane position relative to adult anatomy

The buccopharyngeal membrane (Latin, bucca = cheek) or oral membrane, forms the external upper membrane limit (cranial end) of the early gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This membrane region first develops in the trilaminar embryo (week 3) during gastrulation and lies above the cranial end of the notochord. The "membrane" quality comes from being composed of only ectoderm and endoderm, without a middle (intervening) layer of mesoderm.

The membrane lies at the floor of the ventral depression (stomadeum) where the oral cavity will open. The membrane will break down during week 4 (GA week 6) to form the initial "oral opening" of the pharynx of the foregut. After this time the oral cavity and foregut are open to then Template:Amniotic cavity. The membrane region at the lower end of the gastrointestinal tract is the cloacal membrane that will break down at a later stage of development.


Related Topics  
Head Links: Introduction | Medicine Lecture | Medicine Lab | Science Lecture | Lecture Movie | Science Lab | pharyngeal arch | Craniofacial Seminar | mouth | palate | tongue | placode | skull | neural crest | Head and Face Movies | head abnormalities | Category:Head
Historic Head Embryology  
1910 Skull | 1910 Skull Images | 1912 Nasolacrimal Duct | 1921 Human Brain Vascular | 1923 Head Subcutaneous Plexus | 1919 21mm Embryo Skull | 1920 Human Embryo Head Size | 1921 43 mm Fetal Skull | Historic Disclaimer


GIT Links: Introduction | Medicine Lecture | Science Lecture | endoderm | mouth | oesophagus | stomach | liver | gallbladder | Pancreas | intestine | mesentery | tongue | taste | enteric nervous system | Stage 13 | Stage 22 | gastrointestinal abnormalities | Movies | Postnatal | milk | tooth | salivary gland | BGD Lecture | BGD Practical | GIT Terms | Category:Gastrointestinal Tract
GIT Histology Links: Upper GIT | Salivary Gland | Smooth Muscle Histology | Liver | Gallbladder | Pancreas | Colon | Histology Stains | Histology | GIT Development
Historic Embryology - Gastrointestinal Tract  
1878 Alimentary Canal | 1882 The Organs of the Inner Germ-Layer The Alimentary Tube with its Appended Organs | 1884 Great omentum and transverse mesocolon | 1902 The Organs of Digestion | 1903 Submaxillary Gland | 1906 Liver | 1907 Development of the Digestive System | 1907 Atlas | 1907 23 Somite Embryo | 1908 Liver and Vascular | 1910 Mucous membrane Oesophagus to Small Intestine | 1910 Large intestine and Vermiform process | 1911-13 Intestine and Peritoneum - Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 5 | Part 6 | 1912 Digestive Tract | 1912 Stomach | 1914 Digestive Tract | 1914 Intestines | 1914 Rectum | 1915 Pharynx | 1915 Intestinal Rotation | 1917 Entodermal Canal | 1918 Anatomy | 1921 Alimentary Tube | 1932 Gall Bladder | 1939 Alimentary Canal Looping | 2008 Liver | 2016 GIT Notes | Historic Disclaimer
Human Embryo: 1908 13-14 Somite Embryo | 1921 Liver Suspensory Ligament | 1926 22 Somite Embryo | 1907 23 Somite Embryo | 1937 25 Somite Embryo | 1914 27 Somite Embryo | 1914 Week 7 Embryo
Animal Development: 1913 Chicken | 1951 Frog


Some Recent Findings

  • Role of JNK during buccopharyngeal membrane perforation, the last step of embryonic mouth formation[1] "The buccopharyngeal membrane is a thin layer of cells covering the embryonic mouth. The perforation of this structure creates an opening connecting the external and the digestive tube which is essential for oral cavity formation. In humans, persistence of the buccopharyngeal membrane can lead to orofacial defects such as choanal atresia, oral synechiaes, and cleft palate. Little is known about the causes of a persistent buccopharyngeal membrane and, importantly, how this structure ruptures. We have determined, using antisense and pharmacological approaches, that Xenopus embryos deficient c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling have a persistent buccopharyngeal membrane. JNK deficient embryos have decreased cell division and increased cellular stress and apoptosis. However, altering these processes independently of JNK did not affect buccopharyngeal membrane perforation. JNK deficient embryos also have increased intercellular adhesion and defects in e-cadherin localization. Conversely, embryos with overactive JNK have epidermal fragility, increased E-cadherin internalization, and increased membrane localized clathrin. In the buccopharyngeal membrane, clathrin is colocalized with active JNK. Furthermore, inhibition of endocytosis results in a persistent buccopharyngeal membrane, mimicking the JNK deficient phenotype. The results of this study suggest that JNK has a role in the disassembly adherens junctions by means of endocytosis that is required during buccopharyngeal membrane perforation." {More? JNK = MAPK8 mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 | JNK-Signaling-Pathway)
More recent papers  
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Search term: Buccopharyngeal Membrane Development | Oral membrane | Persistent Buccopharyngeal Membrane

Older papers  
These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.

See also the Discussion Page for other references listed by year and References on this current page.

Buccopharyngeal Membrane Timeline

The key developmental changes in the buccopharyngeal membrane that can be morphologically observed on the embryo surface occur during week 4 (GA week 6) of human embryonic development.

Week: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Carnegie stage: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23



Stage 10 Embryo

A ventral view scanning EM embryo cranial end (day 21, 4 to 5 somites) showing early cardiac tube lying beneath brain fold. Between these two structures is where the stomedeum and buccopharyngeal membrane will form. Note that the pharyngeal arches are not yet visible.

Stage10 sem4.jpg

Stage 11 Embryo

A ventral view of the embryo head region (Carnegie stage 11, week 4, 25 days, 20 somite pairs) showing the buccopharyngeal membrane breaking down and opening the gastrointestinal tract to the amnion.

Note the position at the "floor" of the stomedeum and relative to the first pharyngeal arch and triangular shape. Midline crack in head is an artefact.

Bright Field Scanning EM Scanning EM
Stage11 bf9.jpg Stage11 sem3.jpg Stage11 sem4.jpg

Stage 12 Embryo

A ventral view of the embryo head region (Carnegie stage 12, week 4, 26 days, 25 somite pairs, CRL 5 mm). Note by this stage, one day later, the buccopharyngeal membrane has been entirely lost.

Stage12 sem2.jpg

Stage 13 Embryo

A ventral view of the embryo head region (Carnegie stage 13, week 4, CRL 5.5 mm).

ME18 001.jpg


Abnormalities

Persistent Buccopharyngeal Membrane

A persistent buccopharyngeal membrane is a very rare abnormality with only (2009) 23 reported cases in the literature. [2] There are a variety of clinical repair techniques.[3]

Persistence of the buccopharyngeal membrane can lead to several orofacial abnormalities:

  • choanal atresia - narrowing of the rear opening of the nasal cavity.
  • oral synechiaes - fibrous bands between the mucosal surfaces of the upper and lower alveolar ridges.
  • cleft palate - failure of the maxillary shelves to fuse to form the palate.[4]

A mouse model has shown that hedgehog mediates persistence of the buccopharyngeal membrane.[5]

1p36 Deletion Syndrome

 ICD-11 LD44.11 Deletions of the short arm of chromosome 1

The 1p36 deletion syndrome comprises a phenotypic presentation that includes central nervous system, cardiac, craniofacial, and airway anomalies. A single patient study identified a persistent buccopharyngeal membrane and unidentifiable larynx.[6]

Animal Models

Buccopharyngeal Membrane Animal Studies
Species Reference
chicken Waterman RE & Schoenwolf GC. (1980)[7]
frog Watanabe K, Sasaki F & Takahama H. (1984)[8] Houssin NS. etal. (2017)[1]
Hamster Waterman RE. (1977)[9]
mouse Poelmann RE. etal. (1985)[10]
Salamander Takahama H, Sasaki F & Watanabe K. (1988)[11]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Houssin NS, Bharathan NK, Turner SD & Dickinson AJ. (2017). Role of JNK during buccopharyngeal membrane perforation, the last step of embryonic mouth formation. Dev. Dyn. , 246, 100-115. PMID: 28032936 DOI.
  2. Verma SP & Geller K. (2009). Persistent buccopharyngeal membrane: report of a case and review of the literature. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. , 73, 877-80. PMID: 19342107 DOI.
  3. Bent JP, Klippert FN & Smith RJ. (1997). Management of congenital buccopharyngeal membrane. Cleft Palate Craniofac. J. , 34, 538-41. PMID: 9431473 DOI.
  4. Pillai KG, Kamath VV, Kumar GS & Nagamani N. (1990). Persistent buccopharyngeal membrane with cleft palate. A case report. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. , 69, 164-6. PMID: 2304741
  5. Tabler JM, Bolger TG, Wallingford J & Liu KJ. (2014). Hedgehog activity controls opening of the primary mouth. Dev. Biol. , 396, 1-7. PMID: 25300580 DOI.
  6. Ferril GR, Barham HP & Prager JD. (2014). Novel airway findings in a patient with 1p36 deletion syndrome. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. , 78, 157-8. PMID: 24290305 DOI.
  7. Waterman RE & Schoenwolf GC. (1980). The ultrastructure of oral (buccopharyngeal) membrane formation and rupture in the chick embryo. Anat. Rec. , 197, 441-70. PMID: 7212297 DOI.
  8. Watanabe K, Sasaki F & Takahama H. (1984). The ultrastructure of oral (buccopharyngeal) membrane formation and rupture in the anuran embryo. Anat. Rec. , 210, 513-24. PMID: 6524693 DOI.
  9. Waterman RE. (1977). Ultrastructure of oral (buccopharyngeal) membrane formation and rupture in the hamster embryo. Dev. Biol. , 58, 219-29. PMID: 885288
  10. Poelmann RE, Dubois SV, Hermsen C, Smits-van Prooije AE & Vermeij-Keers C. (1985). Cell degeneration and mitosis in the buccopharyngeal and branchial membranes in the mouse embryo. Anat. Embryol. , 171, 187-92. PMID: 3985368
  11. Takahama H, Sasaki F & Watanabe K. (1988). Morphological changes in the oral (buccopharyngeal) membrane in urodelan embryos: development of the mouth opening. J. Morphol. , 195, 59-69. PMID: 3339635 DOI.

Reviews

Chen J, Jacox LA, Saldanha F & Sive H. (2017). Mouth development. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Dev Biol , 6, . PMID: 28514120 DOI.

Articles

Houssin NS, Bharathan NK, Turner SD & Dickinson AJ. (2017). Role of JNK during buccopharyngeal membrane perforation, the last step of embryonic mouth formation. Dev. Dyn. , 246, 100-115. PMID: 28032936 DOI.

Arcand P & Haikal J. (1988). Persistent buccopharyngeal membrane. J Otolaryngol , 17, 125-7. PMID: 3385865

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, December 7) Embryology Buccopharyngeal membrane. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Buccopharyngeal_membrane

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G