Renal System - Molecular
|Embryology - 26 Sep 2020 Expand to Translate|
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|A personal message from Dr Mark Hill (May 2020)|
|contributors to the site. The good news is Embryology will remain online and I will continue my association with UNSW Australia. I look forward to updating and including the many exciting new discoveries in Embryology!|
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Renal Movies
- 4 Intermediate Mesoderm
- 5 Mesonephric Duct
- 6 Nephros Development
- 7 Nephron
- 8 References
- 9 Additional Images
- 10 Terms
- 11 External Links
- 12 Glossary Links
The paired adult kidneys consist of a functional unit called the "nephron", that filters blood, excretes waste, reabsorbs water (and other compounds) and has endocrine functions. Each adult human kidney typically contains about 750,000 nephrons, though the total number can vary significantly from as few as 250,000 to as many as 2,000,000.
In the embryo, nephron development, nephrogenesis, occurs through several stages involving classical epithelial/mesenchyme type of interactions. Nephrogenesis continues into the late fetal period (GA week 34–35) and while the fetal kidney does produce urine, not until after birth does the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) increases rapidly due to a postnatal drop in kidney vascular resistance and an increase in renal blood flow.
Draft Page - notice removed when complete.
|Factor Links: AMH | hCG | BMP | sonic hedgehog | bHLH | HOX | FGF | FOX | Hippo | LIM | Nanog | NGF | Nodal | Notch | PAX | retinoic acid | SIX | Slit2/Robo1 | SOX | TBX | TGF-beta | VEGF | WNT | Category:Molecular|
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.
Search term: Renal Embryology
<pubmed limit=5>Renal Embryology</pubmed>
- arise near the cloacal connection of the mesonephric duct
- branch from the mesonephric duct laterally into the intermediate mesoderm
- induce the surrounding mesoderm to differentiate - metanephric blastema
- this mesoderm will in turn signal back to differentiate the uteric bud
Epithelial - mesenchymal interaction
Uteric Bud forms - ureter, pelvis, calyces, collecting ducts
Three pairs appearing in sequence within intermediate mesoderm during development.
In humans, nephrogenesis only occurs before birth, though nephron maturation continues postnatally. Mean glomerular number shown to level at 36 weeks, increasing from about 15,000 at 15 weeks to 740,000 at 40 weeks.
|Nephron development has four identifiable developmental stages:
|Abbreviation||Growth Factor||Renal Development||Expression Location|
|BMP4||Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4||prevents ectopic ureteric bud outgrowth and extra ureteric bud divisions||mesenchymal cells surrounding mesonephric duct and stromal mesenchyme surrounding steric bud stalks|
|BMP7||Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7||survival of metanephric mesenchyme||metanephric mesenchyme|
|Fgf8||Fibroblast Growth Factor 8||transition of the induced cap mesenchyme into RVs||cap mesenchyme|
|GDNF||Glial-cell derived neurotrophic factor||induces steric bud outgrowth from mesonephric duct, interacts with Ret||metanephric mesenchyme|
|VEGF||Vascular endothelial growth factor||promotes endothelial cell proliferation, differentiation||s-shaped body|
|Wnt4||Wingless-Type MMTV Integration Site Family, Member 4||mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition||cap metanephric mesenchyme, pre-tubular aggregate, nephron progenitors|
|Wnt5a||Wingless-Type MMTV Integration Site Family, Member 5a||nephrogenesis induction, ectopic bud formation||steric bud, metanephric mesenchyme|
|Wnt9b||Wingless-type MMTV integration site family, Member 9B||renewal and differentiation of nephron progenitors and normal ureteric bud branching, mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition||steric bud stalk epithelial cells|
- Foxd1 - (Brain Factor-2) transcription factor that is a renal stroma specific gene.
- Links: OMIM Foxd1
- The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (8th Edition) by Keith L. Moore and T.V.N Persaud - Moore & Persaud Chapter 13 p303-346
- Larsen’s Human Embryology by GC. Schoenwolf, SB. Bleyl, PR. Brauer and PH. Francis-West - Chapter 10 p261-306
- Before We Are Born (5th ed.) Moore and Persaud Chapter14 p289-326
- Essentials of Human Embryology, Larson Chapter 10 p173-205
- Human Embryology, Fitzgerald and Fitzgerald Chapter 21-22 p134-152
- Developmental Biology by Gilbert, Scott F. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates, Inc.; c2000 Chapter 14 Intermediate Mesoderm | Figure 14.18. General scheme of development in the vertebrate kidney | Figure 23-23. Mechanism of mesenchymal inductive effect on the ureteric bud | Figure 14.21. Ureteric bud growth is dependent on GDNF and its receptor
- Molecular Cell Biology by Lodish, Harvey; Berk, Arnold; Zipursky, S. Lawrence; Matsudaira, Paul; Baltimore, David; Darnell, James E. New York: W. H. Freeman & Co.; c1999 Reciprocal Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions Regulate Kidney Development | Figure 23-21. Embryonic development of the kidney
<pubmed>25737276</pubmed> <pubmed>20691850</pubmed> <pubmed>19906853</pubmed> <pubmed>19828308</pubmed> <pubmed>19615554</pubmed> <pubmed>18184729</pubmed> <pubmed>17442697</pubmed> Forefronts Symposium on Nephrogenetics: from development to physiology March 8-11, 2007 Danvers, MA A meeting to synthesize an integrated view of the normal development and function of the kidney from the genetic standpoint.
Search April 2010
- Renal System Development - All (4837) Review (1505) Free Full Text (1079)
- Renal Development - All (31984) Review (7014) Free Full Text (6564)
bladder exstrophy - A congenital malformation with bladder open to ventral wall of abdomen (between umbilicus and pubic symphysis) and may have other anomolies associated with failure of closure of abdominal wall and bladder (epispadias, pubic bone anomolies).
blastema - Term used to describe a mass of undifferentiated cells. (More? Wilm's tumour)
diabetes insipidus - The disorder is related to the hormone antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also called vasopressin) its synthesis, secretion, receptors and signaling pathway. In diabetes insipidus there is an excretion of large amounts (up to 30 litres/day) of a watery urine and an unremitting thirst.
hydronephrosis - (congenital hydronephrosis, Greek, hydro = water) A kidney abnormality due to partial or complete obstruction at the pelvi-ureteric junction. This leads to a grossly dilated renal pelvis causing extensive renal damage before birth.
hyperplastic rests - In kidney development, embryonic blastema cells can persist and proliferate to form a pool of cells, which under either genetic or epigenetic influence can then change to become a neoplastic rest. Normally the majority of nephrogenic rests either regress or become dormant.
mesonephros - The second temporary stage of kidney development (pro-, meso-, meta-). The intermediate mesonephros develops and disappears with the exception of its duct, the mesonephric duct, which will form the male reproductive duct system. In males, the mesonephric tubules go on to form the ducts of the testis. In females, these degenerate. A few mesonephric tubules remain as efferent ductules in the male and vestigial remnants in the female.
mesonephric duct - (= Wollfian duct) An early developing urogenital duct running the length of the embryo that will differentiate and form the male reproductive duct system. In females this duct degenerates (some remnants may remain associated in broad ligament).
metanephros - The adult kidney, third stage of mammalian kidney (pro-, meso-, meta-) development within the intermediate mesoderm.
metanephric cap - In kidney development, the intermediate mesoderm which surrounds the ureteric bud and will develop into nephrons.
Multicystic Kidney - There is no functional kidney tissue present in the kidney and it is replaced by a multilocular cyst. This is non-familial and is produced by atresia of a ureter and is always unilateral.
neoplastic rest - In kidney development, a neoplastic rest can develop under either genetic or epigenetic influence from a hyperplastic rest, originating from an embryonic blastema cell. Normally the majority of nephrogenic rests either regress or become dormant.
nephrogenic rest - A kidney term used to describe the embryonic blastema cells which persist and under either genetic or epigenetic can change to become a neoplastic rest. These neoplastic rests can develop postnatally as a benign form (adenomatous rest) or a malignant Wilm's tumour form. The rests are further characterised by the time of generation leading to different anatomical kidney locations: early intralobar nephrogenic rests (within the renal lobe) and late pelilobar nephrogenic rests (periphery of the renal lobe) nephron - (Greek, nephros = kidney) The functional unit of the kidney.
nephros - (Greek, nephros = kidney) Term used to describe features associated with the kidney. (pronephros, mesonephros, metanephros, nephric, nephron, nephroblastoma).
podocyte - (visceral epithelial cell) kidney glomerulus cell forming the main component of the glomerular filtration barrier.
podocyte specific proteins - podocalyxin, glomerular epithelial protein-1, podocin, nephrin, synaptopodin, and alpha-actinin-4), podocyte synthesized proteins (vascular endothelial growth factor and novH), transcription factors (WT1 and PAX2).
pronephros - (Greek, pro = before) The first temporary stage of kidney development (pro-, meso-, meta-). This forms the kidney of primitive fish and lower vertebrates. Kidney development occurs within the intermediate mesoderm interacting with endoderm. In humans, this very rudimentary kidney forms very early at the level of the neck. It is rapidly replaced by the mesonephros, intermediate stage kidney, differentiating in mesoderm beneath.
proteinuria - The abnormal presence of protein in the urine and an indicator of diesease including diabetic kidney disease (DKD, diabetic nephropathy).
renal - (Latin, renes = kidney) Term used in relation to the kidney and associated structures (renal pelvis, renal artery)
ureter - The two ureters are hollow tubes that link and carries urine from kidney to the bladder. The tubes have a muscular wall lined with transitional epithelium.
urethra - The single muscular tube that links and carries urine from the bladder to the exterior. In humans, the urethral length differs between the sexes (male longer, female shorter).
urinary - Term used to describe all components of the kidney system including the bladder, ureters and urethra.
urine - Term used to describe the liquid waste produced by the kidney, stored in the bladder and excreted from teh body through the urethra.
urorectal septum - (URS) The structure which develops to separate the cloaca (common urogenital sinus) into an anterior urinary part and a posterior rectal part.
Wilms' tumour - A form of kidney/renal cancer (nephroblastoma) named after Dr Max Wilms who first described the tumor. This childhood kidney cancer is caused by the inactivation of a tumour suppressor gene (BRCA2) or Wilms tumor-1 gene (Wt1) and is one of the most common solid tumors of childhood, occurring in 1 in 10,000 children and accounting for 8% of childhood cancers. Wt1 also required at early stages of gonadal development. (More? OMIM - Wilm's tumour | Dr Max Wilms)
Wilms' tumor 1-associating protein - (WTAP) protein expressed in extraembryonic tissues and required for the formation of embryonic mesoderm and endoderm.
Wolffian duct - (= mesonephric duct, preferred terminology), runs from the mesonephros to cloaca, differentiates to form the male vas deferens and in the female regresses. Named after Caspar Friedrich Wolff (1733-1794), a German scientist and early embryology researcher and is said to have established the doctrine of germ layers. (More? Caspar Friedrich Wolff)
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.
- Australia - Network for Genes & Environment in Development Professor John F. Bertram
- GenitoUrinary Development Molecular Anatomy Project (GUDMAP) Renal Development Tutorial | Genital Development Tutorial
- Urine Metabolome database is a freely available electronic database containing detailed information about ~3100 small molecule metabolites found in human urine along with ~3900 concentration values.
- Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link
Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, September 26) Embryology Renal System - Molecular. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Renal_System_-_Molecular
- © Dr Mark Hill 2020, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G