Timeline Comparisons

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Introduction

The timeline of human development has a specific page. This page attempts to bring together many different systems and species timelines.


Timeline Links: human timeline | mouse timeline | mouse detailed timeline | chicken timeline | rat timeline | zebrafish timeline | Medaka | comparative | Category:Timeline
Human Trimesters - Systems  
Period: first trimester timeline | second trimester timeline | third trimester timeline

Systems: bone timeline | eye neural crest timeline | heart abnormality timeline | hearing timeline | hearing EAM timeline | muscle timeline | ovary timeline | pelvis timeline | placental villi timeline | shoulder timeline | smell timeline | spleen timeline | ventricular timeline

Historic  
upper limb ossification timeline | lower limb ossification timeline | 1932 Guinea pig day 11-21 | 1933 Guinea pig day 21-35
Embryology History: 1600-1699 | 1700-1799 | 1800-1899 | 1900-1909 | 1910-1919 | 1920-1929 | 1930-1939 | 1940-1949 | 1950-1959 | 1960-1969 | 1970-1979 | 1980-1989 | 1990-1999 | Historic Papers | Embryologists


Carnegie Comparison

Species Embryonic Comparison Timeline
Carnegie Stage
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Human Days 1 2-3 4-5 5-6 7-12 13-15 15-17 17-19 20 22 24 28 30 33 36 40 42 44 48 52 54 55 58
Mouse Days 1 2 3 E4.5 E5.0 E6.0 E7.0 E8.0 E9.0 E9.5 E10 E10.5 E11 E11.5 E12 E12.5 E13 E13.5 E14 E14.5 E15 E15.5 E16
Rat Days 1 3.5 4-5 5 6 7.5 8.5 9 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5 16 16.5 17 17.5
Note these Carnegie stages are only approximate day timings for average of embryos. Links: Carnegie Stage Comparison
Table References  
Human

O'Rahilly R. (1979). Early human development and the chief sources of information on staged human embryos. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. , 9, 273-80. PMID: 400868
Otis EM and Brent R. Equivalent ages in mouse and human embryos. (1954) Anat Rec. 120(1):33-63. PMID 13207763

Mouse
Theiler K. The House Mouse: Atlas of Mouse Development (1972, 1989) Springer-Verlag, NY. Online
OTIS EM & BRENT R. (1954). Equivalent ages in mouse and human embryos. Anat. Rec. , 120, 33-63. PMID: 13207763

Rat
Witschi E. Rat Development. In: Growth Including Reproduction and Morphological Development. (1962) Altman PL. and Dittmer DS. ed. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., Washington DC, pp. 304-314.
Pérez-Cano FJ, Franch À, Castellote C & Castell M. (2012). The suckling rat as a model for immunonutrition studies in early life. Clin. Dev. Immunol. , 2012, 537310. PMID: 22899949 DOI.


Model Comparison

Animal Model Comparison
Postnatal Animal Models mouse rat pig
Pregnancy period (days) 18 – 21 21 – 23 110 – 118
Placenta type Discoidal, decidual
hemoendothelial choroidea
Discoidal, decidual
hemoendothelial choroidea
Epitheliochorial
Litter size 6 – 12 6 – 15 11 – 16
Birth weight (g) 0.5 – 1.5 3 – 5 900 – 1600
Weaning weight male/female (g) 18 – 25/16 – 25 55 – 90/45 – 80 6000 – 8000
Suckling period (days) 21–28 21 28–49
Solid diet beginning (days) 10 12 12 – 15
Puberty male/female (week) 4 – 6/5 6/6 – 8 20 – 28
Life expectancy (years) 1 - 2 2 - 3 14 – 18
Table data - Otis and Brent (1954)[1]   Links: timeline


Human Mouse
Carnegie
Stage
Post-ovulatory
Days
Size (mm)
Greatest Length
Theiler
Stage
Post-conception
Days
Size (mm)
Crown-rump
11 24 2.5 - 4.5 14 9 - 9.5 2.1
12 26 3 - 5 15 9.5 - 10.25 2.5
13 28 4 - 6 16 10.25 - 10.5 3.6
14 32 5 - 7 17 10.5 4.1
15 33 7 - 9 18 11 4.6
16 37 8 - 11 19 11.5 6 - 7
17 41 11 - 14 20 12 7
18 44 13 - 17 21 12.5 - 13 8.2
19 47.5 16 - 18 21 12.5 - 13 8.2
20 50.5 18 - 22 22 13.5 - 14 9.1
21 52 22 - 24 22 13.5 - 14 9.1
22 54 23 - 28 22 13.5 - 14 9.1
23 56.5 27 - 31 22 13.5 - 14 9.1
26 17.5 - 18 17.8

Notes: Carnegie Stages | Theiler Stage | Post-conception Days | Carnegie Stage Comparison

Reference: Anderson RH. Teratogenecity in the setting of cardiac development and maldevelopment. (2016)

Table 1. Comparison of Human and Murine Development  
Human Mouse
Carnegie
Stage
Post-ovulatory
Days
Size (mm)
Greatest Length
Theiler
Stage
Post-conception
Days
Size (mm)
Crown-rump
11 24 2.5 - 4.5 14 9 - 9.5 2.1
12 26 3 - 5 15 9.5 - 10.25 2.5
13 28 4 - 6 16 10.25 - 10.5 3.6
14 32 5 - 7 17 10.5 4.1
15 33 7 - 9 18 11 4.6
16 37 8 - 11 19 11.5 6 - 7
17 41 11 - 14 20 12 7
18 44 13 - 17 21 12.5 - 13 8.2
19 47.5 16 - 18 21 12.5 - 13 8.2
20 50.5 18 - 22 22 13.5 - 14 9.1
21 52 22 - 24 22 13.5 - 14 9.1
22 54 23 - 28 22 13.5 - 14 9.1
23 56.5 27 - 31 22 13.5 - 14 9.1
26 17.5 - 18 17.8

Notes: Human Embryonic Development | Carnegie Stages | Mouse Development | Theiler Stage | Post-conception Days | Carnegie Stage Comparison

Reference: Anderson RH. Teratogenecity in the setting of cardiac development and maldevelopment. (2016)


OtisBrent1954 fig01.jpg

Graph data from Otis and Brent (1954)[1]

Animal

The collapsible table below shows a comparison of the prenatal period for a large number of animal species development.

Animal Development Time 

Animal Average Days
Bear (Black) 210
Bison 270
Budgerigar 18
Camel 410
cat 65
cow 281
chicken 21
Chimpanzee 236
Chinchilla 111
Coyote 63
Deer (Mule) 200
dog 63
Donkey 365
Duck 28
Duck (Muscovy) 35
Elephant 660
Elk, Wapiti 255
Ferret 42
Finch 14
Fox 52
Giraffe 425
Goat 150
Goose 28
Gorilla 270
Guinea fowl 28
guinea pig 68
Hare 36
Hippopotamus 240
Horse 338
Human 274
Leopard 95
Lion 108
Llama 350
Marmoset 150
Mink (European) 41
Monkey (Macaque) 180
Moose 240
mouse 20
Muskox 255
Muskrat 29
Nutria, Coypu 130
Opossum 12
Otter 285
Panther 90
Parrot 26
Pheasant 24
Pig 114
Pigeon 18
Porcupine 210
Pronghorn 230
Quail 16
rabbit 31
Raccoon 63
rat 21
Reindeer 225
Rhinoceros (African) 480
Seal 330
sheep 150
Shrew 20
Skunk 63
Squirrel (Gray) 40
Swan 35
Tapir 390
Tarsier 182
Tiger 103
Turkey 28
Walrus 450
Whale (Sperm) 450
Wolf 63
Woodchuck 31
Animal Notes and Table Data Sources
  • Each animal species has different variations +/- the average values shown in the table.
  • Gestation is the carrying of an animal embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. Except in the case of human gestational age GA.
  • Incubation is the laying of an egg (birds, reptiles, monotremes) with development occurring outside the female animal.


See also - Timeline Comparisons

Animal Development: axolotl | bat | cat | chicken | cow | dog | dolphin | echidna | fly | frog | grasshopper | guinea pig | hamster | kangaroo | koala | lizard | medaka | mouse | pig | platypus | rabbit | rat | sea squirt | sea urchin | sheep | worm | zebrafish | life cycles | development timetable | development models | K12
Historic Embryology  
1897 Pig | 1900 Chicken | 1901 Lungfish | 1904 Sand Lizard | 1905 Rabbit | 1906 Deer | 1907 Tarsiers | 1908 Human | 1909 Northern Lapwing | 1909 South American and African Lungfish | 1910 Salamander | 1951 Frog | Embryology History | Historic Disclaimer


Additional Data Sources

  • Theiler K. The House Mouse: Atlas of Mouse Development (1972, 1989) Springer-Verlag, NY. Online
  • Witschi E. Rat Development. In: Growth Including Reproduction and Morphological Development. (1962) Altman PL. and Dittmer DS. ed. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., Washington DC, pp. 304-314.
  • The Genetics of the Dog. E Ostrander, E. and Ruvinsky, A. ISBN: 9781845939403 (2012)
  • Merck Veterinary Manual. Aiello, S.E. and Moses, M.A. (ed) ISBN: 0911910506 (2013) Online
  • Witschi, E. (1962) Development: Rat. In: Growth Including Reproduction and Morphological Development. Altman, P. L. , and D. S. Dittmer, ed. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., Washington DC, pp. 304-314.



Animal Development: axolotl | bat | cat | chicken | cow | dog | dolphin | echidna | fly | frog | grasshopper | guinea pig | hamster | kangaroo | koala | lizard | medaka | mouse | pig | platypus | rabbit | rat | sea squirt | sea urchin | sheep | worm | zebrafish | life cycles | development timetable | development models | K12
Historic Embryology  
1897 Pig | 1900 Chicken | 1901 Lungfish | 1904 Sand Lizard | 1905 Rabbit | 1906 Deer | 1907 Tarsiers | 1908 Human | 1909 Northern Lapwing | 1909 South American and African Lungfish | 1910 Salamander | 1951 Frog | Embryology History | Historic Disclaimer


Respiratory

Respiratory Stages - Species Comparison - Stages Gestational age (days)
Species Term Embryonic Pseudoglandular Canalicular Saccular
human 280 < 42 52 - 112 112 - 168 168
primate 168 < 42 57 - 80 80 - 140 140
sheep 150 < 40 40 - 80 80 - 120 120
rabbit 32 < 18 21 - 24 24 - 27 27
rat 22 < 13 16 - 19 19 - 20 21
mouse 20 < 9 16 18 19
Data modified from[2]   

Links: respiratory | Respiratory Comparison | Mouse Human Respiratory | Mouse respiratory stages | mouse | rat | rabbit | Timeline Comparisons

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Otis EM and Brent R. Equivalent ages in mouse and human embryos. (1954) Anat Rec. 120(1):33-63. PMID 13207763
  2. Pinkerton KE & Joad JP. (2000). The mammalian respiratory system and critical windows of exposure for children's health. Environ. Health Perspect. , 108 Suppl 3, 457-62. PMID: 10852845



Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, January 20) Embryology Timeline Comparisons. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Timeline_Comparisons

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G