Some Recent Findings
- Anosmin-1 is essential for neural crest and cranial placodes formation in Xenopus "During embryogenesis vertebrates develop a complex craniofacial skeleton associated with sensory organs. These structures are primarily derived from two embryonic cell populations the neural crest and cranial placodes, respectively. ...Anos1 was identified as a target of Pax3 and Zic1, two transcription factors necessary and sufficient to generate neural crest and cranial placodes. Anos1 is expressed in cranial neural crest progenitors at early neurula stage and in cranial placode derivatives later in development. We show that Anos1 function is required for neural crest and sensory organs development in Xenopus, consistent with the defects observed in Kallmann syndrome patients carrying a mutation in ANOS1." Frog Development
- Review - Transcriptional regulation of cranial sensory placode development "Cranial sensory placodes derive from discrete patches of the head ectoderm and give rise to numerous sensory structures. During gastrulation, a specialized "neural border zone" forms around the neural plate in response to interactions between the neural and nonneural ectoderm and signals from adjacent mesodermal and/or endodermal tissues. This zone subsequently gives rise to two distinct precursor populations of the peripheral nervous system: the neural crest and the preplacodal ectoderm (PPE). The PPE is a common field from which all cranial sensory placodes arise (adenohypophyseal, olfactory, lens, trigeminal, epibranchial, otic). Members of the Six family of transcription factors are major regulators of PPE specification, in partnership with cofactor proteins such as Eya. Six gene activity also maintains tissue boundaries between the PPE, neural crest, and epidermis by repressing genes that specify the fates of those adjacent ectodermally derived domains. As the embryo acquires anterior-posterior identity, the PPE becomes transcriptionally regionalized, and it subsequently becomes subdivided into specific placodes with distinct developmental fates in response to signaling from adjacent tissues. Each placode is characterized by a unique transcriptional program that leads to the differentiation of highly specialized cells, such as neurosecretory cells, sensory receptor cells, chemosensory neurons, peripheral glia, and supporting cells. In this review, we summarize the transcriptional and signaling factors that regulate key steps of placode development, influence subsequent sensory neuron specification, and discuss what is known about mutations in some of the essential PPE genes that underlie human congenital syndromes."
| More recent papers
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
- Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
- References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
- Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches
Search term: Placode
Bastian Zimmer, Osefame Ewaleifoh, Oliver Harschnitz, Yoon-Seung Lee, Camille Peneau, Jessica L McAlpine, Becky Liu, Jason Tchieu, Julius A Steinbeck, Fabien Lafaille, Stefano Volpi, Luigi D Notarangelo, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Shen-Ying Zhang, Gregory A Smith, Lorenz Studer Human iPSC-derived trigeminal neurons lack constitutive TLR3-dependent immunity that protects cortical neurons from HSV-1 infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2018; PubMed 30154162
Sophie R Miller, Cristina Benito, Rhona Mirsky, Kristján R Jessen, Clare V H Baker Neural crest Notch/Rbpj signaling regulates olfactory gliogenesis and neuronal migration. Genesis: 2018, 56(6-7);e23215 PubMed 30134068
Leigh Dairaghi, Ellen Flannery, Paolo Giacobini, Aybike Saglam, Hassan Saadi, Stephanie Constantin, Filippo Casoni, Brian W Howell, Susan Wray Reelin Can Modulate Migration of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells and Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Neurons via the Canonical Pathway. Front Cell Neurosci: 2018, 12;228 PubMed 30127721
Ayano Harata, Mika Hirakawa, Tetsushi Sakuma, Takashi Yamamoto, Chikara Hashimoto Nucleotide receptor P2RY4 is required for head formation via induction and maintenance of head organizer in Xenopus laevis. Dev. Growth Differ.: 2018; PubMed 30069871
Paige M Drake, Tamara A Franz-Odendaal A Potential Role for MMPs during the Formation of Non-Neurogenic Placodes. J Dev Biol: 2018, 6(3); PubMed 30049947
| Older papers
- Setting appropriate boundaries: Fate, patterning and competence at the neural plate border "The neural crest and craniofacial placodes are two distinct progenitor populations that arise at the border of the vertebrate neural plate. This border region develops through a series of inductive interactions that begins before gastrulation and progressively divide embryonic ectoderm into neural and non-neural regions, followed by the emergence of neural crest and placodal progenitors. In this review, we describe how a limited repertoire of inductive signals-principally FGFs, Wnts and BMPs-set up domains of transcription factors in the border region which establish these progenitor territories by both cross-inhibitory and cross-autoregulatory interactions."
- Graded levels of Pax2a and Pax8 regulate cell differentiation during sensory placode formation "Pax gene haploinsufficiency causes a variety of congenital defects. Renal-coloboma syndrome, resulting from mutations in Pax2, is characterized by kidney hypoplasia, optic nerve malformation, and hearing loss. ..We sho.w that differential levels of zebrafish Pax2a and Pax8 modulate commitment and behavior in cells that eventually contribute to the otic vesicle and epibranchial placodes."
- Mutual repression between Gbx2 and Otx2 in sensory placodes reveals a general mechanism for ectodermal patterning "In the vertebrate head, central and peripheral components of the sensory nervous system have different embryonic origins, the neural plate and sensory placodes. This raises the question of how they develop in register to form functional sense organs and sensory circuits. Here we show that mutual repression between the homeobox transcription factors Gbx2 and Otx2 patterns the placode territory by influencing regional identity and by segregating inner ear and trigeminal progenitors. Activation of Otx2 targets is necessary for anterior olfactory, lens and trigeminal character, while Gbx2 function is required for the formation of the posterior otic placode. Thus, like in the neural plate antagonistic interaction between Otx2 and Gbx2 establishes positional information thus providing a general mechanism for rostro-caudal patterning of the ectoderm."
- An effective assay for high cellular resolution time-lapse imaging of sensory placode formation and morphogenesis "This new imaging assay provides a powerful method to analyze directly development of placode-derived sensory neurons and subsequent ganglia formation for the first time in amniotes. Viewing placode development in a head cross-section provides a vantage point from which it is possible to study comprehensive events in placode formation, from differentiation, cell ingression to ganglion assembly. Understanding how placodal neurons form may reveal a new mechanism of neurogenesis distinct from that in the central nervous system and provide new insight into how cells acquire motility from a stationary epithelial cell type."
- Epibranchial Placodes "The inner ear and the epibranchial ganglia constitute much of the sensory system in the caudal vertebrate head. ...However, recent studies indicate that both systems arise from a morphologically distinct common precursor domain: the posterior placodal area. This review summarises recent studies into the induction, morphogenesis and innervation of these systems and discusses lineage restriction and cell specification in the context of their common origin."
- Otic Placode "The inner ear epithelium, with its complex array of sensory, non-sensory, and neuronal cell types necessary for hearing and balance, is derived from a thickened patch of head ectoderm called the otic placode. ...Collectively, our results suggest that Wnt8a provides the link between FGF-induced formation of the pre-otic field and restriction of the otic placode to ectoderm adjacent to the hindbrain."
- Postotic Placode "The (zebrafish) embryonic line originates from a postotic placode that produces both a migrating sensory primordium and afferent neurons. Nothing is known about the origin and innervation of the larval lines. Here we show that a "secondary" placode can be detected at 24 h postfertilization (hpf), shortly after the primary placode has given rise to the embryonic primordium and ganglion."
- Links: Movies
Preplacodal development model
|Late Blastula Stage
- Bmp acts as a morphogen that specifies neural crest (NC) within a narrow but low range of signalling.
- Higher levels of Bmp signaling establish the non-neural ectoderm as a broad zone of uncommitted cells with potential to form epidermal or preplacodal ectoderm (PPE).
- Within the non neural ectoderm
- changing levels of Bmp do not distinguish preplacodal from epidermal potential.
- preplacodal competence factors are uniformly induced throughout this domain.
- expression of tfap2a/c overlaps with the lateral edges of the neural plate where, perhaps in combination with neural markers, they cell-autonomously specify NC fate.
|Late Gastrula Stage (9–10 hpf)
- preplacodal ectoderm (PPE) fate is specified in competent cells near the neural-nonneural border by dorsally expressed Bmp antagonists, Fgf and Pdgf.
- Complete attenuation of Bmp is required for PPE specification.
Relevant markers for each ectodermal domain are shown.
Experiments carried out in zebrafish.
(Above text from figure legend)
The otic placode is the first of the sensory placodes visible on the surface of the developing human embryo. This placode will differentiate to contribute almost entirely the components of the inner ear. The images below show the first appearance on the embryo surface during week 4 and the eventual disappearance from the surface by week 5. This is only the beginning of the complex development of this structure, influenced by the surrounding epidermis, neural tube and neural crest.
The scanning EM of the week 4 human embryo Carnegie stage 11 shown below is a superior dorsal view of the paired otic placodes sinking into the surface at the level of the hindbrain between day 24 and day 25.
By Carnegie stage 12 26 days, only a small opening of the developing otic vesicle (otocyst) remains visible on the embryo surface located behind the second pharyngeal arch.
By week 5 Carnegie stage 13 the otic vesicle (otocyst) is completely formed and is no longer visible on the embryo surface.
Cross-sections of the embryo head at this stage show the otocyst now lies within the embryo as a hollow fluid-filled epithelial "ball", located between the epidermis and the neural tube (hindbrain).
- Links: Inner Ear | Hearing and Balance Development
The hypophysis, or pituitary, is an endocrine gland that links the brain to peripheral endocrine organs and systems of the body through several specific hormones. The developmental origin of the hypophysis is unique, with epithelial origins from neural ectoderm (posterior) and from surface ectoderm (anterior) the adenohypophyseal placode.
In the mouse, gonadotropin-releasing hormone-1 neurones control the release of gonadotropins from the anterior pituitary and were thought to originate from the adenohypophyseal placed. A recent study has shown that they are really associated early with the formation of the nasal placode.
Drosophila and mouse placode similarity
- Links: Pituitary Development
Optic placodes (Lens) lie on the embryo surface, adjacent to the out-pocketing of the nervous system (forms the retina) and will form the lens.
surface ectoderm -> lens placode -> lens pit -> lens vesicle -> lens fibres -> lens capsule and embryonic/fetal nucleus.
- Links: Lens Development | Vision Development
- Links: Profundal/trigeminal placodes
Zebrafish placode model
| Epibranchial ganglia sensory neurons formed by the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagal placodal regions. These ganglia neurons relay from the sensory organs such as gustatory taste buds, heart baroreceptors, gut sensory enteric nerves.
Embryo Week: Week 1 | Week 2 | Week 3 | Week 4 | Week 5 | Week 6 | Week 7 | Week 8 | Week 9
- Carnegie Stages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | About Stages | Timeline
- ↑ Bae CJ, Hong CS & Saint-Jeannet JP. (2018). Anosmin-1 is essential for neural crest and cranial placodes formation in Xenopus. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. , 495, 2257-2263. PMID: 29277616 DOI.
- ↑ Moody SA & LaMantia AS. (2015). Transcriptional regulation of cranial sensory placode development. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. , 111, 301-50. PMID: 25662264 DOI.
- ↑ Groves AK & LaBonne C. (2014). Setting appropriate boundaries: fate, patterning and competence at the neural plate border. Dev. Biol. , 389, 2-12. PMID: 24321819 DOI.
- ↑ McCarroll MN, Lewis ZR, Culbertson MD, Martin BL, Kimelman D & Nechiporuk AV. (2012). Graded levels of Pax2a and Pax8 regulate cell differentiation during sensory placode formation. Development , 139, 2740-50. PMID: 22745314 DOI.
- ↑ Steventon B, Mayor R & Streit A. (2012). Mutual repression between Gbx2 and Otx2 in sensory placodes reveals a general mechanism for ectodermal patterning. Dev. Biol. , 367, 55-65. PMID: 22564795 DOI.
- ↑ Tehindrazanarivelo A, Massiou H & Bousser MG. (1990). [What is new in the treatment of migraine?]. Rev Prat , 40, 407-10. PMID: 2155472
- ↑ Ladher RK, O'Neill P & Begbie J. (2010). From shared lineage to distinct functions: the development of the inner ear and epibranchial placodes. Development , 137, 1777-85. PMID: 20460364 DOI.
- ↑ Urness LD, Paxton CN, Wang X, Schoenwolf GC & Mansour SL. (2010). FGF signaling regulates otic placode induction and refinement by controlling both ectodermal target genes and hindbrain Wnt8a. Dev. Biol. , 340, 595-604. PMID: 20171206 DOI.
- ↑ Sarrazin AF, Nuñez VA, Sapède D, Tassin V, Dambly-Chaudière C & Ghysen A. (2010). Origin and early development of the posterior lateral line system of zebrafish. J. Neurosci. , 30, 8234-44. PMID: 20554875 DOI.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Kwon HJ, Bhat N, Sweet EM, Cornell RA & Riley BB. (2010). Identification of early requirements for preplacodal ectoderm and sensory organ development. PLoS Genet. , 6, e1001133. PMID: 20885782 DOI.
- ↑ Metz H & Wray S. (2010). Use of mutant mouse lines to investigate origin of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-1 neurons: lineage independent of the adenohypophysis. Endocrinology , 151, 766-73. PMID: 20008041 DOI.
- ↑ Wang S, Tulina N, Carlin DL & Rulifson EJ. (2007). The origin of islet-like cells in Drosophila identifies parallels to the vertebrate endocrine axis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , 104, 19873-8. PMID: 18056636 DOI.
- ↑ McCarroll MN & Nechiporuk AV. (2013). Fgf3 and Fgf10a work in concert to promote maturation of the epibranchial placodes in zebrafish. PLoS ONE , 8, e85087. PMID: 24358375 DOI.
Search Bookshelf placode development
Schlosser G, Patthey C & Shimeld SM. (2014). The evolutionary history of vertebrate cranial placodes II. Evolution of ectodermal patterning. Dev. Biol. , 389, 98-119. PMID: 24491817 DOI.
Patthey C, Schlosser G & Shimeld SM. (2014). The evolutionary history of vertebrate cranial placodes--I: cell type evolution. Dev. Biol. , 389, 82-97. PMID: 24495912 DOI.
Graham A & Shimeld SM. (2013). The origin and evolution of the ectodermal placodes. J. Anat. , 222, 32-40. PMID: 22512454 DOI.
Schlosser G. (2010). Making senses development of vertebrate cranial placodes. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol , 283, 129-234. PMID: 20801420 DOI.
Ladher RK, O'Neill P & Begbie J. (2010). From shared lineage to distinct functions: the development of the inner ear and epibranchial placodes. Development , 137, 1777-85. PMID: 20460364 DOI.
Begbie J, Brunet JF, Rubenstein JL & Graham A. (1999). Induction of the epibranchial placodes. Development , 126, 895-902. PMID: 9927591
Abitua PB, Gainous TB, Kaczmarczyk AN, Winchell CJ, Hudson C, Kamata K, Nakagawa M, Tsuda M, Kusakabe TG & Levine M. (2015). The pre-vertebrate origins of neurogenic placodes. Nature , 524, 462-5. PMID: 26258298 DOI.
Mazet F. (2006). The evolution of sensory placodes. ScientificWorldJournal , 6, 1841-50. PMID: 17205191 DOI.
Bhattacharyya S & Bronner-Fraser M. (2004). Hierarchy of regulatory events in sensory placode development. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. , 14, 520-6. PMID: 15380243 DOI.
Köster RW, Kühnlein RP & Wittbrodt J. (2000). Ectopic Sox3 activity elicits sensory placode formation. Mech. Dev. , 95, 175-87. PMID: 10906460
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Search Pubmed placode development | otic placode development | optic placode development | nasal placode development | adenohypophyseal placode development
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, September 24) Embryology Placodes. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Placodes
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