Some Recent Findings
- Dynamics of male canine germ cell development "Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are precursors of gametes that can generate new individuals throughout life in both males and females. Additionally, PGCs have been shown to differentiate into embryonic germ cells (EGCs) after in vitro culture. Most studies investigating germinative cells have been performed in rodents and humans but not dogs (Canis lupus familiaris). Here, we elucidated the dynamics of the expression of pluripotent (POU5F1 and NANOG), germline (DDX4, DAZL and DPPA3), and epigenetic (5mC, 5hmC, H3K27me3 and H3K9me2) markers that are important for the development of male canine germ cells during the early (22-30 days post-fertilization (dpf)), middle (35-40 dpf) and late (45-50 dpf) gestational periods. ... The PGCs were positive for POU5F1 and H3K27me3 during all assessed developmental periods, including all periods between the gonadal tissue stage and foetal testes development. The number of NANOG, DDX4, DAZL, DPPA3 and 5mC-positive cells increased along with the developing cords from 35-50 dpf. Primordial Germ Cell Development
- Embryo biotechnology in the dog: a review "Canine embryos are a scarce biological material because of difficulties in collecting in vivo-produced embryos and the inability, to date, to produce canine embryos in vitro. The procedure for the transfer of in vivo-produced embryos has not been developed adequately, with only six attempts reported in the literature that have resulted in the birth of 45 puppies. In vitro, the fertilisation rate is particularly low ( approximately 10%) and the incidence of polyspermy particularly high. So far, no puppy has been obtained from an in vitro-produced embryo. In contrast, cloning of somatic cells has been used successfully over the past 4 years, with the birth of 41 puppies reported in the literature, a yield that is comparable to that for other mammalian species. Over the same period, canine embryonic stem sells and transgenic cloned dogs have been obtained."
- Cryopreservation of Canine Embryos "Canine embryos were collected from excised reproductive organs after artificial insemination and subsequently cryopreserved by a vitrification method. When the 4-cell to morula stage of cryopreserved embryos were non-surgically transferred into the uteri of nine recipient bitches by using a cystoscope, five recipients became pregnant and four of them delivered a total of seven pups."
- Prolonged duration of fertility of dog ova "The fertile period for natural mating in dogs extends from before ovulation until day 5 post ovulation (PO) and involves a delay in oocyte maturation until 2-3 days PO and viability of secondary oocytes for 48-60 h or more. Spermatozoa do not enter the uterus after vaginal insemination in late oestrus. Cervical closure appears to occur on average 5 days PO, but conception may occur following intrauterine artificial insemination (IUAI) up to 8 days PO. Therefore, the present study was conducted to clarify the duration of fertility of canine ova. Using IUAI at 6, 7, 8 and 9 days PO (n = 5 bitches each) conception rates were 100%, 71.4%, 37.5% and 0%, respectively, with an average litter resorption rate of 30.8%, and with mean litter sizes and times to delivery PO being 4.3 +/- 1.6 and 64.3 +/- 0.3 days, 4.0 +/- 1.4 and 66.3 +/- 0.4 days, and 2.5 and 68 days for IUAI at 6, 7 and 8 days, respectively. The high pregnancy rates with IUAI at 6 and 7 days PO confirm that many canine oocytes are fertile at 4-5 days after maturation. The high rate of resorption was presumably because of aging of ova or asynchrony between embryonic development and the intrauterine environment."
| More recent papers
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
- Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
- References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
- Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches
Search term: Dog Embryology
B Walter, A Coelfen, K Jäger, S Reese, A Meyer-Lindenberg, H Aupperle-Lellbach Anti-Muellerian hormone concentration in bitches with histopathologically diagnosed ovarian tumours and cysts. Reprod. Domest. Anim.: 2018; PubMed 29603438
Josep Brocal, Steven De Decker, Roberto José-López, Julien Guevar, Maria Ortega, Tim Parkin, Gert Ter Haar, Rodrigo Gutierrez-Quintana Evaluation of radiography as a screening method for detection and characterisation of congenital vertebral malformations in dogs. Vet. Rec.: 2018, 182(20);573 PubMed 29519855
Aline F de Souza, Naira C Godoy Pieri, Kelly C S Roballo, Fabiana F Bressan, Juliana B Casals, Carlos E Ambrósio, Felipe Perecin, Daniele S Martins Dynamics of male canine germ cell development. PLoS ONE: 2018, 13(2);e0193026 PubMed 29489867
Katarzyna Siewierska, Iwona Malicka, Christopher Kobierzycki, Urszula Paslawska, Marek Cegielski, Jedrzej Grzegrzolka, Aleksandra Piotrowska, Marzenna Podhorska-Okolow, Piotr Dziegiel, Marek Wozniewski The Impact of Exercise Training on Breast Cancer. In Vivo: 2017, 32(2);249-254 PubMed 29475906
Ricardo Marcos, Ana Canadas, Liliana Leite-Martins, Jorge Ribeiro, Joana Santos, Augusto de Matos, John W Harvey, Marta Santos What is your diagnosis? Cutaneous nodules and atypical blood cells in a dog. Vet Clin Pathol: 2018; PubMed 29469994
NCBI Taxonomy Browser Canis lupus familiaris (Genbank common name: dog)
Synonyms: Canis familiaris, Canis domesticus, Canis canis
Chromosomes: 40 (38, X, Y)
Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard)
Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 2 (Vertebrate Mitochondrial) 16,700 bp
Lineage( full ):cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Fungi/Metazoa group; Metazoa; Eumetazoa; Bilateria; Coelomata; Deuterostomia; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Gnathostomata; Teleostomi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Carnivora; Caniformia; Canidae; Canis; Canis lupus
- Links: Dog Genome Map View | NHGRI Dog Genome Project
Dog Estrous Cycle
- Proestrus (9 days) - Precedes estrus, estradiol concentration increases as ovarian follicules mature and the uterus enlarges. The vaginal epithelium proliferates accompanied by diapedesis of erythrocytes (most cells in vaginal smear) from uterine capillaries.
- Estrus (9 days) - Accompanied by female mating behaviour, glandular secretions increase, the vaginal epithelium becomes hyperemic, and ovulation occurs. Cycle is influenced mainly by estrogens and the interval between successive estrus cycles is about 7 months.
- Diestrus (70-80 days) - Accompanied by female non-mating behaviour, corpus lutea present and secretes progesterone. Uterine glands undergo hypertrophy and hyperplasia, vaginal secretions and the cervix constricts.
- Anestrus - Anestrus is a prolonged period of sexual rest where the reproductive system is quiescent.
Transmission electron micrographs of canine geminal vesicle (GV) oocytes.
Canine geminal vesicle (GV) oocyte.
Dog oocyte development. (A) GV (B) GVBD (C) MI and (D) MII
Oocyte to Blastocyst
Canine oocyte to blastocyst (Image: Dr Karine Reynaud).
Dog embryo at neural fold stage of development
Days shown below relate to days after ovulation (day 0).
- 48-72 h - oocytes need to complete post-ovulatory maturation to the metaphase II stage in the isthmus of the oviduct
- 2 to 5 days - fertilization
- 14 to 16 days - embryo attaches to uterus
- 22 to 23 days - heartbeat visible
- 62 to 64 days - parturition (birth or whelping)
See also Concannon 2001
Sexual differentiation begins early in the embryonic period prenatally and continues into early postnatal life.
Caudal vena cava development- five theories to origin (right-sided supracardinal, caudal cardinal, sacrocardinal, lateral sympathetic or subcardinal veins).
Canine embryo at day 40 after mating, this corresponds approximately to ~day 35-38 after fertilisation (Image: Dr Karine Reynaud).
Gestational age timed from day 0 as the day of the preovulatory serum progesterone rise in the dam, should roughly correlate with fertilisation (+/- 1 day), data *calculated staging only available.
- Links: Carnegie Stages
These images are from drawings by Charles Bonnet (1909), later republished in a 1921 textbook of embryology.
Transverse sections of embryonic disk of dog
Surface view of embryonic disk of dog and transverse sections of same
Dorsal view of dog embryo with ten pairs of mesodermal somites
Section through the border of a developing tooth of a new-born puppy
Longitudinal section of a developing tooth of a new-born puppy
Transverse section of dog embryo with ten pairs of primitive segments
Transverse section of a dog embryo with 19 primitive segments
Sagittal sections of different species brains
- Links: Carnegie Stage Comparison
Alaskan sled dogs, bred for their racing performance.
Estrus, also called "in heat" is the time of sexually receptivity and occurs every 17 to 21 days.
- Ovulation occurs 5 to 6 days prior to the first day of diestrus and is indicated by plasma progesterone concentrations higher than 2 ng/mL. (Parturition (birth or whelping) occurs between 62 to 64 days after ovulation).
- Ovulated oocytes diameter
- with the zona pellucida (167.5+/-12.7 microns)
- without zona pellucida (133.9+/-5.3 microns)
- Links: Estrous Cycle
Classified as endotheliochorial placentation forming a zonary placenta, which is a complete girdle in dogs.
- girdle zone (endotheliochorial labyrinth)
- hemochorial hemophagous zone (marginal hematoma)
- polar zone (epitheliochorial free)
Trophoblast cell invasion continues after chorioallantois villous penetration and the materno–fetal interface is described as lamellar, with fetal projections interdigitating with maternal septa.
(Data from: Miglino MA, etal., 2006 and other sources)
- Links: Comparative Placentation - Dog
| Male Urogenital
|| Female Urogenital
Male sex differentiation is initially mediated by Sry expression then Leydig cell produced testosterone and anti-mullerian hormone (AMH, Mis), also called mullerian-inhibiting substance (MIS) or factor (MIF).
A study using timed pregnancies and male embryo development identified testis differentiation at 36 days gestation. At this time Mullerian duct regression also commenced and was completed by 46 days gestation. Immunohistochemistry also identified Mullerian Inhibitory Substance (MIS) was present during this period in testes and was absent in the undifferentiated testis.
Genital Ridge Sry and Sox9
Testis induction is associated with gonadal Sry and Sox9 expression in mammals, and also with Sox9 expression in vertebrates where Sry is absent. Timing was based upon the equivalent human carnegie staging and expression was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).
- Carnegie Stage 16-18 - Sry expression rose in genital ridge continuously, Sox9 expressed in both male and female genital ridge
- Carnegie Stage 17 - Sox9 expression tenfold greater than in the ovary
- Carnegie Stage 18 - Sry expression maximal
Chromosome 9 Sox 9
Genital Ridge Sf1 and Mis
Mullerian-inhibiting substance - (Mis, Mif) Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH)
Splicing factor 1 - (Sf1) 623 amino acid protein containing a nuclear transport domain, a metal-binding or zinc finger motif, and glutamine- and proline-rich regions.
- Carnegie Stage 15 - Sf1 expression begins in genital ridges
- Carnegie Stage 17 - Sf1 expression pronounced in male and female gonads
- Carnegie Stage 18 - Mis expression only in male gonads
Chromosome 20 Anti-Mullerian hormone
- Links: Sry | Sox9 | Sox 9 Gene | Sf1 | Mis
The cartoons below show nanog expression in the dog during spermatogenesis.
|| Each column represents the combination of different cell types that are present in seminiferous tubules at that specific stage.
Cell types that express NANOG are outlined in red and cell types that do not express NANOG have black and grey symbols.
- 1–16 = steps in spermiogenesis
- In = intermediate spermatogonia
- B = type B spermatogonia
- Pl = pre-leptotene stage
- L = leptotene stage
- Z = zygotene stage
- P = pachytene stage
- D = diplotene stage
- 2nd = generation of secondary spermatocytes
- Roman figures = stage of the epithelial cycle
Sexual Development Phases in Female of Laboratory Species
|| Birth to postnatal Day 7
|| Birth–3 weeks
|| Birth to 3–4 months
|| Postnatal Days 8–21
|| 3–5 weeks
|| Up to 29 months
|| Postnatal Days 22–37
|| 5 weeks–6 months
|| Up to 43 months
|| Postnatal Days 37–38
|| 6–8 months
|| 27–30 months
Coat variation in the domestic dog is governed by variants in three genes.</ref>
- "Coat color and type are essential characteristics of domestic dog breeds. Although the genetic basis of coat color has been well characterized, relatively little is known about the genes influencing coat growth pattern, length, and curl. We performed genome-wide association studies of more than 1000 dogs from 80 domestic breeds to identify genes associated with canine fur phenotypes. Taking advantage of both inter- and intrabreed variability, we identified distinct mutations in three genes, RSPO2, FGF5, and KRT71 (encoding R-spondin-2, fibroblast growth factor-5, and keratin-71, respectively), that together account for most coat phenotypes in purebred dogs in the United States. Thus, an array of varied and seemingly complex phenotypes can be reduced to the combinatorial effects of only a few genes."
In 2009 a range of canine embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines were developed from preimplantation-stage embryos.
- maintained a normal karyotype and morphology typical of undifferentiated ESCs after multiple in vitro passages and cryopreservation.
- embryoid bodies formed in the absence of a feeder layer in attachment or suspension culture.
- embryoid bodies differentiated into multiple cell types.
- ESCs introduced in vivo formed teratomas containing cell types of all three embryonic germ layers.
- Links: Stem Cells
A recent research paper has described a new online digital atlas of the dog brain based upon anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
- Links: Database
Newborn bulldog with cleft palate.
There are a number of dog developmental abnormalities that are used as models for human disease.
There are currently 566 abnormality links listed on the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals database.
Search OMIA: Canis familiaris
- Sex reversal - not due to SRY gene translocation to an X chromosome.
Canine Congenital Sensorineural Deafness
Canine congenital sensorineural deafness (CCSD) is the most common cause of deafness in dogs occurring in more than 90 dog breeds.
CCSD breed highest prevalence - dalmatian (most common), English setters, English cocker spaniels, bull terriers, Australian cattle dogs, whippets, catahoula leopard dogs, border collies and jack russell terriers.
This abnormality appears to be associated with intermediate cells (melanocytes, neural crest in origin) in the stria vascularis of the inner ear causing a cascade of inner ear degeneration (stria vascularis, then organ of Corti, then collapse of Reissner's membrane, finally collapse of cochlear duct.
- Links: Inner Ear Melanocytes | Stria Vascularis | Inner Ear Development
- Canine-dilated cardiomyopathy - not associated with canine desmin.
British Veterinary Association and the German Shepherd League scoring scheme
- scoring of nine different radiographic features of each hip
- scale from 0 (ideal) to 6 (worst)
- potential range of subjective scores from 0 to 108.
- Links: Dog Development - Abnormalities | OMIA - Hip dysplasia
- Congenital renal disease
- Canine Eclampsia - (puerperal tetany, hypocalcemia) develops mainly in small-breed dogs with large litters.
- Brucellosis - male and female can be carriers of this sexually transmitted disease.
- Links: OMIA 566 abnormality links | Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Parker HG & Ostrander EA. (2005). Canine genomics and genetics: running with the pack. PLoS Genet. , 1, e58. PMID: 16311623 DOI.
- ↑ Lindblad-Toh K, Wade CM, Mikkelsen TS, Karlsson EK, Jaffe DB, Kamal M, Clamp M, Chang JL, Kulbokas EJ, Zody MC, Mauceli E, Xie X, Breen M, Wayne RK, Ostrander EA, Ponting CP, Galibert F, Smith DR, DeJong PJ, Kirkness E, Alvarez P, Biagi T, Brockman W, Butler J, Chin CW, Cook A, Cuff J, Daly MJ, DeCaprio D, Gnerre S, Grabherr M, Kellis M, Kleber M, Bardeleben C, Goodstadt L, Heger A, Hitte C, Kim L, Koepfli KP, Parker HG, Pollinger JP, Searle SM, Sutter NB, Thomas R, Webber C, Baldwin J, Abebe A, Abouelleil A, Aftuck L, Ait-Zahra M, Aldredge T, Allen N, An P, Anderson S, Antoine C, Arachchi H, Aslam A, Ayotte L, Bachantsang P, Barry A, Bayul T, Benamara M, Berlin A, Bessette D, Blitshteyn B, Bloom T, Blye J, Boguslavskiy L, Bonnet C, Boukhgalter B, Brown A, Cahill P, Calixte N, Camarata J, Cheshatsang Y, Chu J, Citroen M, Collymore A, Cooke P, Dawoe T, Daza R, Decktor K, DeGray S, Dhargay N, Dooley K, Dooley K, Dorje P, Dorjee K, Dorris L, Duffey N, Dupes A, Egbiremolen O, Elong R, Falk J, Farina A, Faro S, Ferguson D, Ferreira P, Fisher S, FitzGerald M, Foley K, Foley C, Franke A, Friedrich D, Gage D, Garber M, Gearin G, Giannoukos G, Goode T, Goyette A, Graham J, Grandbois E, Gyaltsen K, Hafez N, Hagopian D, Hagos B, Hall J, Healy C, Hegarty R, Honan T, Horn A, Houde N, Hughes L, Hunnicutt L, Husby M, Jester B, Jones C, Kamat A, Kanga B, Kells C, Khazanovich D, Kieu AC, Kisner P, Kumar M, Lance K, Landers T, Lara M, Lee W, Leger JP, Lennon N, Leuper L, LeVine S, Liu J, Liu X, Lokyitsang Y, Lokyitsang T, Lui A, Macdonald J, Major J, Marabella R, Maru K, Matthews C, McDonough S, Mehta T, Meldrim J, Melnikov A, Meneus L, Mihalev A, Mihova T, Miller K, Mittelman R, Mlenga V, Mulrain L, Munson G, Navidi A, Naylor J, Nguyen T, Nguyen N, Nguyen C, Nguyen T, Nicol R, Norbu N, Norbu C, Novod N, Nyima T, Olandt P, O'Neill B, O'Neill K, Osman S, Oyono L, Patti C, Perrin D, Phunkhang P, Pierre F, Priest M, Rachupka A, Raghuraman S, Rameau R, Ray V, Raymond C, Rege F, Rise C, Rogers J, Rogov P, Sahalie J, Settipalli S, Sharpe T, Shea T, Sheehan M, Sherpa N, Shi J, Shih D, Sloan J, Smith C, Sparrow T, Stalker J, Stange-Thomann N, Stavropoulos S, Stone C, Stone S, Sykes S, Tchuinga P, Tenzing P, Tesfaye S, Thoulutsang D, Thoulutsang Y, Topham K, Topping I, Tsamla T, Vassiliev H, Venkataraman V, Vo A, Wangchuk T, Wangdi T, Weiand M, Wilkinson J, Wilson A, Yadav S, Yang S, Yang X, Young G, Yu Q, Zainoun J, Zembek L, Zimmer A & Lander ES. (2005). Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog. Nature , 438, 803-19. PMID: 16341006 DOI.
- ↑ de Souza AF, Pieri NCG, Roballo KCS, Bressan FF, Casals JB, Ambrósio CE, Perecin F & Martins DS. (2018). Dynamics of male canine germ cell development. PLoS ONE , 13, e0193026. PMID: 29489867 DOI.
- ↑ Chastant-Maillard S, Chebrout M, Thoumire S, Saint-Dizier M, Chodkiewicz M & Reynaud K. (2010). Embryo biotechnology in the dog: a review. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. , 22, 1049-56. PMID: 20797342 DOI.
- ↑ Abe Y, Suwa Y, Asano T, Ueta YY, Kobayashi N, Ohshima N, Shirasuna S, Abdel-Ghani MA, Oi M, Kobayashi Y, Miyoshi M, Miyahara K & Suzuki H. (2011). Cryopreservation of canine embryos. Biol. Reprod. , 84, 363-8. PMID: 20926804 DOI.
- ↑ Tsutsui T, Takahashi F, Hori T, Kawakami E & Concannon PW. (2009). Prolonged duration of fertility of dog ova. Reprod. Domest. Anim. , 44 Suppl 2, 230-3. PMID: 19754575 DOI.
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 7.2 Turathum B, Saikhun K, Sangsuwan P & Kitiyanant Y. (2010). Effects of vitrification on nuclear maturation, ultrastructural changes and gene expression of canine oocytes. Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. , 8, 70. PMID: 20565987 DOI.
- ↑ de Avila Rodrigues B & Rodrigues JL. (2003). Influence of reproductive status on in vitro oocyte maturation in dogs. Theriogenology , 60, 59-66. PMID: 12620580
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 Meyers-Wallen VN. (2003). Sry and Sox9 expression during canine gonadal sex determination assayed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Mol. Reprod. Dev. , 65, 373-81. PMID: 12840810 DOI.
- ↑ Bailey, F.R. and Miller, A.M. (1921). Text-Book of Embryology. New York: William Wood and Co. online edition
- ↑ Huson HJ, Parker HG, Runstadler J & Ostrander EA. (2010). A genetic dissection of breed composition and performance enhancement in the Alaskan sled dog. BMC Genet. , 11, 71. PMID: 20649949 DOI.
- ↑ Lee HS, Yin XJ, Jin YX, Kim NH, Cho SG, Bae IH & Kong IK. (2008). Germinal vesicle chromatin configuration and meiotic competence is related to the oocyte source in canine. Anim. Reprod. Sci. , 103, 336-47. PMID: 17212978 DOI.
- ↑ Miglino MA, Ambrósio CE, dos Santos Martins D, Wenceslau CV, Pfarrer C & Leiser R. (2006). The carnivore pregnancy: the development of the embryo and fetal membranes. Theriogenology , 66, 1699-702. PMID: 16563485 DOI.
- ↑ Meyers-Wallen VN, Manganaro TF, Kuroda T, Concannon PW, MacLaughlin DT & Donahoe PK. (1991). The critical period for mullerian duct regression in the dog embryo. Biol. Reprod. , 45, 626-33. PMID: 1751638
- ↑ Meyers-Wallen VN. (2005). Sf1 and Mis expression: molecular milestones in the canine sex determination pathway. Mol. Reprod. Dev. , 70, 383-9. PMID: 15685633 DOI.
- ↑ . (). . , , . PMID: 120539761
- ↑ Beckman DA & Feuston M. (2003). Landmarks in the development of the female reproductive system. Birth Defects Res. B Dev. Reprod. Toxicol. , 68, 137-43. PMID: 12866705 DOI.
- ↑ Cadieu E, Neff MW, Quignon P, Walsh K, Chase K, Parker HG, Vonholdt BM, Rhue A, Boyko A, Byers A, Wong A, Mosher DS, Elkahloun AG, Spady TC, André C, Lark KG, Cargill M, Bustamante CD, Wayne RK & Ostrander EA. (2009). Coat variation in the domestic dog is governed by variants in three genes. Science , 326, 150-3. PMID: 19713490 DOI.
- ↑ Vaags AK, Rosic-Kablar S, Gartley CJ, Zheng YZ, Chesney A, Villagómez DA, Kruth SA & Hough MR. (2009). Derivation and characterization of canine embryonic stem cell lines with in vitro and in vivo differentiation potential. Stem Cells , 27, 329-40. PMID: 19038794 DOI.
- ↑ Datta R, Lee J, Duda J, Avants BB, Vite CH, Tseng B, Gee JC, Aguirre GD & Aguirre GK. (2012). A digital atlas of the dog brain. PLoS ONE , 7, e52140. PMID: 23284904 DOI.
- ↑ Kluth S & Distl O. (2013). Congenital sensorineural deafness in dalmatian dogs associated with quantitative trait loci. PLoS ONE , 8, e80642. PMID: 24324618 DOI.
- ↑ Stabej P, Imholz S, Versteeg SA, Zijlstra C, Stokhof AA, Domanjko-Petric A, Leegwater PA & van Oost BA. (2004). Characterization of the canine desmin (DES) gene and evaluation as a candidate gene for dilated cardiomyopathy in the Dobermann. Gene , 340, 241-9. PMID: 15475165 DOI.
Chastant-Maillard S, Chebrout M, Thoumire S, Saint-Dizier M, Chodkiewicz M & Reynaud K. (2010). Embryo biotechnology in the dog: a review. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. , 22, 1049-56. PMID: 20797342 DOI.
Poth T, Breuer W, Walter B, Hecht W & Hermanns W. (2010). Disorders of sex development in the dog-Adoption of a new nomenclature and reclassification of reported cases. Anim. Reprod. Sci. , 121, 197-207. PMID: 20537823 DOI.
Cerda-Gonzalez S & Dewey CW. (2010). Congenital diseases of the craniocervical junction in the dog. Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract. , 40, 121-41. PMID: 19942060 DOI.
Day MJ. (2007). Immune system development in the dog and cat. J. Comp. Pathol. , 137 Suppl 1, S10-5. PMID: 17560591 DOI.
Romagnoli S & Schlafer DH. (2006). Disorders of sexual differentiation in puppies and kittens: a diagnostic and clinical approach. Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract. , 36, 573-606, vii. PMID: 16564415 DOI.
Martins DS, Ambrósio CE, Saraiva NZ, Wenceslau CV, Morini AC, Kerkis I, Garcia JM & Miglino MA. (2011). Early development and putative primordial germ cells characterization in dogs. Reprod. Domest. Anim. , 46, e62-6. PMID: 20477984 DOI.
Hossein MS, Jeong YW, Park SW, Kim JJ, Lee E, Ko KH, Hyuk P, Hoon SS, Kim YW, Hyun SH, Shin T & Hwang WS. (2009). Birth of Beagle dogs by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Anim. Reprod. Sci. , 114, 404-14. PMID: 19059739 DOI.
Lee HS, Yin XJ, Jin YX, Kim NH, Cho SG, Bae IH & Kong IK. (2008). Germinal vesicle chromatin configuration and meiotic competence is related to the oocyte source in canine. Anim. Reprod. Sci. , 103, 336-47. PMID: 17212978 DOI.
Day MJ. (2007). Immune system development in the dog and cat. J. Comp. Pathol. , 137 Suppl 1, S10-5. PMID: 17560591 DOI.
Luvoni GC, Chigioni S & Beccaglia M. (2006). Embryo production in dogs: from in vitro fertilization to cloning. Reprod. Domest. Anim. , 41, 286-90. PMID: 16869883 DOI.
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