Commences early stages of placentation.
- Usually identified by ultrasound.
- Presence of trophoblast cells in tube used to pathologically identify implantation.
| Tubal Ectopic
|| Bicornuate Uterus Ectopic
| USA Statistics
Ectopic Pregnancies- United-States 1970-1992
Ectopic Pregnancies- United-States 1997-2006
- Links: Ectopic Implantation | Ultrasound
MRI Complete Hydatidiform Mole
Another type of abnormality is when only the conceptus trophoblast layers proliferates and not the embryoblast, no embryo develops, this is called a "hydatidiform mole" (HM), which is due to the continuing presence of the trophoblastic layer, this abnormal conceptus can also implant in the uterus. The trophoblast cells will secrete human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), as in a normal pregnancy, and may appear maternally and by pregnancy test to be "normal". Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound analysis demonstrates the absence of a embryo.
There are several forms of hydatidiform mole: partial mole, complete mole and persistent gestational trophoblastic tumor.
- Complete Mole - Only paternal chromosomes, chromosomal genetic material from the ovum (egg) is lost, by an unknown process.
- Partial Mole - Ultrasound of partial mole confirmed by triploidy, chromosomal (genetic) material from the ovum (egg) is retained and the egg is fertilized by one or two sperm.
On ultrasound the tumour has a "grape-like" placental appearance without enclosed embryo formation. Following a first molar pregnancy, there is approximately a 1% risk of a second molar pregnancy.
- The incidence of hydatidiform mole varies between ethnic groups, and typically occurs in 1 in every 1500 pregnancies.
- All hydatidiform mole cases are sporadic, except for extremely rare familial cases.
- Links: Hydatidiform Mole | Week 2 - Abnormalities
Morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) is the general clinical term used to describe the different forms of abnormal placental implantation (Accreta, Increta and Percreta).
Placenta previa and increta
The placenta is a mateno-fetal organ which begins developing at implantation of the blastocyst and is delivered with the fetus at birth. As the fetus relies on the placenta for not only nutrition, but many other developmentally essential functions, the correct development of the placenta is important to correct embryonic and fetal development.
Abnormalities can range from anatomical associated with degree or site of inplantation, structure (as with twinning), to placental function, placento-maternal effects (pre-eclampsia, fetal erythroblastosis) and finally mechanical abnormalities associated with the placental (umbilical) cord.
Multilobed placenta succenturiata
- Placenta Accreta - abnormal adherence, with absence of decidua basalis. The incidence of placenta accreta also significantly increases in women with previous cesarean section compared to those without a prior surgical delivery.
- Placenta Increta - occurs when the placenta attaches deep into the uterine wall and penetrates into the uterine muscle, but does not penetrate the uterine serosa. Placenta increta accounts for approximately 15-17% of all cases.
- Placenta Percreta - placental villi penetrate myometrium and through to uterine serosa.
- Placenta Previa - In this placenatal abnormality, the placenta overlies internal os of uterus, essentially covering the birth canal. This condition occurs in approximately 1 in 200 to 250 pregnancies. In the third trimester and at term, abnormal bleeding can require cesarian delivery and can also lead to Abruptio Placenta. Ultrasound screening programs during 1st and early 2nd trimester pregnancies now include placental localization. Diagnosis can also be made by transvaginal ultrasound.
- Vasa Previa - (vasa praevia) placental abnormality where the fetal vessels lie within the membranes close too or crossing the inner cervical os (opening). Two main associations; 1. velamentous insertions (25–62%) and 2. vessels crossing between lobes in succenturiate or bilobate placentas (33–75%)
- Multilobed Placenta Succenturiata - an accessory portion attached to the main placenta by an artery or vein.
- Abruptio Placenta - a retroplacental blood clot formation, abnormal haemorrhage prior to delivery.
- Chronic Intervillositis - (massive chronicintervillositis, chronic histiocytic intervillositis) Rare placental abnormality and pathology defined by inflammatory placental lesions, mainly in the intervillous space (IVS), with a maternal infiltrate of mononuclear cells (monocytes, lymphocytes, histiocytes) and intervillous fibrinoid deposition.
Velamentous Cord Insertion of the Placenta
The placental cord inserts into the chorion laeve (placental membranes) away from the edge of the placenta.
The placental vessels are therefore unprotected by Wharton's jelly where they traverse the membranes before they come together into the umbilical cord.
This can also be associated with vasa previa (see above) or haemorrhage caused if the vessels are damaged when the membranes are ruptured prior to birth. The condition is more common in monozygotic twins (15%) and triplets.
Excessively short or long cords (see additional information on cord page). Abnormally long cords may wrap around either extremities or neck of the fetus.
Cord Vessel Number
Cord with only one artery and one vein.
Persistent Right Umbilical Vein
A fairly rare anomaly, a study of 15,237 obstetric ultrasound examinations performed after 15 weeks' gestation identified only 33 cases of persistent right umbilical vein. Some studies have identified associated fetal anomalies with this condition, including cardiac abnormalities.
Cord knotting can occur (1%) in most cases these knots have no effect, in some cases of severe knotting this can prevents the passage of placental blood.
Umbilical cord torsion
Rare umbilical cord torsion, even without knot formation can also affect placental blood flow, even leading to fetal demise.
Listeria maternal-fetal barrier
Several infective agents may cross into the placenta from the maternal circulation, as well as enter the embry/fetal circulation. The variety of bacterial infections that can occur during pregnancy is as variable as the potential developmental effects, from virtually insignificant to a major developmental, abortive or fatal in outcome.
Clinical term for the cytomegalovirus infection of the placenta. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common congenital viral infection, causing sensory (hearing, visual) and psychomotor impairment.
A earlier histological study identified fixed connective tissue cells predominantly infected cell type in placental tissue. In addition, endothelial cells, macrophages and in some cases trophoblast infection. While a more recent in vitro study suggests that all villi cell types are likely to be infected.
- Links: Cytomegalovirus | Abnormal Development - Viral Infection
A study has identified using an in vitro model that human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) can infect the placenta
Malaria (plasmodium falciparum
Pregnant women have an increased susceptibility to malaria infection. Malarial infection of the placenta by sequestration of the infected red blood cells leading to low birth weight and other effects. There are four types of malaria caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum (main), Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae). This condition is common in regions where malaria is endemic with women carrying their first pregnancy (primigravida).
- Links: Abnormal Development - Malaria
| Additional Information - Content shown under this heading is not part of the material covered in this class. It is provided for those students who would like to know about some concepts or current research in topics related to the current class page.
Bilobed Placenta with Velamentous Cord Insertion
Placenta - Abnormalities
Royal Hospital for Women
J F Yetter Examination of the placenta. Am Fam Physician: 1998, 57(5);1045-54 PubMed 9518951
| Am Fam Physician.
- "A one-minute examination of the placenta performed in the delivery room provides information that may be important to the care of both mother and infant. The findings of this assessment should be documented in the delivery records. During the examination, the size, shape, consistency and completeness of the placenta should be determined, and the presence of accessory lobes, placental infarcts, hemorrhage, tumors and nodules should be noted. The umbilical cord should be assessed for length, insertion, number of vessels, thromboses, knots and the presence of Wharton's jelly. The color, luster and odor of the fetal membranes should be evaluated, and the membranes should be examined for the presence of large (velamentous) vessels. Tissue may be retained because of abnormal lobation of the placenta or because of placenta accreta, placenta increta or placenta percreta. Numerous common and uncommon findings of the placenta, umbilical cord and membranes are associated with abnormal fetal development and perinatal morbidity. The placenta should be submitted for pathologic evaluation if an abnormality is detected or certain indications are present."
- also known as gestational proteinuric hypertension
- a common pregnancy complication, with an incidence ranging from 2–8%.
- lack of blood flow from the uterus to the placenta is always observed.
- pathogenesis of eclamptic convulsions remains unknown and women with a history of eclampsia are at increased risk of eclampsia (1-2%) and preeclampsia (22-35%) in subsequent pregnancies.
A large population study in Norway has shown a strong generational association such that daughters of women who had pre-eclampsia during pregnancy had more than twice the risk of pre-eclampsia themselves. The paper concludes "Maternal genes and fetal genes from either the mother or father may trigger pre-eclampsia. The maternal association is stronger than the fetal association. The familial association predicts more severe pre-eclampsia."
Rolv Skjaerven, Lars J Vatten, Allen J Wilcox, Thorbjørn Rønning, Lorentz M Irgens, Rolv Terje Lie Recurrence of pre-eclampsia across generations: exploring fetal and maternal genetic components in a population based cohort. BMJ: 2005, 331(7521);877 PubMed 16169871
| Monochorionic twin pregnancies
|| Monochorionic triamniotic triplet pregnancy placenta
A 2009 longitudinal Norwegian study suggests an association between large placenta relative to fetal size "disproportionately large placenta relative to birth weight was associated with increased risk of (adult) cardiovascular disease death." See also the DOHAD hypothesis.
Other Online Resources
2013 Meeting Presentation- Placenta Circulation
| Placenta Terms (expand to view)
- after-birth - term used to describe the delivery of placenta and placental membranes following birth of the child.
- allantois - An extraembryonic membrane, endoderm in origin extension from the early hindgut, then cloaca into the connecting stalk of placental animals, connected to the superior end of developing bladder. In reptiles and birds, acts as a reservoir for wastes and mediates gas exchange. In mammals is associated/incorporated with connecting stalk/placental cord fetal-maternal interface.
- anastomosis - Term used to describe the connection between two tubes. Applied to describe the connection between peripheral blood vessels without an intervening capillary bed.
- anchoring villi - (stem villi) describes the placental villi (embryonic) that attach to the decidua (maternal) tissue. The tip of the villi consists of a column of trophoblast cells attached to an epithelial plaque.
- angioblasts form clusters or blood islands on surface of yolk sac.
- angiogenesis - Term describing the development of new vessels from already existing vessels, this process is secondary to vasculogenesis which is the initial formation of first blood vessels by differentiation of pluripotent mesenchymal cells (extraembryonic mesoderm).
- capsularis - portion of maternal decidua that covers the conceptus facing towards the uterine cavity.
- chorioamnionitis - (CA) An intraamniotic puerperal infection described as having 3 forms: histologic, clinical (clinical chorioamnionitis, IAI), and subclinical. Intraamniotic infection is a common (2-4%) event in labor and the systemic inflammatory response can also lead to preterm birth and neonatal complications.
- chorion - The extraembryonic membrane generated from trophoblast and extraembryonic mesoderm that forms placenta. chorion and amnion are made by the somatopleure. The chorion becomes incorporated into placental development. The avian and reptilian chorion lies beside the egg shell and allows gas exchange.
- chorionic cavity - The fluid-filled extraembryonic coelom (cavity) formed initially from trophoblast and extraembryonic mesoderm that forms placenta. chorion and amnion are made by the somatopleure. The chorion becomes incorporated into placental development. The avian and reptilian chorion lies beside the egg shell and allows gas exchange. In humans, this cavity is lost during week 8 when the amniotic cavity expands and fuses with the chorion.
- chorion frondosum - (frondosum = leafy) The chorion found on conceptus oriented towards maternal blood supply where the majority of villi form and proliferate, will contribute the fetal component of the future placenta.
- chorion laeve - (laeve = smooth) The smooth chorion found on conceptus away from maternal blood supply (towards uterine epithelium and cavity) with very few villi present.
- chorionic gonadotropin - (CG, human chorionic gonadotropin, hCG) A hormone see human chorionic gonadotropin.
- chorionic somatomammotropin - (CSH, human lactogen) A hormone synthesized within the placenta by syncytiotrophoblast cells. This protein hormone (190 amino acid) has a structure is similar to pituitary growth hormone.
- chorionic villus sampling - (CVS) The taking a biopsy of the placenta, usually at the end of the second month of pregnancy, to test the fetus for genetic abnormalities.
- coelocentesis - A sampling of extracoelomic fluid usually for an early prenatal diagnostic technique.
- connecting stalk - the original extra-embryonic mesoderm structure attaching the embryonic disc to the chorion. The placental blood vessels form within this structure.
- cord blood - (human umbilical cord blood, HUCB) A term used to describe blood collected from the placenta usually after birth. Has been identified as a source of stem cells with potential therapeutic uses and is stored in Cord Blood Banks throughout the world.
- cord knotting Term describing umbilical or placental cord knotting. This occurs in about 1% prevents the passage of placental blood, pseudoknots also occur usually with no effect.
- cord presentation - A term used to describe at birth the presence of the umbilical cord between the fetal presenting part and the cervix, with or without membrane rupture.
- cord prolapse - A term used to describe at birth the descent of the umbilical cord through the cervix alongside (occult) or past (overt) the presenting part in the presence of ruptured membranes (incidence of 0.1% to 0.6%).
- cotyledon - (Greek, kotyle = a deep cup) In the embryos of seed plants, the "seed leaves," in which nutrients are stored for use after germination. In placental animals, the term is also to describe the leaf-like structure of the placenta surface.
- cytotrophoblast - The "cellular" trophoblast layer surrounding (forming a "shell") the early implanting conceptus. Beginning at uterine adplantation, proliferation and fusion of these cells is thought to form a second outer trophoblast layer, the syncytiotrophoblast. The cytotrophoblast layer contributes to formation of the placental villi, the functional component of the fetal placenta.
- decidua basalis - The term given to the uterine endometrium at the site of implantation where signaling transforms the uterine stromal cells (fibroblast-like) into decidual cells. This forms the maternal component of the placenta, the decidualization process gradually spreads through the remainder of the uterus, forming the decidua parietalis.
- decidua basalis reaction - Term describing the maternal endometrial changes that occur initially at the site of, and following, blastocyst implantation. Seen as a deposition of glycogen, fibrin and proliferation of blood vessels. See also decidualization.
- decidua capsularis - The term given to the uterine endometrium which has been converted to decidua surrounding the conceptus on the smooth chorion side.
- decidua parietalis - The term given to the remainder of the uterine endometrium, away from the site of implantation, that gradually becomes comverted to decidua.
- decidual cell - The uterine stromal cells (fibroblast-like) that differentiate in response to both steroid hormones (progesterone) and embryonic signals. These cells then alter uterine environment to support further embryonic development as well as producing cytokines related to prolactin (PRL) and have an innate immune function.
- decidualization - (decidualisation) The process by which uterine stromal cells differentiate in response to both steroid hormones and embryonic signals into large epitheliod decidual cells. This process is essential for the progress of implantation and establishing fetal-maternal communication.
- fetal drug addiction - occurs when drugs used maternally cross the placental barrier and can establish addiction in the unborn fetus.
- fetal erythroblastosis - (Haemolytic Disease of the Newborn) A clinical term describing an immune response between fetal and maternal blood groups; from fetus Rh+ / maternal Rh-. The leakage of blood from fetus, particularly at birth, causes maternal anti-Rh antibodies, which is then dangerous for a 2nd or future pregnancies.
- fibrinoid layer - (Nitabuch's layer) A layer formed at maternal/fetal interface during placentation and is thought to act to prevent excessively deep conceptus implantation. Fibrin-type fibrinoid (maternal blood-clot product) and matrix-type fibrinoid (secreted by invasive extravillous trophoblast cells).
- floating chorionic villi - Term used to describe the placental microanatomy structure of chorionic villi that are not attached to the maternal decidua and float in the maternal blood-filled space (lacunae). Structurally the same as anchoring chorionic villi conceptus side that are attached to the maternal decidua.These villi go through the same stages of development: primary, secondary and tertiary villi.
- hemotrophic nutrition - Term used to describe in late placenta development the transfer of blood-borne nutrition from maternal to embryo/fetuscompared to early histiotrophic nutrition.
- histiotrophic nutrition - Term used to describe in early placenta development the intital transfer of nutrition from maternal to embryo (histiotrophic nutrition) compared to later blood-borne nutrition (hemotrophic nutrition). Histotroph is the nutritional material accumulated in spaces between the maternal and fetal tissues, derived from the maternal endometrium and the uterine glands. This nutritional material is absorbed by phagocytosis initially by blastocyst trophectoderm and then by trophoblast of the placenta. in later placental development nutrition is by the exchange of blood-borne materials between the maternal and fetal circulations, hemotrophic nutrition.
- Hofbauer cells - Cells found within placental villi connective tissue. Have a role as macrophages of mesenchymal origin with potentially additional functions (remodeling, vasculogenesis, regulation of stromal water content).
- Human chorionic corticotropin - (hCACTH) placental derived hormone equivilant to corticotropin (ACTH) from the pituitary.
- Human chorionic gonadotrophin - (hCG) like leutenizing hormone, supports corpus luteum, originally secreted by trophoblast cells.
- Human chorionic somatommotropin - (hCS, placental lactogen) hormone level increases in maternal blood through pregnancy, decreases maternal insulin sensitivity (raising maternal blood glucose levels and decreasing maternal glucose utilization) aiding fetal nutrition.
- hydatiform mole - A uterine tumour with "grape-like" placenta appearance without enclosed embryo formation, arises mainly from a haploid sperm fertilizing an egg without a female pronucleus. It is one form of gestational trophoblastic disease(GTD), a number of abnormalities including hydatiform mole, invasive mole, choriocarcinoma and placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT).
- hysterectomy – clinical term for the surgical removal of the uterus.
- Langhans layer - cytotrophoblast cell layer.
- maternal antibodies - antibodies from the mother's immune system that are capable of crossing placental barrier. They can provide immune protection to the embryo, but may also participate in immune disease (fetal erythroblastosis).
- maternal sinusoids - placental spaces around chorionic villi that are filled with maternal blood. This is the closest maternal/fetal exchange site.
- Nitabuch's layer - (fibrinoid layer) The layer formed at maternal/fetal interface during placentation and is thought to act to prevent excessively deep conceptus implantation. Fibrin-type fibrinoid (maternal blood-clot product) and matrix-type fibrinoid (secreted by invasive extravillous trophoblast cells).
- Morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) A general clinical term used to describe the different forms of abnormal placental implantation (Accreta, Increta and Percreta).
- persistent right umbilical vein - (PRUV) A placental cord abnormality associated with fetal abnormalities and poor neonatal prognosis. The estimated incidence of persistent right umbilical vein in a low-risk population is 1 : 526. PMID: 12047534
- placenta - (Greek, plakuos = flat cake) The developmental organ formed from maternal and fetal contributions in animals with placental development. In human, the placenta at term is a discoid shape "flat cake" shape; 20 cm diameter, 3 cm thick and weighs 500-600 gm. Placenta are classified by the number of layers between maternal and fetal blood (Haemochorial, Endotheliochorial and Epitheliochorial) and shape (Discoid, Zonary, Cotyledenary and Diffuse). The placenta has many different functions including metabolism, transport and endocrine.
- placenta accreta - The abnormal placental adherence, either in whole or in part of the placenta with absence of decidua basalis, leading to retention as an after-birth to the underlying uterine wall. The incidence of placenta accreta also significantly increases in women with previous cesarean section compared to those without a prior surgical delivery.
- placental arteries - (umbilical arteries) In placental animals, the blood vessels which develop within the placental cord carrying relatively deoxygenated blood from the embryo/fetus to the placenta. In humans, there are two placental arteries continuous with the paired internal iliac arteries (hypogastric arteries) arising off the dorsal aortas. At birth this vessel regresses and form the remnant medial umbilical ligament.
- placental cord - (umbilical cord) The placental cord is the structure connecting the embryo/fetus to the placenta. It is initially extra-embryonic mesoderm forming the connecting stalk within which the placental blood vessels (arteries and veins) form. In human placental cords the placental blood vessels are initially paired, later in development only a single placental vein remains with a pair of placental arteries. This structure also contains the allantois, an extension from the hindgut cloaca then urogenital sinus. Blood collected from the placental cord following delivery is a source of cord blood stem cells.)
- placental diameter - is measured in the transverse section by calculating the maximum dimensions of the chorionic surface.
- placental growth factor - (PlGF) A growth factor of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family, released from the placental trophoblast cells and other sources that stimulates blood vessel growth.
- placental malaria - The malarial infection of the placenta by sequestration of the infected red blood cells. This condition can be common in regions where malaria is endemic with women carrying their first pregnancy (primigravida).
- placenta membranacea - rare placental abnormality characterized by the presence of chorionic villi directly attached to and covering the fetal membranes. Placenta Membranacea
- placenta percreta - abnormal placentation where the villi penetrate myometrium.
- placenta previa - placenta overlies internal os of uterus, abnormal bleeding, may require cesarian delivery.
- placental thickness - is measured at its mid-portion from the chorionic plate to the basilar plate, on a longitudinal plane (less than 4 cm at term). Excludes any abnormalities (fibroids, myometrial contractions, or venous lakes). The placental thickness approximates in millimeters to the weeks of gestation.
- placental vein - (umbilical vein) In placental animals, the blood vessels which develop within the placental cord carrying relatively oxygenated blood from the placenta to the embryo/fetus. In humans, there are initially two placental veins which fuse to form a single vein. The resence of paired veins in the placental cord can be indicative of developmental abnormalities.
- placentophagia - Term used to descrbe the maternal ingestion of afterbirth materials (placental membranes and amniotic fluid) that can occur following mammalian parturition (birth).
- primary villi - (primary chorionic villi) Term describing the earliest stage of embryonic placenta development. In humans, the conceptus during week 2 this first stage of chorionic villi development consists of only the trophoblastic shell cells (syncitiotrophoblasts and cytotrophoblasts) forming finger-like extensions into maternal decidua. Initially these finger-like projections cover the entire surface of chorionic sac and later become restricted to the placental surface. The villi stages are ongoing as the placenta continues to grow through both the embryonic and fetal development.
- pre-eclampsia - During pregnancy a combination of high blood pressure, protein in urine and fluid retention resulting in maternal sudden excessive swelling of the face, hands and feet. Eclampsia is the subsequent development of convulsions, kidney failure, liver failure, clotting problems or mortality.
- secondary villi - (secondary chorionic villi) Term describing the second stage of embryonic placenta development. In humans, the conceptus during week 3 onward this stage of chorionic villi development consists of the trophoblastic shell cells (syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblasts) filled with extraembryonic mesoderm forming finger-like extensions into maternal decidua. Initially these finger-like projections cover the entire surface of chorionic sac and later become restricted to the placental surface. The villi stages are ongoing as the placenta continues to grow through both the embryonic and fetal development. Placental villi stages: primary villi - secondary villi - tertiary villi
- syncytiotrophoblast - A multinucleated cell currently thought to form by the fusion of another trophoblast cell the cytotrophoblasts, within the trophoblast layer (shell) of the implanting conceptus. In early development, these cells mediate implantation of the conceptus into the uterine wall and secrete the hormone (human Chorionic Gonadotrophin, hCG) responsible for feedback maintainance of the corpus luteum (in maternal ovary) and therefore maintaining early pregnancy.
- trophoblast - (trophectoderm, Greek, trophe = "nutrition" and blast = a primordial cell) cells that firstly support adplantation, implantation and endocrine support of pregnancy. Contribute to the extraembryonic tissues, fetal placenta and membranes. Initially form 2 populations individual cytotrophoblast cells and their fused multinucleate syncytiotrophoblast cells.
- umbilical cord (placental cord) fetal attachment cord 1-2 cm diameter, 30-90cm long, covered with amniotic attached to chorionic plate, umbilical vessels (artery, vein) branch into chorionic vessels. Vessels anastomose within the placenta.
- vasculogenesis - formation of first blood vessels by differentiation of pluripotent mesenchymal cells (extraembryonic mesoderm) followed by angiogenesis which is the development of new vessels from already existing vessels.
- villi - Plural of villus, which is a thin projection from a surface. The term in development is used to describe the individual functional units together of the fetal placenta.
- virus - small infectious agents that may cross the placental barrier. Can infect embryo and/or placenta and cause developmental abnormalities. (e.g. cytomegalovirus, rubella, measles).
- Wharton's jelly - Placental cord (umbilical cord) gelatinous connective tissue composed of myofibroblast-like stromal cells, collagen fibers, and proteoglycans. Increases in volume (myxomatous, connective tissue embedded in mucus) at parturition (birth) to assist closure of placental blood vessels. Matrix cells from Wharton's jelly have recently been identified as a potential source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), also called mesenchymal stromal cell. This placental cord substance is named after Thomas Wharton (1614-1673) an English physician and anatomist who first described this placental tissue.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Ectopic pregnancy--United States, 1990-1992. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep.: 1995, 44(3);46-8 PubMed 7823895
Juliana Rocha, Joana Carvalho, Fernanda Costa, Isabel Meireles, Olímpia do Carmo Velamentous cord insertion in a singleton pregnancy: an obscure cause of emergency cesarean-a case report. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol: 2012, 2012;308206 PubMed 23243528
| PMC3517836 | Case Rep Obstet Gynecol.
L M Hill, A Mills, C Peterson, D Boyles Persistent right umbilical vein: sonographic detection and subsequent neonatal outcome. Obstet Gynecol: 1994, 84(6);923-5 PubMed 7970470
J Weichert, D Hartge, U Germer, R Axt-Fliedner, U Gembruch Persistent right umbilical vein: a prenatal condition worth mentioning? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol: 2011, 37(5);543-8 PubMed 20922781
Brianna Lide, William Lindsley, Margaret J Foster, Richard Hale, Sina Haeri Intrahepatic Persistent Right Umbilical Vein and Associated Outcomes: A Systematic Review of the Literature. J Ultrasound Med: 2015; PubMed 26635256
C Sinzger, H Müntefering, T Löning, H Stöss, B Plachter, G Jahn Cell types infected in human cytomegalovirus placentitis identified by immunohistochemical double staining. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol: 1993, 423(4);249-56 PubMed 8236822
Liu Tao, Chen Suhua, Chen Juanjuan, Yin Zongzhi, Xiao Juan, Zhang Dandan In vitro study on human cytomegalovirus affecting early pregnancy villous EVT's invasion function. Virol. J.: 2011, 8;114 PubMed 21392403
Mariantonietta Di Stefano, Maria Luisa Calabrò, Iole Maria Di Gangi, Santina Cantatore, Massimo Barbierato, Elisa Bergamo, Anfumbom Jude Kfutwah, Margherita Neri, Luigi Chieco-Bianchi, Pantaleo Greco, Loreto Gesualdo, Ahidjo Ayouba, Elisabeth Menu, Josè Ramòn Fiore In vitro and in vivo human herpesvirus 8 infection of placenta. PLoS ONE: 2008, 3(12);e4073 PubMed 19115001
Kari R Risnes, Pål R Romundstad, Tom I L Nilsen, Anne Eskild, Lars J Vatten Placental weight relative to birth weight and long-term cardiovascular mortality: findings from a cohort of 31,307 men and women. Am. J. Epidemiol.: 2009, 170(5);622-31 PubMed 19638481
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