BGDA Tutorial - Embryology

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Dr Mark Hill

This online tutorial is an opportunity for students to raise with the Embryology content provider any specific topics that have not been resolved in either the Lecture or Practical classes. BGDA embryology structure has been designed to take you through human development at a greater depth than the introduction made in Foundations.

It has identified the sequence of events from reproductive cycles, fertilization, implantation, placentation, embryonic and fetal development. (note we have not yet covered the metal and placental development content)


BGDA tutorial 2017 icon.jpg
Below is a simple audio recording from the Tuesday tutorial in WW LG03. Note that the content for individual tutorials would vary greatly depending upon the student questions raised in the class.

<html5media>File:BGDA Tutorial 2017.mp3</html5media>
The phone audio is unedited and may contain errors. The audio quality is variable and the initial student question may not be audible on the recording, "es lo que es".

  Practical 3 - Fertilization to Implantation   Practical 6 - Implantation to 8 Weeks   Practical 12 - Fetal Period
Practical 14 - Placenta and Fetal Membranes

BGDB will follow on by covering specific systemic development issues.

My answers and those of the other expert tutors refer specifically only to Embryology content and not that of other disciplines.


Expert Tutorial Issues

Be prepared for your tutorials. It does not help anyone if you have no questions to bring to the table, and turns an opportunity for interaction into a straight review lecture.

Look through your own lecture and practical notes.
  • Are there topics which even your notes don't clarify?
  • Have you found differences between the lecture/practicals and the textbook resources?
Discuss with you SG.
  • Do they have the same understanding?
  • have you tried to explain a concept to someone else?
Be careful of inaccurate reporting.
  • Has the person reporting back accurately discuss what the expert has described?
  • Is this information the same/different to what was presented in the Lecture/Practical?
Occasionally corrections are made to previously presented materials.
  • Have these corrections been accurately reported?
  • Have you gone back and checked and updated your own notes?

2014 BGD Cycle A

BGDA Practical - Fertilization to Implantation BGDA Practical - Implantation to 8 Weeks BGDA Practical - Fetal Development
BGDA Practical - Placenta and Fetal Membranes


My answers specifically refer only to Embryology content that I have provided and not that of other disciplines.

Will this be in the Exam?

  • Don't even try this one!
  • I am happy to help you with my materials but not to simply narrow down the topics to those examined.
  • In both Lectures and Practicals, the online content I work through with you is the basis of the concepts you need to know.
  • External links are often to images, texts or references that should help your understanding of the content I provide, but are not directly examinable.
  • Internal links to other specific content pages are similarly for aiding the understanding of specific concepts.
  • Internal links to animations are used to illustrate dynamic processes that are also generally described on the content pages.
  • Additional Information on Practical class pages is just that, and does not form part of the current assessment content.

Abnormal Development

Australia - Top 10

Australian Data 1981-92

The ten most frequently reported birth defects in Victoria between 2003-2004.

  1. Hypospadias
  2. Obstructive Defects of the Renal Pelvis or Obstructive Genitourinary Defects
  3. Ventricular Septal Defect
  4. Congenital Dislocated Hip
  5. Trisomy 21 or Down syndrome
  6. Hydrocephalus
  7. Cleft Palate
  8. Trisomy 18 or Edward Syndrome - multiple abnormalities of the heart, diaphragm, lungs, kidneys, ureters and palate 86% discontinued.
  9. Renal Agenesis/Dysgenesis - reduction in neonatal death and stillbirth since 1993 may be due to the more severe cases being identified in utero and being represented amongst the increased proportion of terminations (approximately 31%).
  10. Cleft Lip and Palate - occur with another defect in 33.7% of cases.

Links: ACAMS | Australian Statistics

USA - Selected

USA Statistics
USA Selected Abnormalities (CDC National estimates for 21 selected major birth defects 2004–2006)  
Birth Defects Cases per Births (1 in ...) Estimated Annual Number of Cases
anencephaly 4,859 859
spina bifida without anencephaly 2,858 1,460
encephalocele 12,235 341
Anophthalmia/microphthalmia 5,349 780
patent ductus arteriosus‎/common truncus 13,876 301
transposition of the great vessels 3,333 1,252
Tetralogy of Fallot 2,518 1,657
atrial septal defects/ventricular septal defects 2,122 1,966
hypoplastic left heart 4,344 960
cleft palate without cleft lip 1,574 2,651
cleft lip with and without cleft palate 940 4,437
Esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula 4,608 905
Rectal and large intestinal atresia/stenosis 2,138 1,952
Reduction deformity, upper limbs 2,869 1,454
Reduction deformity, lower limbs 5,949 701
gastroschisis 2,229 1,871
omphalocele 5,386 775
Diaphragmatic hernia 3,836 1,088
Trisomy 13 7,906 528
Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) 691 6,037
Trisomy 18 3,762 1,109
Links: Human Abnormal Development | CDC Birth Defects - Data & Statistics | USA Statistics | Victoria 2004 | USA 2006 | Europe 2010

Links: USA Monitoring Programmes | USA Statistics


In addition to the online topic pages, there are excellent embryology textbooks and I have included links to "The Developing Human" that also cover the clinical topics. this textbook is accessible through the UNSW Library by students. The links below will require you to firstly log-in and then you will have assess to the full textbook. More Textbooks?

The Developing Human, 9th edn.jpg Citation: Moore, K.L., Persaud, T.V.N. & Torchia, M.G. (2011). The developing human: clinically oriented embryology (9th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.

Links: NLM ID: 101293798 | publisher page | NLM Holding

The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (10th edn) 
The Developing Human, 10th edn.jpg

UNSW Students have online access to the current 10th edn. through the UNSW Library subscription (with student Zpass log-in).

APA Citation: Moore, K.L., Persaud, T.V.N. & Torchia, M.G. (2015). The developing human: clinically oriented embryology (10th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.

Links: PermaLink | UNSW Embryology Textbooks | Embryology Textbooks | UNSW Library
  1. Introduction to the Developing Human
  2. First Week of Human Development
  3. Second Week of Human Development
  4. Third Week of Human Development
  5. Fourth to Eighth Weeks of Human Development
  6. Fetal Period
  7. Placenta and Fetal Membranes
  8. Body Cavities and Diaphragm
  9. Pharyngeal Apparatus, Face, and Neck
  10. Respiratory System
  11. Alimentary System
  12. Urogenital System
  13. Cardiovascular System
  14. Skeletal System
  15. Muscular System
  16. Development of Limbs
  17. Nervous System
  18. Development of Eyes and Ears
  19. Integumentary System
  20. Human Birth Defects
  21. Common Signaling Pathways Used During Development
  22. Appendix : Discussion of Clinically Oriented Problems
Links: More Embryology Textbooks

Embryology 2011 Tutorial Audio

These are a live unedited recording from the two 2011 repeat tutorials and may contain errors in either descriptions or content. These recordings are for University level students and may not be suitable for young students. For educational purposes only.

  • Dr Mark Hill Monday 23rd May 2011 11am Biomed E listen | download (5.83 Mb MP3 50:56)
  • Dr Mark Hill Monday 24th May 2011 11am Biomed E listen | download (5.31 Mb MP3 46:23)

For educational purposes only.


This page also includes links to an earlier 2011 audio recordings made from the first tutorial sessions.

--Mark Hill (talk) 10:30, 25 May 2015 (AEST)


BGDA: Lecture 1 | Lecture 2 | Practical 3 | Practical 6 | Practical 12 | Lecture Neural | Practical 14 | Histology Support - Female | Male | Tutorial

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2024, April 22) Embryology BGDA Tutorial - Embryology. Retrieved from

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2024, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G