BGDA Practical 12 - Embryo to Fetus

From Embryology
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Practical 12: Embryo to Fetus | Second Trimester | Third Trimester | Birth | Neonatal | Abnormalities


Introduction

Identify the development and form of the week 8 embryo (Stage 22 and 23). This 3D reconstruction animations showing specific systems and the histological sections from which these were prepared. There are also virtual slides and selected cross-sections showing specific features.

Then look at the week 10 early fetus and observe developmental changes. The selected mid-sagittal section shows the overall fetal anatomy and the gallery of excerpts have further detailed descriptions of these regions.


Week 8 - Stage 22

Stage22 bf1c.jpg
stage 22, Week 8, 54 - 56 days, 23 - 28 mm

Mesoderm: heart prominence, ossification continues

Head: nose, eye, external acoustic meatus

Body:straightening of trunk, heart, liver, umbilicus: placental cord, midgut herniation, allantois, vitelline duct

Limb: upper limbs longer and bent at elbow, foot plate with webbed digits, wrist, hand plate with separated digits

Straightening of trunk, pigmented eye, eyelid, nose, external acoustic meatus, ear auricle, scalp vascular plexus, separated digits (fingers), thigh, ankle, umbilical cord

Embryo Anatomy

Now examine selected regions of the Stage 22 embryo and their overall development in the 3D animations.


Stage22 ALL3d.jpg
 ‎‎Systems
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Stage22-GIT-icon.jpg
 ‎‎GIT Stage 22
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Stage22-CVS-icon.jpg
 ‎‎Cardiovascular
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Stage22-CNS-icon.jpg
 ‎‎Stage 22 Neural
Page | Play
Stage22-CNS-icon.jpg
 ‎‎Urogenital
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Stage22-CNS-icon.jpg
 ‎‎Skeletal
Page | Play

Virtual Slides

Stage 22 - Eye and Nose

Stage 22 image 008.jpg

 ‎‎Mobile | Desktop | Original

Stage 22 | Embryo Slides
Stage 22 - Eye

Stage 22 image 008-eye.jpg

 ‎‎Mobile | Desktop | Original

Stage 22 | Embryo Slides
Stage 22 - Oral Cavity and Inner Ear

Stage 22 image 011.jpg

 ‎‎Mobile | Desktop | Original

Stage 22 | Embryo Slides
Stage 22 - Larynx and Medulla

Stage 22 image 015.jpg

 ‎‎Mobile | Original

Stage 22 | Embryo Slides
Stage 22 - Neck

Stage 22 image 017.jpg

 ‎‎Mobile | Desktop | Original

Stage 22 | Embryo Slides
Stage 22 - Atria and Lungs

Stage 22 image 025.jpg

 ‎‎Mobile | Desktop | Original

Stage 22 | Embryo Slides
Stage 22 - Liver and Ductus Venosus

Stage 22 image 034.jpg

 ‎‎Mobile | Desktop | Original

Stage 22 | Embryo Slides
Stage 22 - Pelvis

Stage 22 image 048.jpg

 ‎‎Mobile | Desktop | Original

Stage 22 | Embryo Slides
Stage 22 - Spinal Cord

Stage 22 image 033-spinal-cord.jpg

 ‎‎Mobile | Desktop | Original

Stage 22 | Embryo Slides
Stage 22 - Spinal Cord (rotated)

Human Stage22 spinal cord03.jpg

 ‎‎Mobile | Desktop | Original

Stage 22 | Embryo Slides

Week 8 - Stage 23

Stage23 bf1c.jpg
Week 8, 56 - 60 days, 27 - 31 mm

scalp vascular plexus, eylid, eye, nose, auricle of external ear, mouth, sholder, arm, elbow, wrist, toes separated, sole of foot, umbilical cord

Mesoderm: ossification continues

Head: eyelids, external ears, rounded head

Body: straightening of trunk, intestines herniated at umbilicus

Limbs: hands and feet turned inward

Carnegie Stage 23 MRI movies
Stage23 MRI 3D01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Embryo Surface
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Stage23 MRI 3D02 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Embryo CNS
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Stage23 MRI S02 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Sagittal Embryo
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Stage23 MRI T01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Trans. Embryo
Page | Play
Stage23 MRI C01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Coronal Embryo
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Stage23 MRI S01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Sagittal Head
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Stage23 MRI S04 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Sagittal GIT
Page | Play

Stage 23 MRI Movies: Surface | Central Nervous System | CNS (labeled) | Sagittal | Sagittal (labeled) | Transverse | Transverse (labeled) | Coronal | Sagittal Head (labeled) | Sagittal GIT (labeled) | Carnegie stage 23


Week: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Carnegie stage: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23


Stage 23 Links: Week 8 | System Development | Lecture - Limb | Lecture - Head Development | Lecture - Sensory | Science Practical - Head | Science Practical - Sensory | Science Practical - Urogenital | Historic - Skull Development | Carnegie Embryos | Madrid Embryos | Category:Carnegie Stage 23 | Next Fetal Development
  Historic Papers: 1954 Stage 19-23


Carnegie Stages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | About Stages | Timeline


Cortex

Stage 22 image 217.jpg

Week 8 Developing Cortex  
Human embryo, Week 8, (GA week 10) Carnegie stage 22 section from the neural tube at the level of the developing cortex. Inset (upper right) shows whole section overview and approximate level of section (red line). Grey box shows detailed image region of developing cerebrum layer thicknesses are shown in microns.

Developing Cortex will form from the thin outer layer called the cortical plate. The underlying layers transient structures that continue to supply cells to the cortex through fetal period, most of these layers will eventually be lost, except for a thin ventricular layer. Cells migrate out along radial glia that establish the initial columnar and layered structure of the cortex. Layers are named according to the nervous system revised terminology (1970)[1]

Developing Vascular blood vessels can also be seen spanning the developing layers. In the adult, these vessels will be lined with non-fenestrated endothelial cells that together with other vascular cells (pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells), glial cells (astrocytes and microglia) and neurons will form the "blood-brain barrier".

Developing Ventricular Space is cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) filled and the lateral ventricles form within the cortical region. The inset image shows lying within the lateral ventricles, the choroid plexus the modified vascular structure that forms and secretes the CSF.

Developing Meninges layers lie outside the neural tube. The thin pia mater that closely covers the entire brain. The mesh-like arachnoid mater and the sub-arachnoid space that will also be CSF filled. The dense dura mater lies outside these 2 layers and under the skull, it cannot be seen in the enlarged image.

Spinal Cord

Human Stage22 spinal cord02.jpg

Week 8 Developing Spinal Cord (virtual slide) 
Stage 22 - Spinal Cord (rotated)

Human Stage22 spinal cord03.jpg

 ‎‎Mobile | Desktop | Original

Stage 22 | Embryo Slides
These listed features link to zoomed views of the virtual slide with the named feature generally in the centre of the view.

Use the (-) at the top left of the screen to see where this feature is located.

Spinal Cord Features Other Features

Oral Cavity

Renal

Mesonephric kidney (degenerating) and testes (developing) in relation to the mesonephric duct (ductus deferens) and paramesonephric duct (degenerating). Inset (lower left) shows whole embryo section. Stage 22 image 301.jpg

Week 10 - Fetus (40mm)

Human week 10 fetus 01.jpg

Size comparison embryo-fetus actual.jpg This is an image of the actual size comparison shown in the introduction of the Embryonic stage 13, 23 and Fetal stage 10 week 40mm. This stage of development is after the embryonic period (up to week 8), but only 2 weeks into early fetal development.
Size comparison embryo-fetus.jpg The fetal period is a time of extensive growth in size and mass as well as differentiation of organ systems established in the embryonic period. In particular, the brain continues to grow and develop, the respiratory system differentiates, the urogenital system further differentiates between male/female, endocrine and gastrointestinal tract begins to function.

Compare this 10 week fetus with the earlier Carnegie stage embryos: size, head/body proportions, brain, head, skeletal development.

Note that in the early fetus the midgut remains herniated and will only be taken into the peritoneal cavity on further body wall growth.

There are 4 sections taken in the sagittal plane (moving from the right at Plane A towards the midline at Plane D). Click on the small images (or the text below) to open the linked large image pages.

Related Images

Human- fetal week 10 planes icon.jpg

Fetus (week 10) Planes A (most lateral), B (lateral), C (medial) and D (midline) from lateral towards the midline.

Image Source: UNSW Embryology, no reproduction without permission.


Adrenal

Cartoon shows example of some neural crest medial migration during week 4 and 5 and the structures formed at the level of the body.
  • Cells staying dorsal to neural tube - dorsal root ganglia (DRG)
  • Cells migrating ventral to neural tube - sympathetic ganglia
  • Cells migrating peritoneal cavity wall - adrenal medulla
  • Cells migrate into GIT wall - enteric nervous system


Adrenal medulla.jpg
 ‎‎Adrenal Medulla
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Human-adrenal gland 01.jpg Week10 adrenal.jpg
Human Embryo (8 weeks, stage 22) adrenal gland showing the fetal and permanent adrenal cortex. Note that the medulla of the adrenal gland is not yet encapsulated by the cortex. 8-9 weeks post conception (wpc) adrenal cortex synthesizes cortisol under the regulation of ACTH (also stimulates androstenedione and testosterone secretion). Human Fetus (10 week, 40mm, parasagittal section) shows location of the developing adrenal gland. The spongy appearance at the centre of the adrenal is the degenerating fetal cortex. The dense region around the outside of the adrenal is the developing adult cortex.)




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Practical 12: Embryo to Fetus | Second Trimester | Third Trimester | Birth | Neonatal | Abnormalities


Additional Information

Additional Information - Content shown under this heading is not part of the material covered in this class. It is provided for those students who would like to know about some concepts or current research in topics related to the current class page.


Links: Fetal Development - 10 Weeks | Stage 22 embryo slices


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BGDA: Lecture 1 | Lecture 2 | Practical 3 | Practical 6 | Practical 12 | Lecture Neural | Practical 14 | Histology Support - Female | Male | Tutorial

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology BGDA Practical 12 - Embryo to Fetus. Retrieved September 24, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/BGDA_Practical_12_-_Embryo_to_Fetus

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© Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G
  1. Embryonic vertebrate central nervous system: revised terminology. The Boulder Committee. Anat. Rec.: 1970, 166(2);257-61 PubMed 5414696