Abnormal Development - Toxoplasmosis
The causal agent of Toxoplasmosis is the protist Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). This unicellular eukaryote is a member of the phylum Apicomplexa which includes other parasites responsible for a variety of diseases (malaria, cryptosporidiosis). The diagnosis and timing of an infection are diagnostically based on serological tests. During a period of acute maternal infection, transplacental transmission can occur, and the rate of congenital toxoplasmosis with risk for severe fetal varies from 15 to 68%, depending on gestational age and the transmission rate is highest in the later stages of pregnancy. The congenital disease is characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations (neurological, ophthalmological, and systemic involvement).
Toxoplasma gondii was initially described in 1908 in Tunis by Nicolle and Manceaux (1908) and in Brazil by Splendore (1908). More recently, every 3 years experts from many areas meet at the "International Congress on Congenital Toxoplasmosis" (last held in 2010 Marseille France).
A recent survey identified a low infection knowledge among doctors and nurses providing prenatal care in an endemic region.
Recent findings suggest that pre-pregnancy immunization against toxoplasmosis may not protect against reinfection by atypical strains.
Some Recent Findings
European Congenital Toxoplasmosis Surveillance
See the recent 2008 article.
- Denmark - neonatal screening programme based on neonatal Guthrie card testing for toxoplasma-specific IgM was implemented in 1999 but discontinued on 31 July, 2007.
- France - a surveillance system for congenital toxoplasmosis was initiated in May 2007.
- Germany - congenital toxoplasmosis cases have been notifiable since 2001 implemented under the Protection Against Infection Act.
- Italy - surveillance is confined to a regional programme in the Campania region initiated in 1997.
- Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, England and Wales, Estonia, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Scotland, and Slovakia - surveillance (congenital or not), as defined by the European Union (symptomatic toxoplasmosis cases serologically confirmed) is considered a notifiable disease and subject to continuous data collection.
Clinical episodes of ocular toxoplasmosis can represent either acquire toxoplasmosis after birth or a reactivation of an infection that was acquired in utero.
Ocular toxoplasmosis is the commonest identifiable cause of posterior uveitis.
- Links: PubMed Health - Uveitis
- Weiss LM, Dubey JP. Toxoplasmosis: A history of clinical observations. Int J Parasitol. 2009 Jul 1;39(8):895-901. Epub 2009 Feb 13. Review. PMID: 19217908
- Laura Berriel da Silva, Raquel de Vasconcelos Carvalhaes de Oliveira, Marizete Pereira da Silva, Wendy Fernandes Bueno, Maria Regina Reis Amendoeira, Elizabeth de Souza Neves Knowledge of toxoplasmosis among doctors and nurses who provide prenatal care in an endemic region. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol: 2011, 2011;750484 PubMed 21747644
- Christelle Pomares, Daniel Ajzenberg, Loic Bornard, Gilles Bernardin, Lilia Hasseine, Marie-Laure Darde, Pierre Marty Toxoplasmosis and horse meat, France. Emerging Infect. Dis.: 2011, 17(7);1327-8 PubMed 21762609
- Tatjana Vilibic-Cavlek, Suncanica Ljubin-Sternak, Mirela Ban, Branko Kolaric, Mario Sviben, Gordana Mlinaric-Galinovic Seroprevalence of TORCH infections in women of childbearing age in Croatia. J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.: 2011, 24(2);280-3 PubMed 20476874
- A Bénard, E Petersen, R Salamon, G Chêne, R Gilbert, L R Salmi, European Toxo Prevention Study Group (EUROTOXO) Survey of European programmes for the epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis. Euro Surveill.: 2008, 13(15); PubMed 18445459
Jose G Montoya, Jack S Remington Management of Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy. Clin. Infect. Dis.: 2008, 47(4);554-66 PubMed 18624630
J G Montoya, O Liesenfeld Toxoplasmosis. Lancet: 2004, 363(9425);1965-76 PubMed 15194258
Jeffrey Jones, Adriana Lopez, Marianna Wilson Congenital toxoplasmosis. Am Fam Physician: 2003, 67(10);2131-8 PubMed 12776962
Barbara J Stegmann, J Christopher Carey TORCH Infections. Toxoplasmosis, Other (syphilis, varicella-zoster, parvovirus B19), Rubella, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Herpes infections. Curr Womens Health Rep: 2002, 2(4);253-8 PubMed 12150751
Laura Berriel da Silva, Raquel de Vasconcelos Carvalhaes de Oliveira, Marizete Pereira da Silva, Wendy Fernandes Bueno, Maria Regina Reis Amendoeira, Elizabeth de Souza Neves Knowledge of toxoplasmosis among doctors and nurses who provide prenatal care in an endemic region. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol: 2011, 2011;750484 PubMed 21747644
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.
- NIH PubMed Health Toxoplasmosis | TORCH screen
- ABC Radio The Health Report - Toxoplasmosis Broadcast Monday 30 April 2001
- Queensland Health Topic - Toxoplasmosis
- Cat World toxoplasmosis in cats
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Abnormal Development - Toxoplasmosis. Retrieved February 26, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Toxoplasmosis
- © Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G