Abnormal Development - Toxoplasmosis
In 2003, the global annual incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis was estimated to be 190,100 cases, equivalent to a burden of 1.20 million disability-adjusted life years. High burdens were seen in South America and in some Middle Eastern and low-income countries.
The causal agent of toxoplasmosis is the protist Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). This unicellular eukaryote is a member of the phylum Apicomplexa which includes other parasites responsible for a variety of diseases (malaria, cryptosporidiosis). The diagnosis and timing of an infection are diagnostically based on serological tests. During a period of acute maternal infection, transplacental transmission can occur, and the rate of congenital toxoplasmosis with risk for severe fetal varies from 15 to 68%, depending on gestational age and the transmission rate is highest in the later stages of pregnancy. The congenital disease is characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations (neural, vision, and systemic involvement). Within the central nervous system infection causes extensive areas of randomly distributed necrosis and ventricular involvement may cause hydrocephalus. Within the eye chorioretinitis occurs, an inflammation of the choroid pigmented vascular coat of the eye.
Toxoplasma gondii was initially described in 1908 in Tunis by Nicolle and Manceaux (1908) and in Brazil by Splendore (1908). More recently, every 3 years experts from many areas meet at the "International Congress on Congenital Toxoplasmosis" (last held in 2010 Marseille France).
A recent survey identified a low infection knowledge among doctors and nurses providing prenatal care in an endemic region.
Recent findings suggest that pre-pregnancy immunization against toxoplasmosis may not protect against reinfection by atypical strains.
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.
|These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.
European Congenital Toxoplasmosis Surveillance
See the recent 2008 article.
- Denmark - neonatal screening programme based on neonatal Guthrie card testing for toxoplasma-specific IgM was implemented in 1999 but discontinued on 31 July, 2007.
- France - a surveillance system for congenital toxoplasmosis was initiated in May 2007.
- Germany - congenital toxoplasmosis cases have been notifiable since 2001 implemented under the Protection Against Infection Act.
- Italy - surveillance is confined to a regional programme in the Campania region initiated in 1997.
- Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, England and Wales, Estonia, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Scotland, and Slovakia - surveillance (congenital or not), as defined by the European Union (symptomatic toxoplasmosis cases serologically confirmed) is considered a notifiable disease and subject to continuous data collection.
Clinical episodes of ocular toxoplasmosis can represent either acquire toxoplasmosis after birth or a reactivation of an infection that was acquired in utero.
Ocular toxoplasmosis is the commonest identifiable cause of posterior uveitis.
- Links: PubMed Health - Uveitis
- Torgerson PR & Mastroiacovo P. (2013). The global burden of congenital toxoplasmosis: a systematic review. Bull. World Health Organ. , 91, 501-8. PMID: 23825877 DOI.
- Weiss LM & Dubey JP. (2009). Toxoplasmosis: A history of clinical observations. Int. J. Parasitol. , 39, 895-901. PMID: 19217908 DOI.
- da Silva LB, de Oliveira Rde V, da Silva MP, Bueno WF, Amendoeira MR & de Souza Neves E. (2011). Knowledge of toxoplasmosis among doctors and nurses who provide prenatal care in an endemic region. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol , 2011, 750484. PMID: 21747644 DOI.
- Burgdorf KS, Trabjerg BB, Pedersen MG, Nissen J, Banasik K, Pedersen OB, Sørensen E, Nielsen KR, Larsen MH, Erikstrup C, Bruun-Rasmussen P, Westergaard D, Thørner LW, Hjalgrim H, Paarup HM, Brunak S, Pedersen CB, Torrey EF, Werge T, Mortensen PB, Yolken RH & Ullum H. (2019). Large-scale study of Toxoplasma and Cytomegalovirus shows an association between infection and serious psychiatric disorders. Brain Behav. Immun. , , . PMID: 30685531 DOI.
- Pomares C, Ajzenberg D, Bornard L, Bernardin G, Hasseine L, Darde ML & Marty P. (2011). Toxoplasmosis and horse meat, France. Emerging Infect. Dis. , 17, 1327-8. PMID: 21762609 DOI.
- Vilibic-Cavlek T, Ljubin-Sternak S, Ban M, Kolaric B, Sviben M & Mlinaric-Galinovic G. (2011). Seroprevalence of TORCH infections in women of childbearing age in Croatia. J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med. , 24, 280-3. PMID: 20476874 DOI.
- Bénard A, Petersen E, Salamon R, Chêne G, Gilbert R & Salmi LR. (2008). Survey of European programmes for the epidemiological surveillance of congenital toxoplasmosis. Euro Surveill. , 13, . PMID: 18445459
Jones J, Lopez A & Wilson M. (2003). Congenital toxoplasmosis. Am Fam Physician , 67, 2131-8. PMID: 12776962
Stegmann BJ & Carey JC. (2002). TORCH Infections. Toxoplasmosis, Other (syphilis, varicella-zoster, parvovirus B19), Rubella, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Herpes infections. Curr Womens Health Rep , 2, 253-8. PMID: 12150751
da Silva LB, de Oliveira Rde V, da Silva MP, Bueno WF, Amendoeira MR & de Souza Neves E. (2011). Knowledge of toxoplasmosis among doctors and nurses who provide prenatal care in an endemic region. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol , 2011, 750484. PMID: 21747644 DOI.
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- NIH PubMed Health Toxoplasmosis | TORCH screen
- ABC Radio The Health Report - Toxoplasmosis Broadcast Monday 30 April 2001
- Queensland Health Topic - Toxoplasmosis
- Cat World toxoplasmosis in cats
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, July 21) Embryology Abnormal Development - Toxoplasmosis. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Toxoplasmosis
- © Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G