Cardiovascular System - Ventricular Septal Defects
The Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) usually occurs in the membranous (perimembranous) rather than muscular interventricular septum, and is more frequent in males that females.
Perimembranous defects are located close to the aortic and tricuspid valves and adjacent to atrioventricular conduction bundle.
Some Recent Findings
Heart defects and preterm birth are the most common causes of neonatal and infant death. The long-term development of the heart combined with extensive remodelling and post-natal changes in circulation lead to an abundance of abnormalities associated with this system.
A UK study literature showed that preterm infants have more than twice as many cardiovascular malformations (5.1 / 1000 term infants and 12.5 / 1000 preterm infants) as do infants born at term and that 16% of all infants with cardiovascular malformations are preterm. (0.4% of live births occur at greater than 28 weeks of gestation, 0.9% at 28 to 31 weeks, and 6% at 32 to 36 weeks. Overall, 7.3% of live-born infants are preterm)
"Baltimore-Washington Infant Study data on live-born cases and controls (1981-1989) was reanalyzed for potential environmental and genetic risk-factor associations in complete atrioventricular septal defects AVSD (n = 213), with separate comparisons to the atrial (n = 75) and the ventricular (n = 32) forms of partial AVSD. ...Maternal diabetes constituted a potentially preventable risk factor for the most severe, complete form of AVSD." 
In addition, there are in several congenital abnormalities that exist in adults (bicuspid aortic valve, mitral valve prolapse, and partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection) which may not be clinically recognized.
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Search Pubmed: Ventricular Septal Defect
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, September 17) Embryology Cardiovascular System - Ventricular Septal Defects. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Cardiovascular_System_-_Ventricular_Septal_Defects
- © Dr Mark Hill 2021, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G