Book - Heredity and Sex (1913)

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I have decided to take early retirement in September 2020. During the many years online I have received wonderful feedback from many readers, researchers and students interested in human embryology. I especially thank my research collaborators and contributors to the site. The good news is Embryology will remain online and I will continue my association with UNSW Australia. I look forward to updating and including the many exciting new discoveries in Embryology!

Morgan TH. Heredity and Sex (1913) Columbia University Press, New York.

Heredity and Sex (1913): 1 Evolution of Sex | 2 Mechanism of Sex-Determination | 3 Mendelian Principles of Heredity and Bearing on Sex | 4 Secondary Sexual Characters Relation to Darwin's Theory of Sexual Selection | 5 Effects of Castration, Transplantation on Secondary Sexual Characters | 6 Gynandromorphism, Hermaphroditism, Parthenogenesis, and Sex | 7 Fertility | 8 Special Cases of Sex-Inheritance | Bibliography
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Online Editor Note 
This 1897 textbook by Thomas Morgan Hunt (1866-1945) is an extensive description of early genetics. Morgan was one of the early founders of embryology in the Category:USA. Note that many of our concepts and understandings in genetics and inheritance have changed significantly in the last century.



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Modern Notes: genetics | Thomas Hunt Morgan

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Heredity and Sex

Columbia University Lectures

Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945)
Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945)


by Thomas Hunt Morgan Ph.D.


Professor Of Experimental Zoology in Columbia University


Columbia University Press (1913)

Introduction

Two lines of research have developed with surprising rapidity in recent years. Their development has been independent, but at many stages in their progress they have looked to each other for help. The study of the cell has furnished some fundamental facts connected with problems of heredity. The modern study of heredity has proven itself to be an instrument even more subtle in the analysis of the materials of the germ-cells than actual observations on the germcells themselves.


In the following chapters it has been my aim to point out, wherever possible, the bearing of cytological studies on heredity, and of the study of heredity on the analysis of the germinal materials.


The time has come, I think, when a failure to recognize the close bond between these two modern Hues of advance can no longer be interpreted as a wise or cautious skepticism. It seems to me to indicate rather a failure to appreciate what is being done at present, and what has been accomplished. It may not be desirable to accept everything that is new, but it is certainly undesirable to reject what is new because of its newness, or because one has failed to keep in touch with the times. An anarchistic spirit in science does not always mean greater profundity, nor is our attitude toward science more correct because we are unduly skeptical toward every advance. Our usefulness will, in the long run, be proven by whether or not we have been discriminating and sympathetic in our attitude toward the important discoveries of our time. While every one will probably admit such generalities, some of us may call those who accept less than ourselves conservatives ; others of us who accept more will be called rash or intemperate. To maintain the right balance is the hardest task we have to meet. In attempting to bring together, and to interpret, work that is still in the making I cannot hope to have always made the right choice, but I may hope at least for some indulgence from those who realize the difficulties, and who think with me that it may be worth while to make the attempt to point out to those who are not specialists what specialists are thinking about and doing.

What I most fear is that in thus attempting to formulate some of the difficult problems of present-day interest to zoologists I may appear to make at times unqualified statements in a dogmatic spirit. I beg to remind the reader and possible critic that the writer holds all conclusions in science relative, and subject to change, for change in science does not mean so much that what has gone before was wrong as the discovery of a better strategic position than the one last held.


Table of Contents

Introduction

Chapter I The Evolution of Sex

  1. Reproduction, a Distinctive Feature of Living Things
  2. The "Meaning" of Sexual Reproduction
  3. The Body and the Germ-plasm
  4. The Early Isolation of the Germ-cells
  5. The Appearance of the Accessory Organ; Reproduction
  6. The Secondary Sexual Characters
  7. The Sexual Instincts

Chapter II The Mechanism of Sex-Determination

  1. The Maturation of the Egg and the Sperm
  2. The Cytological Evidence
    1. Protenor
    2. Lygseus f. Oncopeltus .
    3. Ascaris
    4. Aphids and Fhylloxerans
  3. The Experimental Evidence
    1. The Experiments on Sea-urchins' Eggs
    2. The Evidence from Sex-linked Inheritance

Chapter III The Mendelian Principles of Heredity and their Bearing on Sex

  1. Mendel's Discoveries
  2. The Heredity of One Pair of Characters
  3. The Heredity of a Sex-linked Character
  4. The Heredity of Two Pairs of Characters
  5. The Heredity of Two Sex-linked Characters
  6. A Theory of Linkage
  7. Three Sex-linked Factors

Chapter IV Secondary Sexual Characters and their Relation to Darwin's Theory of Sexual Selection

  1. The Occurrence of Secondary Sexual Characters in the Animal Kingdom
  2. Courtship
  3. Vigor and Secondary Sexual Characters
  4. Continuous Variation as a Basis for Selection
  5. Discontinuous Variation or Mutation as a Basis for Selection

Chapter V The Effects of Castration and of Transplantation on the Secondary Sexual Characters

  1. Operations on Mammals
  2. Operations on Birds
  3. Operations on Amphibia
  4. Internal Secretions
  5. Operations on Insects
  6. Parasitic Castration of Crustacea

Chapter VI Gynandromorphism, Hermaphroditism, Parthenogenesis, and Sex

  1. Gynandromorphism
  2. Hermaphroditism
  3. Parthenogenesis
  4. Artificial Parthenogenesis

Chapter VII Fertility

  1. Inbreeding
  2. Cross-breeding
  3. Sexual Reproduction in Paramcecium
  4. Theories of Fertility

Chapter VIII Special Cases of Sex-Inheritance

  1. Sex in Bees
  2. A Sex-linked Lethal Factor
  3. Non-disjunction of the Sex-chromosomes
  4. The Vanishing Males of the Nematodes
  5. Sex-ratios in Hybrid Birds and in Crossed Races in Man
  6. Sex-ratios in Frogs
  7. Sex-ratios in Man
  8. The Abandoned View Determine Sex
  9. Sex-determination in Man

Bibliography


Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)
Heredity and Sex (1913): 1 Evolution of Sex | 2 Mechanism of Sex-Determination | 3 Mendelian Principles of Heredity and Bearing on Sex | 4 Secondary Sexual Characters Relation to Darwin's Theory of Sexual Selection | 5 Effects of Castration, Transplantation on Secondary Sexual Characters | 6 Gynandromorphism, Hermaphroditism, Parthenogenesis, and Sex | 7 Fertility | 8 Special Cases of Sex-Inheritance | Bibliography


Morgan TH. Heredity and Sex (1913) Columbia University Press, New York.


Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, August 14) Embryology Book - Heredity and Sex (1913). Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Book_-_Heredity_and_Sex_(1913)

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