Respiratory System - Molecular

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Respiratory Links: respiratory | Science Lecture | Lecture Movie | Med Lecture | Stage 13 | Stage 22 | upper respiratory tract | diaphragm | Histology | Postnatal | respiratory abnormalities | Respiratory Quiz | Respiratory terms | Category:Respiratory
Historic Embryology - Respiratory 
1902 The Nasal Cavities and Olfactory Structures | 1906 Lung | 1912 Upper Respiratory Tract | 1912 Respiratory | 1913 Prenatal and Neonatal Lung | 1914 Phrenic Nerve | 1918 Respiratory images | 1921 Respiratory | 1922 Chick Pulmonary Vessels | 1934 Right Fetal Lung | 1936 Early Human Lung | 1937 Terminal Air Passages | 1938 Human Histology
Factor Links: AMH | hCG | BMP | sonic hedgehog | bHLH | HOX | FGF | FOX | Hippo | LIM | Nanog | NGF | Nodal | Notch | PAX | retinoic acid | SIX | Slit2/Robo1 | SOX | TBX | TGF-beta | VEGF | WNT | Category:Molecular
Mechanism Links: mitosis | cell migration | cell junctions |epithelial invagination | epithelial mesenchymal transition | mesenchymal epithelial transition | epithelial mesenchymal interaction | morphodynamics | tube formation | apoptosis | autophagy | axes formation | time | molecular
Molecular System Links: Heart | Neural | Renal | Respiratory | Mechanisms | Factors | Molecular

Some Recent Findings

  • Review - Regulation of early lung morphogenesis: questions, facts and controversies.[1] "During early respiratory system development, the foregut endoderm gives rise to the tracheal and lung cell progenitors. Through branching morphogenesis, and in coordination with vascular development, a tree-like structure of epithelial tubules forms and differentiates to produce the airways and alveoli. Recent studies have implicated the fibroblast growth factor, sonic hedgehog, bone morphogenetic protein, retinoic acid and Wnt signaling pathways, and various transcription factors in regulating the initial stages of lung development. However, the precise roles of these molecules and how they interact in the developing lung is subject to debate. Here, we review early stages in lung development and highlight questions and controversies regarding their molecular regulation."
More recent papers
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Search term: lung molecular development

<pubmed limit=5>lung molecular development</pubmed>

Fibroblast Growth Factor

Mouse Respiratory Development Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling[2]

Lung Buds

Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) expression in mesoderm required for initial lung buds, through FGFR2IIIb transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor protein.


Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) and sonic hedgehog (SHH) form a feedback loop for branching

  • mesenchyme produced FGF10 signals to the distal epithelium to upregulate SHH expression.
  • SHH then feeds back to inhibit Fgf10 expression in the adjacent mesenchyme, dividing in two the Fgf10 expression domain.
  • new FGF10 signaling domains serve as two chemoattractant sources, leading to bifurcation of the epithelial tip.

Loop process mediated through FGF-activated transcription factor genes Etv4 and Etv5.[3]

Links: sonic hedgehog|SHH

Lipofibroblast Formation

Lipid-containing alveolar interstitial fibroblasts (lipofibroblasts) aid the type 2 alveolar epithelial cells in producing surfactant during neonatal life. A recent study in mouse shows FGF10 is required for this cell population to develop using Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b receptors.[4]


  1. <pubmed>16613830</pubmed>
  2. StemBook Cambridge (MA): Harvard Stem Cell Institute; 2008-. Specification and patterning of the respiratory system
  3. <pubmed>26555052</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>26511927</pubmed>


<pubmed></pubmed> <pubmed>25329576</pubmed> <pubmed>25556243</pubmed> <pubmed>24449833</pubmed> <pubmed></pubmed>

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2024, June 24) Embryology Respiratory System - Molecular. Retrieved from

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