Sensory - Vision Development
|Embryology - 18 Jul 2018 Expand to Translate|
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- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Timeline
- 4 Lens
- 5 Stage 22 Eye
- 6 Retinotopic Map
- 7 Neural Crest
- 8 Schlemm's canal
- 9 Extraocular Muscles
- 10 Additional Images
- 11 References
- 12 Terms
- 13 External Links
- 14 Glossary Links
These notes introduce vision development of the eye: induction and regional specification of the eye structures, maturation and formation of retina and optic tectum neuronal connections.
The adult eye has contributions from several different embryonic layers eventually forming neuronal, supportive connective tissue, optical structures, and muscular tissues.
There are additional pages shown in the vision links, covering specific topics of vision development.
|Senses Links: Introduction | placode | Hearing and Balance hearing | balance | vision | smell | taste | touch | Stage 22 | Category:Sensory|
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Yanghui Xiu, Yihua Yao, Tanchu Yang, Meihua Pan, Hui Yang, Weifang Fang, Feng Gu, Junzhao Zhao, Yihua Zhu Identification of a novel idiopathic congenital nystagmus‑causing missense mutation, p.G296C, in the FRMD7 gene. Mol Med Rep: 2018; PubMed 30015830
Diego Ulisse Pizzagalli, Yagmur Farsakoglu, Miguel Palomino-Segura, Elisa Palladino, Jordi Sintes, Francesco Marangoni, Thorsten R Mempel, Wan Hon Koh, Thomas T Murooka, Flavian Thelen, Jens V Stein, Giuseppe Pozzi, Marcus Thelen, Rolf Krause, Santiago Fernandez Gonzalez Leukocyte Tracking Database, a collection of immune cell tracks from intravital 2-photon microscopy videos. Sci Data: 2018, 5;180129 PubMed 30015806
Anna I Vickrey, Rebecca Bruders, Zev Kronenberg, Emma Mackey, Ryan J Bohlender, Emily T Maclary, Raquel Maynez, Edward J Osborne, Kevin P Johnson, Chad D Huff, Mark Yandell, Michael D Shapiro Introgression of regulatory alleles and a missense coding mutation drive plumage pattern diversity in the rock pigeon. Elife: 2018, 7; PubMed 30014848
Mihaela Popescu, Cătălina Bogdan, Adela Pintea, Dumitriţa Rugină, Corina Ionescu Antiangiogenic cytokines as potential new therapeutic targets for resveratrol in diabetic retinopathy. Drug Des Devel Ther: 2018, 12;1985-1996 PubMed 30013318
Kai Yang, Jianping Peng, Chaozhe Jiang, Xi Jiang, Longfei Xiao, Bangping Wang, Xiaorong Gao, Liming Xie, Hua Peng Design of the Fall-Block Sensing of the Railway Line Pantograph Based on 3D Machine Vision Sensors. Sensors (Basel): 2018, 18(7); PubMed 30013001
Yunxia Xue, Jingxin He, Chengju Xiao, Yonglong Guo, Ting Fu, Jun Liu, Cuipei Lin, Mingjuan Wu, Yabing Yang, Dong Dong, Hongwei Pan, Chaoyong Xia, Li Ren, Zhijie Li The mouse autonomic nervous system modulates inflammation and epithelial renewal after corneal abrasion through the activation of distinct local macrophages. Mucosal Immunol: 2018; PubMed 29988115
Iris Barny, Isabelle Perrault, Christel Michel, Mickael Soussan, Nicolas Goudin, Marlène Rio, Sophie Thomas, Tania Attié-Bitach, Christian Hamel, Hélène Dollfus, Josseline Kaplan, Jean-Michel Rozet, Xavier Gerard Basal exon skipping and nonsense-associated altered splicing allows bypassing complete CEP290 loss-of-function in individuals with unusually mild retinal disease. Hum. Mol. Genet.: 2018; PubMed 29771326
Benjamin Schott, Manuel Traub, Cornelia Schlagenhauf, Masanari Takamiya, Thomas Antritter, Andreas Bartschat, Katharina Löffler, Denis Blessing, Jens C Otte, Andrei Y Kobitski, G Ulrich Nienhaus, Uwe Strähle, Ralf Mikut, Johannes Stegmaier EmbryoMiner: A new framework for interactive knowledge discovery in large-scale cell tracking data of developing embryos. PLoS Comput. Biol.: 2018, 14(4);e1006128 PubMed 29672531
Khaled Elmasry, Riyaz Mohamed, Isha Sharma, Nehal M Elsherbiny, Yutao Liu, Mohamed Al-Shabrawey, Amany Tawfik Epigenetic modifications in hyperhomocysteinemia: potential role in diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. Oncotarget: 2018, 9(16);12562-12590 PubMed 29560091
Seyyedhassan Paylakhi, Cassandre Labelle-Dumais, Nicholas G Tolman, Michael A Sellarole, Yusef Seymens, Joseph Saunders, Hesham Lakosha, Wilhelmine N deVries, Andrew C Orr, Piotr Topilko, Simon Wm John, K Saidas Nair Müller glia-derived PRSS56 is required to sustain ocular axial growth and prevent refractive error. PLoS Genet.: 2018, 14(3);e1007244 PubMed 29529029
|10||optic primordia appear.|
|11||Right and left optic primordia meet at the optic chiasma forming a U-shaped rim.|
|12||optic neural crest reaches its maximum extent and the optic vesicle becomes covered by a complete sheath,|
|13||By the end of the fourth week the optic vesicle lies close to the surface ectoderm. Optic evagination differentiation allows identification of optic part of retina, future pigmented layer of retina, and optic stalk. The surface ectoderm overlying the optic vesicle, in response to this contact, has thickened to form the lense placode.|
|14||(about 32 days) Lens placode is indented by the lens pit, cup-shaped and still communicates with the surface by a narrowing pore.|
|15||(about 33 days) Lens pit is closed. The lens vesicle and optic cup lie close to the surface ectoderm and appear to press against the surface.|
|16||(37 days) Growth of the lens body results in a D-shaped lens cavity. Perilental blood vessels (tunica vasculosa lentis) are visible. Prior to the development of the eyelids, one small sulcus or groove forms above the eye (eyelid groove) and another below it.|
|17 - 19||Retinal pigment is visible and the retinal fissure is largely closed. Eyelids grooves deepen, eyelid folds develop, first below, and then above, the eye.|
|18||Mesenchyme invades the region between the lens epithelium and the surface ectoderm.|
|19 - 22||Eyelid folds develop into the eyelids and cover more of the eye as the palpebral fissure takes shape. The upper and the lower eyelids meet at the outer canthus in Stage 19.|
|20||Lens cavity is lost and a lens suture begins to form. The inner canthus is established.|
|23||retina comprises the pigmented layer, external limiting membrane, proliferative zone, external neuroblastic layer, transient fiber layer, internal neuroblastic layer, nerve fiber layer, and internal limiting membrane. Eyelids closure is complete (Note - shown as still open in the Kyoto embryo).|
|Data from a study of human embryonic carnegie stages and other sources.
See below the drawings of sections of the whole eye from week 8 of development.
The lens or crystalline lens or aquula (Latin, aquula = a little stream) has a key role in focussing light (with the cornea) upon the neural retina. The lens embryonic origin is from surface ectoderm of the sensory placodes that form in the head region (More? Week 4 - Placodes). The lens focusses by refracting light as it passes through the biconvex lens, which can be altered in shape (accommodation) by surrounding ciliary muscles. These ciliary muscles are activated (contracted) by parasympathetic innervation from the ciliary ganglion itself innervated by the oculomotor nerve (Cranial Nerve III) (More? Cranial Nerves).
surface ectoderm -> lens placode -> lens pit -> lens vesicle -> lens fibres -> lens capsule and embryonic/fetal nucleus.
- Links: Vision - Lens Development
Stage 22 Eye
The images below link to virtual slides of the human developing eye at Carnegie stage 22. Click on the image to open or select specific regions from the regions of interest links.
Virtual Slide - Regions of Interest
Links: Embryo Virtual Slides
This neuroscience term describes how the developing retina is precisely "mapped" onto the visual cortex through a series of signaling and activity dependent mechanisms. This follows from Hubel and Wiesel (1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine) key discoveries (1959-70) of how in development system matching occurs in the visual system. The topographic map establishes an ordered neuronal connection between sensory structures and the central nervous system.
The retinotectal map (eye to brain) of birds (lower vertebrates):
- temporal (posterior) retina is connected to the rostral (anterior) part of the contralateral optic tectum
- nasal (anterior) retina to the caudal (posterior) tectum
- ventral retina to the dorsal (medial) tectum
- dorsal ventral (lateral) tectum
Retinal waves a form of coordinated spontaneous activity that occurs in the developing retina. These waves of electrical activity (action potentials) are thought to have a role in establishing the initial retinotopic map by correlating/coordinating the activity of neighbouring retinal ganglion cells.
EphA/ephrin-A molecular signaling also thought to have a role in establishing the initial retinotopic map.
Mouse eye neural crest
Mouse eye TGF-beta model
- Links: Image - Mouse eye neural crest | Image - Mouse eye TGF-beta model | Vision Development | Neural Crest Development | Head Development
Schematic showing the stages of Schlemm's canal development in the postnatal mouse by the novel process of canalogenesis. (Cartoons have been drawn for clarity and are not intended to suggest that most early sprouts arise from the LVP.)
Extraocular muscles are required to move the eye within the orbit. Their embryonic origin requires an interaction between the cranial mesoderm and the migrating neural crest cells.
The following is from a recent paper comparing human to zebrafish muscle development.
|About the Muscles||Legend|
- Links: Extraocular Muscles
|Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages|
|Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)|
- Swaroop A & Zack DJ. (2002). Transcriptome analysis of the retina. Genome Biol. , 3, REVIEWS1022. PMID: 12186651
- Ribas VT, Gonçalves BS, Linden R & Chiarini LB. (2012). Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) during mitosis in retinal progenitor cells. PLoS ONE , 7, e34483. PMID: 22496813 DOI.
- Hayakawa I & Kawasaki H. (2010). Rearrangement of retinogeniculate projection patterns after eye-specific segregation in mice. PLoS ONE , 5, e11001. PMID: 20544023 DOI.
- Rapicavoli NA, Poth EM & Blackshaw S. (2010). The long noncoding RNA RNCR2 directs mouse retinal cell specification. BMC Dev. Biol. , 10, 49. PMID: 20459797 DOI.
- Pearson AA. (1980). The development of the eyelids. Part I. External features. J. Anat. , 130, 33-42. PMID: 7364662
- Streeter GL. Developmental Horizons In Human Embryos Description Or Age Groups XIX, XX, XXI, XXII, And XXIII, Being The Fifth Issue Of A Survey Of The Carnegie Collection. (1957) Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ. 611, Contrib. Embryol., 36: 167-196.
- Ittner LM, Wurdak H, Schwerdtfeger K, Kunz T, Ille F, Leveen P, Hjalt TA, Suter U, Karlsson S, Hafezi F, Born W & Sommer L. (2005). Compound developmental eye disorders following inactivation of TGFbeta signaling in neural-crest stem cells. J. Biol. , 4, 11. PMID: 16403239 DOI.
- Kizhatil K, Ryan M, Marchant JK, Henrich S & John SW. (2014). Schlemm's canal is a unique vessel with a combination of blood vascular and lymphatic phenotypes that forms by a novel developmental process. PLoS Biol. , 12, e1001912. PMID: 25051267 DOI.
- Kasprick DS, Kish PE, Junttila TL, Ward LA, Bohnsack BL & Kahana A. (2011). Microanatomy of adult zebrafish extraocular muscles. PLoS ONE , 6, e27095. PMID: 22132088 DOI.
- Kolb H, Fernandez E, Nelson R, editors. Webvision: The Organization of the Retina and Visual System [Internet]. Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah Health Sciences Center; 1995-. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11530/
- Gilbert SF. Developmental Biology. 6th edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2000. Development of the Vertebrate Eye. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK10024/
- Evolution of the mammalian middle ear bones from the reptilian jaw | Chick embryo rhombomere neural crest cells | Some derivatives of the pharyngeal arches | Formation of the Neural Tube | Differentiation of the Neural Tube | Tissue Architecture of the Central Nervous System | Neuronal Types | Snapshot Summary: Central Nervous System and Epidermis
- Neuroscience Purves, Dale; Augustine, George J.; Fitzpatrick, David; Katz, Lawrence C.; LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel; McNamara, James O.; Williams, S. Mark. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates, Inc. ; c2001 The Auditory System | The Inner Ear | The Middle Ear | The External Ear | Early Brain Development | Construction of Neural Circuits | Modification of Brain Circuits as a Result of Experience
- Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th Edn) Alberts, Bruce; Johnson, Alexander; Lewis, Julian; Raff, Martin; Roberts, Keith; Walter, Peter. New York: Garland Publishing; 2002. Neural Development | The three phases of neural development
- Clinical Methods 63. Cranial Nerves IX and X: The Glossopharyngeal and Vagus Nerves | The Tongue | 126. The Ear and Auditory System | An Overview of the Head and Neck - Ears and Hearing | Audiometry
- Health Services/Technology Assessment Text (HSTAT) Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), 2003 Oct. Developmental Disorders Associated with Failure to Thrive
- Eurekah Bioscience Collection Cranial Neural Crest and Development of the Head Skeleton
- Webvision: The Organization of the Retina and Visual System. Kolb H, Fernandez E, Nelson R, editors. Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah Health Sciences Center; 1995-.
The International Journal of Developmental Biology Vol. 48 Nos. 8/9 (2004) Eye Development
Bookshelf vision development
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, July 18) Embryology Sensory - Vision Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Sensory_-_Vision_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G