Renal System Development
|Embryology - 30 Mar 2017 Expand to Translate|
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- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Objectives
- 4 Textbook References
- 5 Renal Movies
- 6 Background
- 7 Kidney Anatomy
- 8 Intermediate Mesoderm
- 9 Mesonephric Duct
- 10 Nephros Development
- 11 Nephron
- 12 Fetal Kidney
- 13 Endocrine Kidney
- 14 Cloaca
- 15 Kidney Ascent
- 16 Renal Arteries
- 17 Abnormalities
- 18 Molecular
- 19 References
- 20 Additional Images
- 21 Terms
- 22 External Links
- 23 Glossary Links
The paired adult kidneys consist of a functional unit called the "nephron", that filters blood, excretes waste, reabsorbs water (and other compounds) and has endocrine functions. Each adult human kidney typically contains about 750,000 nephrons, though the total number can vary significantly from as few as 250,000 to as many as 2,000,000.
In the embryo, nephron development, nephrogenesis, occurs through several stages involving classical epithelial/mesenchyme type of interactions. Nephrogenesis continues into the late fetal period (GA week 34–35) and while the fetal kidney does produce urine, not until after birth does the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) increases rapidly due to a postnatal drop in kidney vascular resistance and an increase in renal blood flow.
The urinary system is developmentally and anatomically associated with genital development, often described as the "urogenital system". (More? Genital System Development)
|Renal Links: Introduction | Lecture - Renal | Urinary Bladder | Stage 13 | Stage 22 | Fetal | Renal Movies | Stage 22 Movie | Histology | Abnormalities | Molecular | Category:Renal|
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Shuxian Zhang, Xiaohua Tan, Yan Chen, Xiuying Zhang Postconditioning protects renal fibrosis by attenuating oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial injury. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.: 2017; PubMed 28339958
Sun-Ji Park, Jung-Hak Kim, Tae-Shin Kim, Sang-Rae Lee, Jeen-Woo Park, Seunghoon Lee, Jin-Man Kim, Dong-Seok Lee Peroxiredoxin 2 regulates PGF2α-induced corpus luteum regression in mice by inhibiting ROS-dependent JNK activation. Free Radic. Biol. Med.: 2017; PubMed 28323129
M Cakir, H Duzova, A Taslidere, G Orhan, F Ozyalin Protective effects of salusin-α and salusin-β on renal ischemia/reperfusion damage and their levels in ischemic acute renal failure. Biotech Histochem: 2017, 92(2);122-133 PubMed 28296550
M Šeruga, J Makuc, M Završnik, I Cilenšek, R Ekart, D Petrovič Polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme (rs4340) and diabetic nephropathy in Caucasians with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Balkan J. Med. Genet.: 2016, 19(2);29-34 PubMed 28289586
Sherif S Hassan, Ehab Abdel Aziz El-Shaarawy, Jane C Johnson, Magdy F Youakim, Rajunor Ettarh Incidence of variations in human cadaveric renal vessels. Folia Morphol. (Warsz): 2017; PubMed 28281721
- Understand the 3 main stages of kidney development.
- Understand development of the nephron and renal papilla.
- Brief understanding of the mechanisms of nephron development.
- Understand the development of the cloaca, ureter and bladder.
- Brief understanding of abnormalities of the urinary system.
- The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (8th Edition) by Keith L. Moore and T.V.N Persaud - Moore & Persaud Chapter 13 p303-346
- Larsen’s Human Embryology by GC. Schoenwolf, SB. Bleyl, PR. Brauer and PH. Francis-West - Chapter 10 p261-306
- Mesoderm then intermediate mesoderm
- Vascular Development
- Cloacal development
- Endocrine - covered in future lecture/lab
- Nephron - Functional unit of kidney
- Humans up to 1 million
- Filtration of waste from blood
- Blood pressure regulation
The key structure of the adult nephron is the glomerulus (renal corpuscle), which represents the initial vascular/renal interface.
- Bladder - Urine storage
- Endoderm allantois
- Intermediate mesoderm - Lies between somites and lateral plate
Week 3 - Stage 7 dorsal view
Cross-section showing mesoderm regions
Later in development, both the mesonephric duct and the cloaca both continue to differentiate and undergo extensive remodelling (and renaming)
- arise near the cloacal connection of the mesonephric duct
- branch from the mesonephric duct laterally into the intermediate mesoderm
- induce the surrounding mesoderm to differentiate - metanephric blastema
- this mesoderm will in turn signal back to differentiate the ureteric bud
Epithelial - mesenchymal interaction
Ureteric Bud forms - ureter, pelvis, calyces, collecting ducts
- forms glomeruli, capsule, nephron tubules
- this development continues through fetal period
Three pairs appearing in sequence within intermediate mesoderm during development.
- week 4 few cells in cervical region fish
- Human E18, Mouse E7.5pronephric duct forms first with associated nephrogenic mesenchyme
- grows rostro caudally cervical -> cloaca
- E22 nephrogenic mesenchyme differentiates to form pronephroi not functional in mammals degenerates rapidly
| Human E24, Mouse E9.5 caudal to pronephros
Week 5 - Stage 13 mesonephros
Week 8 - Stage 22 mesonephros
- Human E35-37, Mouse E11 epithelia bud at end of mesonephric duct ureteric bud and associated metanephric mesenchyme
- induced by metanephric mesenchyme to differentiate
- forms collecting tubules, renal pelvis, ureter
- metanephric mesenchyme induced by ureteric to differentiate forms nephron
|In humans, nephrogenesis only occurs before birth, though nephron maturation continues postnatally. Mean glomerular number shown to level at 36 weeks, increasing from about 15,000 at 15 weeks to 740,000 at 40 weeks.||
Adult nephron structure
Nephron development has four identifiable developmental stages:
- Vesicle (V) stage (13-19 weeks, second trimester)
- S-shaped body (S) stage ( 20-24 weeks, second trimester)
- Capillary loop (C) stage (25-29 weeks, third trimester)
- Maturation (M) stage (infants aged 1-6 months, neonatal and postnatal)
- cyst invaginates twice to form a comma
- then a S-shaped body one invagination site later becomes the glomerular cleft
- At about this time blood vessel progenitors invade cleft to begin construction of vascular component of glomerulus
- Tubule maturation specialised transporting segments of nephron differentiate complex of convoluted tubules is created
Renal Development Interactions
|MRI appearance of normal fetal kidney. Sagittal T2- SSFSE of a fetal abdomen at GA 25 week. Adequate volume of the amniotic fluid and the developing lungs indicate good renal function.
Note that the urinary bladder can occupy a considerable portion of the abdomen as a normal finding.
|Fetal nephron development|
After nephron development has completed and concomitant with the development of the renal papilla in the newborn, the thin ascending limb of Henle’s loops is generated as an outgrowth from the S3 segment of the proximal tubule and from the distal tubule anlage of the nephron.
Covered also in Endocrine Development lecture
Common Urogenital Sinus
Can be described anatomically by its 4 layers from outside inward:
Note: Frequently a second renal artery (inferior renal) from abdominal aorta at a lower level, supplies lower portion of kidney
There are many different forms of renal development abnormalities associated with kidney, ureters, bladder and urethra. There are many genetic disorders associated with failure or abnormal renal development. Prenatal diagnosis of obstructive and renal agenesis/dysgenesis disorders are also important for early reproductive decisions by the parents. For example, with bilateral renal agenesis, failure of both kidneys to development, is not compatible with fetal/neonatal survival. Because of their close developmental association, often described as the urogenital system, there can be an associated genital abnormalities.
Urorectal Septum Malformation
Ureter and Urethra
Polycystic Kidney Disease
Prune Belly Syndrome
The Bosniak classification system (Category I - IV) was designed to separate identified cystic renal masses by analysis of computed tomography (CT) features into surgical and nonsurgical categories. Named after Morton Bosniak, Yale University School of Medicine, the developer of this classification system.
Peter Hohenstein, Kathy Pritchard-Jones, Jocelyn Charlton The yin and yang of kidney development and Wilms' tumors. Genes Dev.: 2015, 29(5);467-82 PubMed 25737276
Melissa Little, Kylie Georgas, David Pennisi, Lorine Wilkinson Kidney development: two tales of tubulogenesis. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol.: 2010, 90;193-229 PubMed 20691850
Gregory R Dressler Advances in early kidney specification, development and patterning. Development: 2009, 136(23);3863-74 PubMed 19906853
Odyssé Michos Kidney development: from ureteric bud formation to branching morphogenesis. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev.: 2009, 19(5);484-90 PubMed 19828308
Kimberly J Reidy, Norman D Rosenblum Cell and molecular biology of kidney development. Semin. Nephrol.: 2009, 29(4);321-37 PubMed 19615554
Susan E Quaggin, Jordan A Kreidberg Development of the renal glomerulus: good neighbors and good fences. Development: 2008, 135(4);609-20 PubMed 18184729
Andrea Brenner-Anantharam, Cristina Cebrian, Richard Guillaume, Romulo Hurtado, Tung-Tien Sun, Doris Herzlinger Tailbud-derived mesenchyme promotes urinary tract segmentation via BMP4 signaling. Development: 2007, 134(10);1967-75 PubMed 17442697
Forefronts Symposium on Nephrogenetics: from development to physiology March 8-11, 2007 Danvers, MA A meeting to synthesize an integrated view of the normal development and function of the kidney from the genetic standpoint.
Frank Costantini Renal branching morphogenesis: concepts, questions, and recent advances. Differentiation: 2006, 74(7);402-21 PubMed 16916378
Mor Grinstein, Ronit Yelin, Doris Herzlinger, Thomas M Schultheiss Generation of the podocyte and tubular components of an amniote kidney: timing of specification and a role for Wnt signaling. Development: 2013, 140(22);4565-73 PubMed 24154527
Malin M Rhodin, Brian J Anderson, A Michael Peters, Malcolm G Coulthard, Barry Wilkins, Michael Cole, Etienne Chatelut, Anders Grubb, Gareth J Veal, Michael J Keir, Nick H G Holford Human renal function maturation: a quantitative description using weight and postmenstrual age. Pediatr. Nephrol.: 2009, 24(1);67-76 PubMed 18846389
Open table below to see list of renal terms.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Renal System Development. Retrieved March 30, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Renal_System_Development