Renal System Development

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Introduction

The paired adult kidneys filter blood, excrete waste, reabsorb water and have endocrine functions. In the embryo, there are several stages in their development closely linked to genital development. The nephron, the functional unit of the kidney, is also a classical epithelial/mesenchyme type of interaction. The functional unit of the kidney is the nephron and the process of their initial formation is called nephrogenesis.


Each adult human kidney typically contains about 750,000 nephrons, though the total number can vary significantly from as few as 250,000 to as many as 2,000,000.[1][2]


The urinary system is developmentally and anatomically associated with genital development, often described as the "urogenital system". (More? Genital System Development)


Renal Links: Introduction | Lecture - Renal Development | Urinary Bladder | Stage 13 | Stage 22 | Fetal | Renal Movies | Stage 22 Movie | Histology | Abnormalities | Category:Renal
Historic Embryology
1907 Urogenital images | 1921 Urogenital Development | 1917 Urogenital System | 1926 Embryo 22 Somites

Some Recent Findings

Cloacal septation model[3]
  • Histone deacetylase 1 and 2 regulate Wnt and p53 pathways in the ureteric bud epithelium[4] "Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate a broad range of biological processes through removal of acetyl groups from histones as well as non-histone proteins. Our previous studies showed that Hdac1 and Hdac2 are bound to promoters of key renal developmental regulators and that HDAC activity is required for embryonic kidney gene expression. However, the existence of many HDAC isoforms in embryonic kidneys raises questions concerning the possible specificity or redundancy of their functions. We report here that targeted deletion of both the Hdac1 and Hdac2 genes from the ureteric bud (UB) cell lineage of mice causes bilateral renal hypodysplasia. One copy of either Hdac1 or Hdac2 is sufficient to sustain normal renal development."
  • Bmp7 functions via a polarity mechanism to promote cloacal septation[5] "During normal development in human and other placental mammals, the embryonic cloacal cavity separates along the axial longitudinal plane to give rise to the urethral system, ventrally, and the rectum, dorsally. Defects in cloacal development are very common and present clinically as a rectourethral fistula in about 1 in 5,000 live human births. Yet, the cellular mechanisms of cloacal septation remain poorly understood. ...Our results strongly indicate that Bmp7/JNK signaling regulates remodeling of the cloacal endoderm resulting in a topological separation of the urinary and digestive systems. Our study points to the importance of Bmp and JNK signaling in cloacal development and rectourethral malformations."
  • Size and location of the kidneys during the fetal period[6] "The level of the left kidney was higher than the level of the right kidney in the fetal period. The posterior surface relations to the ribs showed certain ascendance during gestation, corresponding to vertebral levels. However, fetal kidneys do not reach the same level as adults at full term. The kidneys move farther apart from the midline of the body during the fetal period. The dimensions, weight, and volume of the kidneys increased with gestational age during the fetal period. The ratio between kidney weights and fetal body weights were determined, and we observed that the ratio decreased during the fetal period. There were no sex or laterality differences in any parameter." (See also Fetal Development)
  • Characterization of Mesonephric Development and Regeneration Using Transgenic Zebrafish. [7] "The majority of previous studies have focused on the pronephros of zebrafish, which consists of only two nephrons and is structurally simpler than the mesonephros of adult fish and the metanephros of mammals. To evaluate the zebrafish system for more complex studies of kidney development and regeneration, we investigated the development and post-injury regeneration of the mesonephros in adult zebrafish." (See also Zebrafish Development)
More recent papers
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
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References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

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Search term: Renal Embryology

Janusz Godlewski, Bartlomiej E Krazinski, Anna E Kowalczyk, Jolanta Kiewisz, Jacek Kiezun, Przemyslaw Kwiatkowski, Agnieszka Sliwinska-Jewsiewicka, Zbigniew Maslowski, Zbigniew Kmiec PLAGL1 (ZAC1/LOT1) Expression in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: Correlations with Disease Progression and Unfavorable Prognosis. Anticancer Res.: 2016, 36(2);617-24 PubMed 26851016

Piotr Dziegiel, Bartosz Pula, Christopher Kobierzycki, Mariusz Stasiolek, Marzenna Podhorska-Okolow Introduction. Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol: 2016, 218;1-2 PubMed 26847563

Katarzyna Zaorska, Piotr Zawierucha, Danuta Ostalska-Nowicka, Michał Nowicki SOCS3 is epigenetically up-regulated in steroid resistant nephrotic children. Acta Biochim. Pol.: 2016; PubMed 26828667

Daniel J Klionsky, Kotb Abdelmohsen, Akihisa Abe, Md Joynal Abedin, Hagai Abeliovich, Abraham Acevedo Arozena, Hiroaki Adachi, Christopher M Adams, Peter D Adams, Khosrow Adeli, Peter J Adhihetty, Sharon G Adler, Galila Agam, Rajesh Agarwal, Manish K Aghi, Maria Agnello, Patrizia Agostinis, Patricia V Aguilar, Julio Aguirre-Ghiso, Edoardo M Airoldi, Slimane Ait-Si-Ali, Takahiko Akematsu, Emmanuel T Akporiaye, Mohamed Al-Rubeai, Guillermo M Albaiceta, Chris Albanese, Diego Albani, Matthew L Albert, Jesus Aldudo, Hana Algül, Mehrdad Alirezaei, Iraide Alloza, Alexandru Almasan, Maylin Almonte-Beceril, Emad S Alnemri, Covadonga Alonso, Nihal Altan-Bonnet, Dario C Altieri, Silvia Alvarez, Lydia Alvarez-Erviti, Sandro Alves, Giuseppina Amadoro, Atsuo Amano, Consuelo Amantini, Santiago Ambrosio, Ivano Amelio, Amal O Amer, Mohamed Amessou, Angelika Amon, Zhenyi An, Frank A Anania, Stig U Andersen, Usha P Andley, Catherine K Andreadi, Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie, Alberto Anel, David K Ann, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Manuela Antonioli, Hiroshi Aoki, Nadezda Apostolova, Saveria Aquila, Katia Aquilano, Koichi Araki, Eli Arama, Agustin Aranda, Jun Araya, Alexandre Arcaro, Esperanza Arias, Hirokazu Arimoto, Aileen R Ariosa, Jane L Armstrong, Thierry Arnould, Ivica Arsov, Katsuhiko Asanuma, Valerie Askanas, Eric Asselin, Ryuichiro Atarashi, Sally S Atherton, Julie D Atkin, Laura D Attardi, Patrick Auberger, Georg Auburger, Laure Aurelian, Riccardo Autelli, Laura Avagliano, Maria Laura Avantaggiati, Limor Avrahami, Suresh Awale, Neelam Azad, Tiziana Bachetti, Jonathan M Backer, Dong-Hun Bae, Jae-Sung Bae, Ok-Nam Bae, Soo Han Bae, Eric H Baehrecke, Seung-Hoon Baek, Stephen Baghdiguian, Agnieszka Bagniewska-Zadworna, Hua Bai, Jie Bai, Xue-Yuan Bai, Yannick Bailly, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy Balaji, Walter Balduini, Andrea Ballabio, Rena Balzan, Rajkumar Banerjee, Gábor Bánhegyi, Haijun Bao, Benoit Barbeau, Maria D Barrachina, Esther Barreiro, Bonnie Bartel, Alberto Bartolomé, Diane C Bassham, Maria Teresa Bassi, Robert C Bast, Alakananda Basu, Maria Teresa Batista, Henri Batoko, Maurizio Battino, Kyle Bauckman, Bradley L Baumgarner, K Ulrich Bayer, Rupert Beale, Jean-François Beaulieu, George R Beck, Christoph Becker, J David Beckham, Pierre-André Bédard, Patrick J Bednarski, Thomas J Begley, Christian Behl, Christian Behrends, Georg Mn Behrens, Kevin E Behrns, Eloy Bejarano, Amine Belaid, Francesca Belleudi, Giovanni Bénard, Guy Berchem, Daniele Bergamaschi, Matteo Bergami, Ben Berkhout, Laura Berliocchi, Amélie Bernard, Monique Bernard, Francesca Bernassola, Anne Bertolotti, Amanda S Bess, Sébastien Besteiro, Saverio Bettuzzi, Savita Bhalla, Shalmoli Bhattacharyya, Sujit K Bhutia, Caroline Biagosch, Michele Wolfe Bianchi, Martine Biard-Piechaczyk, Viktor Billes, Claudia Bincoletto, Baris Bingol, Sara W Bird, Marc Bitoun, Ivana Bjedov, Craig Blackstone, Lionel Blanc, Guillermo A Blanco, Heidi Kiil Blomhoff, Emilio Boada-Romero, Stefan Böckler, Marianne Boes, Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia, Lawrence H Boise, Alessandra Bolino, Andrea Boman, Paolo Bonaldo, Matteo Bordi, Jürgen Bosch, Luis M Botana, Joelle Botti, German Bou, Marina Bouché, Marion Bouchecareilh, Marie-Josée Boucher, Michael E Boulton, Sebastien G Bouret, Patricia Boya, Michaël Boyer-Guittaut, Peter V Bozhkov, Nathan Brady, Vania Mm Braga, Claudio Brancolini, Gerhard H Braus, José M Bravo-San Pedro, Lisa A Brennan, Emery H Bresnick, Patrick Brest, Dave Bridges, Marie-Agnès Bringer, Marisa Brini, Glauber C Brito, Bertha Brodin, Paul S Brookes, Eric J Brown, Karen Brown, Hal E Broxmeyer, Alain Bruhat, Patricia Chakur Brum, John H Brumell, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri, Robert J Bryson-Richardson, Shilpa Buch, Alastair M Buchan, Hikmet Budak, Dmitry V Bulavin, Scott J Bultman, Geert Bultynck, Vladimir Bumbasirevic, Yan Burelle, Robert E Burke, Margit Burmeister, Peter Bütikofer, Laura Caberlotto, Ken Cadwell, Monika Cahova, Dongsheng Cai, Jingjing Cai, Qian Cai, Sara Calatayud, Nadine Camougrand, Michelangelo Campanella, Grant R Campbell, Matthew Campbell, Silvia Campello, Robin Candau, Isabella Caniggia, Lavinia Cantoni, Lizhi Cao, Allan B Caplan, Michele Caraglia, Claudio Cardinali, Sandra Morais Cardoso, Jennifer S Carew, Laura A Carleton, Cathleen R Carlin, Silvia Carloni, Sven R Carlsson, Didac Carmona-Gutierrez, Leticia Am Carneiro, Oliana Carnevali, Serena Carra, Alice Carrier, Bernadette Carroll, Caty Casas, Josefina Casas, Giuliana Cassinelli, Perrine Castets, Susana Castro-Obregon, Gabriella Cavallini, Isabella Ceccherini, Francesco Cecconi, Arthur I Cederbaum, Valentín Ceña, Simone Cenci, Claudia Cerella, Davide Cervia, Silvia Cetrullo, Hassan Chaachouay, Han-Jung Chae, Andrei S Chagin, Chee-Yin Chai, Gopal Chakrabarti, Georgios Chamilos, Edmond Yw Chan, Matthew Tv Chan, Dhyan Chandra, Pallavi Chandra, Chih-Peng Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Ta Yuan Chang, John C Chatham, Saurabh Chatterjee, Santosh Chauhan, Yongsheng Che, Michael E Cheetham, Rajkumar Cheluvappa, Chun-Jung Chen, Gang Chen, Guang-Chao Chen, Guoqiang Chen, Hongzhuan Chen, Jeff W Chen, Jian-Kang Chen, Min Chen, Mingzhou Chen, Peiwen Chen, Qi Chen, Quan Chen, Shang-Der Chen, Si Chen, Steve S-L Chen, Wei Chen, Wei-Jung Chen, Wen Qiang Chen, Wenli Chen, Xiangmei Chen, Yau-Hung Chen, Ye-Guang Chen, Yin Chen, Yingyu Chen, Yongshun Chen, Yu-Jen Chen, Yue-Qin Chen, Yujie Chen, Zhen Chen, Zhong Chen, Alan Cheng, Christopher Hk Cheng, Hua Cheng, Heesun Cheong, Sara Cherry, Jason Chesney, Chun Hei Antonio Cheung, Eric Chevet, Hsiang Cheng Chi, Sung-Gil Chi, Fulvio Chiacchiera, Hui-Ling Chiang, Roberto Chiarelli, Mario Chiariello, Marcello Chieppa, Lih-Shen Chin, Mario Chiong, Gigi Nc Chiu, Dong-Hyung Cho, Ssang-Goo Cho, William C Cho, Yong-Yeon Cho, Young-Seok Cho, Augustine Mk Choi, Eui-Ju Choi, Eun-Kyoung Choi, Jayoung Choi, Mary E Choi, Seung-Il Choi, Tsui-Fen Chou, Salem Chouaib, Divaker Choubey, Vinay Choubey, Kuan-Chih Chow, Kamal Chowdhury, Charleen T Chu, Tsung-Hsien Chuang, Taehoon Chun, Hyewon Chung, Taijoon Chung, Yuen-Li Chung, Yong-Joon Chwae, Valentina Cianfanelli, Roberto Ciarcia, Iwona A Ciechomska, Maria Rosa Ciriolo, Mara Cirone, Sofie Claerhout, Michael J Clague, Joan Clària, Peter Gh Clarke, Robert Clarke, Emilio Clementi, Cédric Cleyrat, Miriam Cnop, Eliana M Coccia, Tiziana Cocco, Patrice Codogno, Jörn Coers, Ezra Ew Cohen, David Colecchia, Luisa Coletto, Núria S Coll, Emma Colucci-Guyon, Sergio Comincini, Maria Condello, Katherine L Cook, Graham H Coombs, Cynthia D Cooper, J Mark Cooper, Isabelle Coppens, Maria Tiziana Corasaniti, Marco Corazzari, Ramon Corbalan, Elisabeth Corcelle-Termeau, Mario D Cordero, Cristina Corral-Ramos, Olga Corti, Andrea Cossarizza, Paola Costelli, Safia Costes, Susan L Cotman, Ana Coto-Montes, Sandra Cottet, Eduardo Couve, Lori R Covey, L Ashley Cowart, Jeffery S Cox, Fraser P Coxon, Carolyn B Coyne, Mark S Cragg, Rolf J Craven, Tiziana Crepaldi, Jose L Crespo, Alfredo Criollo, Valeria Crippa, Maria Teresa Cruz, Ana Maria Cuervo, Jose M Cuezva, Taixing Cui, Pedro R Cutillas, Mark J Czaja, Maria F Czyzyk-Krzeska, Ruben K Dagda, Uta Dahmen, Chunsun Dai, Wenjie Dai, Yun Dai, Kevin N Dalby, Luisa Dalla Valle, Guillaume Dalmasso, Marcello D'Amelio, Markus Damme, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud, Catherine Dargemont, Victor M Darley-Usmar, Srinivasan Dasarathy, Biplab Dasgupta, Srikanta Dash, Crispin R Dass, Hazel Marie Davey, Lester M Davids, David Dávila, Roger J Davis, Ted M Dawson, Valina L Dawson, Paula Daza, Jackie de Belleroche, Paul de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz de Figueiredo, José de la Fuente, Luisa De Martino, Antonella De Matteis, Guido Ry De Meyer, Angelo De Milito, Mauro De Santi, Wanderley de Souza, Vincenzo De Tata, Daniela De Zio, Jayanta Debnath, Reinhard Dechant, Jean-Paul Decuypere, Shane Deegan, Benjamin Dehay, Barbara Del Bello, Dominic P Del Re, Régis Delage-Mourroux, Lea Md Delbridge, Louise Deldicque, Elizabeth Delorme-Axford, Yizhen Deng, Joern Dengjel, Melanie Denizot, Paul Dent, Channing J Der, Vojo Deretic, Benoît Derrien, Eric Deutsch, Timothy P Devarenne, Rodney J Devenish, Sabrina Di Bartolomeo, Nicola Di Daniele, Fabio Di Domenico, Alessia Di Nardo, Simone Di Paola, Antonio Di Pietro, Livia Di Renzo, Aaron DiAntonio, Guillermo Díaz-Araya, Ines Díaz-Laviada, Maria T Diaz-Meco, Javier Diaz-Nido, Chad A Dickey, Robert C Dickson, Marc Diederich, Paul Digard, Ivan Dikic, Savithrama P Dinesh-Kumar, Chan Ding, Wen-Xing Ding, Zufeng Ding, Luciana Dini, Jörg Hw Distler, Abhinav Diwan, Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny, Kostyantyn Dmytruk, Renwick Cj Dobson, Volker Doetsch, Karol Dokladny, Svetlana Dokudovskaya, Massimo Donadelli, X Charlie Dong, Xiaonan Dong, Zheng Dong, Terrence M Donohue, Kelly S Doran, Gabriella D'Orazi, Gerald W Dorn, Victor Dosenko, Sami Dridi, Liat Drucker, Jie Du, Li-Lin Du, Lihuan Du, André du Toit, Priyamvada Dua, Lei Duan, Pu Duann, Vikash Kumar Dubey, Michael R Duchen, Michel A Duchosal, Helene Duez, Isabelle Dugail, Verónica I Dumit, Mara C Duncan, Elaine A Dunlop, William A Dunn, Nicolas Dupont, Luc Dupuis, Raúl V Durán, Thomas M Durcan, Stéphane Duvezin-Caubet, Umamaheswar Duvvuri, Vinay Eapen, Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Arnaud Echard, Leopold Eckhart, Charles L Edelstein, Aimee L Edinger, Ludwig Eichinger, Tobias Eisenberg, Avital Eisenberg-Lerner, N Tony Eissa, Wafik S El-Deiry, Victoria El-Khoury, Zvulun Elazar, Hagit Eldar-Finkelman, Chris Jh Elliott, Enzo Emanuele, Urban Emmenegger, Nikolai Engedal, Anna-Mart Engelbrecht, Simone Engelender, Jorrit M Enserink, Ralf Erdmann, Jekaterina Erenpreisa, Rajaraman Eri, Jason L Eriksen, Andreja Erman, Ricardo Escalante, Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen, Lucile Espert, Lorena Esteban-Martínez, Thomas J Evans, Mario Fabri, Gemma Fabrias, Cinzia Fabrizi, Antonio Facchiano, Nils J Færgeman, Alberto Faggioni, W Douglas Fairlie, Chunhai Fan, Daping Fan, Jie Fan, Shengyun Fang, Manolis Fanto, Alessandro Fanzani, Thomas Farkas, Mathias Faure, Francois B Favier, Howard Fearnhead, Massimo Federici, Erkang Fei, Tania C Felizardo, Hua Feng, Yibin Feng, Yuchen Feng, Thomas A Ferguson, Álvaro F Fernández, Maite G Fernandez-Barrena, Jose C Fernandez-Checa, Arsenio Fernández-López, Martin E Fernandez-Zapico, Olivier Feron, Elisabetta Ferraro, Carmen Veríssima Ferreira-Halder, Laszlo Fesus, Ralph Feuer, Fabienne C Fiesel, Eduardo C Filippi-Chiela, Giuseppe Filomeni, Gian Maria Fimia, John H Fingert, Steven Finkbeiner, Toren Finkel, Filomena Fiorito, Paul B Fisher, Marc Flajolet, Flavio Flamigni, Oliver Florey, Salvatore Florio, R Andres Floto, Marco Folini, Carlo Follo, Edward A Fon, Francesco Fornai, Franco Fortunato, Alessandro Fraldi, Rodrigo Franco, Arnaud Francois, Aurélie François, Lisa B Frankel, Iain Dc Fraser, Norbert Frey, Damien G Freyssenet, Christian Frezza, Scott L Friedman, Daniel E Frigo, Dongxu Fu, José M Fuentes, Juan Fueyo, Yoshio Fujitani, Yuuki Fujiwara, Mikihiro Fujiya, Mitsunori Fukuda, Simone Fulda, Carmela Fusco, Bozena Gabryel, Matthias Gaestel, Philippe Gailly, Malgorzata Gajewska, Sehamuddin Galadari, Gad Galili, Inmaculada Galindo, Maria F Galindo, Giovanna Galliciotti, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Luca Galluzzi, Vincent Galy, Noor Gammoh, Sam Gandy, Anand K Ganesan, Swamynathan Ganesan, Ian G Ganley, Monique Gannagé, Fen-Biao Gao, Feng Gao, Jian-Xin Gao, Lorena García Nannig, Eleonora García Véscovi, Marina Garcia-Macía, Carmen Garcia-Ruiz, Abhishek D Garg, Pramod Kumar Garg, Ricardo Gargini, Nils Christian Gassen, Damián Gatica, Evelina Gatti, Julie Gavard, Evripidis Gavathiotis, Liang Ge, Pengfei Ge, Shengfang Ge, Po-Wu Gean, Vania Gelmetti, Armando A Genazzani, Jiefei Geng, Pascal Genschik, Lisa Gerner, Jason E Gestwicki, David A Gewirtz, Saeid Ghavami, Eric Ghigo, Debabrata Ghosh, Anna Maria Giammarioli, Francesca Giampieri, Claudia Giampietri, Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Derrick J Gibbings, Lara Gibellini, Spencer B Gibson, Vanessa Ginet, Antonio Giordano, Flaviano Giorgini, Elisa Giovannetti, Stephen E Girardin, Suzana Gispert, Sandy Giuliano, Candece L Gladson, Alvaro Glavic, Martin Gleave, Nelly Godefroy, Robert M Gogal, Kuppan Gokulan, Gustavo H Goldman, Delia Goletti, Michael S Goligorsky, Aldrin V Gomes, Ligia C Gomes, Hernando Gomez, Candelaria Gomez-Manzano, Rubén Gómez-Sánchez, Dawit Ap Gonçalves, Ebru Goncu, Qingqiu Gong, Céline Gongora, Carlos B Gonzalez, Pedro Gonzalez-Alegre, Pilar Gonzalez-Cabo, Rosa Ana González-Polo, Ing Swie Goping, Carlos Gorbea, Nikolai V Gorbunov, Daphne R Goring, Adrienne M Gorman, Sharon M Gorski, Sandro Goruppi, Shino Goto-Yamada, Cecilia Gotor, Roberta A Gottlieb, Illana Gozes, Devrim Gozuacik, Yacine Graba, Martin Graef, Giovanna E Granato, Gary Dean Grant, Steven Grant, Giovanni Luca Gravina, Douglas R Green, Alexander Greenhough, Michael T Greenwood, Benedetto Grimaldi, Frédéric Gros, Charles Grose, Jean-Francois Groulx, Florian Gruber, Paolo Grumati, Tilman Grune, Jun-Lin Guan, Kun-Liang Guan, Barbara Guerra, Carlos Guillen, Kailash Gulshan, Jan Gunst, Chuanyong Guo, Lei Guo, Ming Guo, Wenjie Guo, Xu-Guang Guo, Andrea A Gust, Åsa B Gustafsson, Elaine Gutierrez, Maximiliano G Gutierrez, Ho-Shin Gwak, Albert Haas, James E Haber, Shinji Hadano, Monica Hagedorn, David R Hahn, Andrew J Halayko, Anne Hamacher-Brady, Kozo Hamada, Ahmed Hamai, Andrea Hamann, Maho Hamasaki, Isabelle Hamer, Qutayba Hamid, Ester M Hammond, Feng Han, Weidong Han, James T Handa, John A Hanover, Malene Hansen, Masaru Harada, Ljubica Harhaji-Trajkovic, J Wade Harper, Abdel Halim Harrath, Adrian L Harris, James Harris, Udo Hasler, Peter Hasselblatt, Kazuhisa Hasui, Robert G Hawley, Teresa S Hawley, Congcong He, Cynthia Y He, Fengtian He, Gu He, Rong-Rong He, Xian-Hui He, You-Wen He, Yu-Ying He, Joan K Heath, Marie-Josée Hébert, Robert A Heinzen, Gudmundur Vignir Helgason, Michael Hensel, Elizabeth P Henske, Chengtao Her, Paul K Herman, Agustín Hernández, Carlos Hernandez, Sonia Hernández-Tiedra, Claudio Hetz, P Robin Hiesinger, Katsumi Higaki, Sabine Hilfiker, Bradford G Hill, Joseph A Hill, William D Hill, Keisuke Hino, Daniel Hofius, Paul Hofman, Günter U Höglinger, Jörg Höhfeld, Marina K Holz, Yonggeun Hong, David A Hood, Jeroen Jm Hoozemans, Thorsten Hoppe, Chin Hsu, Chin-Yuan Hsu, Li-Chung Hsu, Dong Hu, Guochang Hu, Hong-Ming Hu, Hongbo Hu, Ming Chang Hu, Yu-Chen Hu, Zhuo-Wei Hu, Fang Hua, Ya Hua, Canhua Huang, Huey-Lan Huang, Kuo-How Huang, Kuo-Yang Huang, Shile Huang, Shiqian Huang, Wei-Pang Huang, Yi-Ran Huang, Yong Huang, Yunfei Huang, Tobias B Huber, Patricia Huebbe, Won-Ki Huh, Juha J Hulmi, Gang Min Hur, James H Hurley, Zvenyslava Husak, Sabah Na Hussain, Salik Hussain, Jung Jin Hwang, Seungmin Hwang, Thomas Is Hwang, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Yuzuru Imai, Carol Imbriano, Megumi Inomata, Takeshi Into, Valentina Iovane, Juan L Iovanna, Renato V Iozzo, Nancy Y Ip, Javier E Irazoqui, Pablo Iribarren, Yoshitaka Isaka, Aleksandra J Isakovic, Harry Ischiropoulos, Jeffrey S Isenberg, Mohammad Ishaq, Hiroyuki Ishida, Isao Ishii, Jane E Ishmael, Ciro Isidoro, Ken-Ichi Isobe, Erika Isono, Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas, Koji Itahana, Eisuke Itakura, Andrei I Ivanov, Anand Krishnan V Iyer, José M Izquierdo, Yotaro Izumi, Valentina Izzo, Marja Jäättelä, Nadia Jaber, Daniel John Jackson, William T Jackson, Tony George Jacob, Thomas S Jacques, Chinnaswamy Jagannath, Ashish Jain, Nihar Ranjan Jana, Byoung Kuk Jang, Alkesh Jani, Bassam Janji, Paulo Roberto Jannig, Patric J Jansson, Steve Jean, Marina Jendrach, Ju-Hong Jeon, Niels Jessen, Eui-Bae Jeung, Kailiang Jia, Lijun Jia, Hong Jiang, Hongchi Jiang, Liwen Jiang, Teng Jiang, Xiaoyan Jiang, Xuejun Jiang, Xuejun Jiang, Ying Jiang, Yongjun Jiang, Alberto Jiménez, Cheng Jin, Hongchuan Jin, Lei Jin, Meiyan Jin, Shengkan Jin, Umesh Kumar Jinwal, Eun-Kyeong Jo, Terje Johansen, Daniel E Johnson, Gail Vw Johnson, James D Johnson, Eric Jonasch, Chris Jones, Leo Ab Joosten, Joaquin Jordan, Anna-Maria Joseph, Bertrand Joseph, Annie M Joubert, Dianwen Ju, Jingfang Ju, Hsueh-Fen Juan, Katrin Juenemann, Gábor Juhász, Hye Seung Jung, Jae U Jung, Yong-Keun Jung, Heinz Jungbluth, Matthew J Justice, Barry Jutten, Nadeem O Kaakoush, Kai Kaarniranta, Allen Kaasik, Tomohiro Kabuta, Bertrand Kaeffer, Katarina Kågedal, Alon Kahana, Shingo Kajimura, Or Kakhlon, Manjula Kalia, Dhan V Kalvakolanu, Yoshiaki Kamada, Konstantinos Kambas, Vitaliy O Kaminskyy, Harm H Kampinga, Mustapha Kandouz, Chanhee Kang, Rui Kang, Tae-Cheon Kang, Tomotake Kanki, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, Haruo Kanno, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Marc Kantorow, Maria Kaparakis-Liaskos, Orsolya Kapuy, Vassiliki Karantza, Md Razaul Karim, Parimal Karmakar, Arthur Kaser, Susmita Kaushik, Thomas Kawula, A Murat Kaynar, Po-Yuan Ke, Zun-Ji Ke, John H Kehrl, Kate E Keller, Jongsook Kim Kemper, Anne K Kenworthy, Oliver Kepp, Andreas Kern, Santosh Kesari, David Kessel, Robin Ketteler, Isis do Carmo Kettelhut, Bilon Khambu, Muzamil Majid Khan, Vinoth Km Khandelwal, Sangeeta Khare, Juliann G Kiang, Amy A Kiger, Akio Kihara, Arianna L Kim, Cheol Hyeon Kim, Deok Ryong Kim, Do-Hyung Kim, Eung Kweon Kim, Hye Young Kim, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Jae-Sung Kim, Jeong Hun Kim, Jin Cheon Kim, Jin Hyoung Kim, Kwang Woon Kim, Michael D Kim, Moon-Moo Kim, Peter K Kim, Seong Who Kim, Soo-Youl Kim, Yong-Sun Kim, Yonghyun Kim, Adi Kimchi, Alec C Kimmelman, Tomonori Kimura, Jason S King, Karla Kirkegaard, Vladimir Kirkin, Lorrie A Kirshenbaum, Shuji Kishi, Yasuo Kitajima, Katsuhiko Kitamoto, Yasushi Kitaoka, Kaio Kitazato, Rudolf A Kley, Walter T Klimecki, Michael Klinkenberg, Jochen Klucken, Helene Knævelsrud, Erwin Knecht, Laura Knuppertz, Jiunn-Liang Ko, Satoru Kobayashi, Jan C Koch, Christelle Koechlin-Ramonatxo, Ulrich Koenig, Young Ho Koh, Katja Köhler, Sepp D Kohlwein, Masato Koike, Masaaki Komatsu, Eiki Kominami, Dexin Kong, Hee Jeong Kong, Eumorphia G Konstantakou, Benjamin T Kopp, Tamas Korcsmaros, Laura Korhonen, Viktor I Korolchuk, Nadya V Koshkina, Yanjun Kou, Michael I Koukourakis, Constantinos Koumenis, Attila L 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Xiangbo Wan, Bo Wang, Caihong Wang, Chao-Yung Wang, Chengshu Wang, Chenran Wang, Chuangui Wang, Dong Wang, Fen Wang, Fuxin Wang, Guanghui Wang, Hai-Jie Wang, Haichao Wang, Hong-Gang Wang, Hongmin Wang, Horng-Dar Wang, Jing Wang, Junjun Wang, Mei Wang, Mei-Qing Wang, Pei-Yu Wang, Peng Wang, Richard C Wang, Shuo Wang, Ting-Fang Wang, Xian Wang, Xiao-Jia Wang, Xiao-Wei Wang, Xin Wang, Xuejun Wang, Yan Wang, Yanming Wang, Ying Wang, Ying-Jan Wang, Yipeng Wang, Yu Wang, Yu Tian Wang, Yuqing Wang, Zhi-Nong Wang, Pablo Wappner, Carl Ward, Diane McVey Ward, Gary Warnes, Hirotaka Watada, Yoshihisa Watanabe, Kei Watase, Timothy E Weaver, Colin D Weekes, Jiwu Wei, Thomas Weide, Conrad C Weihl, Günther Weindl, Simone Nardin Weis, Longping Wen, Xin Wen, Yunfei Wen, Benedikt Westermann, Cornelia M Weyand, Anthony R White, Eileen White, J Lindsay Whitton, Alexander J Whitworth, Joëlle Wiels, Franziska Wild, Manon E Wildenberg, Tom Wileman, Deepti Srinivas Wilkinson, Simon Wilkinson, Dieter Willbold, Chris Williams, Katherine Williams, Peter R Williamson, Konstanze F Winklhofer, Steven S Witkin, Stephanie E Wohlgemuth, Thomas Wollert, Ernst J Wolvetang, Esther Wong, G William Wong, Richard W Wong, Vincent Kam Wai Wong, Elizabeth A Woodcock, Karen L Wright, Chunlai Wu, Defeng Wu, Gen Sheng Wu, Jian Wu, Junfang Wu, Mian Wu, Min Wu, Shengzhou Wu, William Kk Wu, Yaohua Wu, Zhenlong Wu, Cristina Pr Xavier, Ramnik J Xavier, Gui-Xian Xia, Tian Xia, Weiliang Xia, Yong Xia, Hengyi Xiao, Jian Xiao, Shi Xiao, Wuhan Xiao, Chuan-Ming Xie, Zhiping Xie, Zhonglin Xie, Maria Xilouri, Yuyan Xiong, Chuanshan Xu, Congfeng Xu, Feng Xu, Haoxing Xu, Hongwei Xu, Jian Xu, Jianzhen Xu, Jinxian Xu, Liang Xu, Xiaolei Xu, Yangqing Xu, Ye Xu, Zhi-Xiang Xu, Ziheng Xu, Yu Xue, Takahiro Yamada, Ai Yamamoto, Koji Yamanaka, Shunhei Yamashina, Shigeko Yamashiro, Bing Yan, Bo Yan, Xianghua Yan, Zhen Yan, Yasuo Yanagi, Dun-Sheng Yang, Jin-Ming Yang, Liu Yang, Minghua Yang, Pei-Ming Yang, Peixin Yang, Qian Yang, Wannian Yang, Wei Yuan Yang, Xuesong Yang, Yi Yang, Ying Yang, Zhifen Yang, Zhihong Yang, Meng-Chao Yao, Pamela J Yao, Xiaofeng Yao, Zhenyu Yao, Zhiyuan Yao, Linda S Yasui, Mingxiang Ye, Barry Yedvobnick, Behzad Yeganeh, Elizabeth S Yeh, Patricia L Yeyati, Fan Yi, Long Yi, Xiao-Ming Yin, Calvin K Yip, Yeong-Min Yoo, Young Hyun Yoo, Seung-Yong Yoon, Ken-Ichi Yoshida, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Ken H Young, Huixin Yu, Jane J Yu, Jin-Tai Yu, Jun Yu, Li Yu, W Haung Yu, Xiao-Fang Yu, Zhengping Yu, Junying Yuan, Zhi-Min Yuan, Beatrice Yjt Yue, Jianbo Yue, Zhenyu Yue, David N Zacks, Eldad Zacksenhaus, Nadia Zaffaroni, Tania Zaglia, Zahra Zakeri, Vincent Zecchini, Jinsheng Zeng, Min Zeng, Qi Zeng, Antonis S Zervos, Donna D Zhang, Fan Zhang, Guo Zhang, Guo-Chang Zhang, Hao Zhang, Hong Zhang, Hong Zhang, Hongbing Zhang, Jian Zhang, Jian Zhang, Jiangwei Zhang, Jianhua Zhang, Jing-Pu Zhang, Li Zhang, Lin Zhang, Lin Zhang, Long Zhang, Ming-Yong Zhang, Xiangnan Zhang, Xu Dong Zhang, Yan Zhang, Yang Zhang, Yanjin Zhang, Yingmei Zhang, Yunjiao Zhang, Mei Zhao, Wei-Li Zhao, Xiaonan Zhao, Yan G Zhao, Ying Zhao, Yongchao Zhao, Yu-Xia Zhao, Zhendong Zhao, Zhizhuang J Zhao, Dexian Zheng, Xi-Long Zheng, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Boris Zhivotovsky, Qing Zhong, Guang-Zhou Zhou, Guofei Zhou, Huiping Zhou, Shu-Feng Zhou, Xu-Jie Zhou, Hongxin Zhu, Hua Zhu, Wei-Guo Zhu, Wenhua Zhu, Xiao-Feng Zhu, Yuhua Zhu, Shi-Mei Zhuang, Xiaohong Zhuang, Elio Ziparo, Christos E Zois, Teresa Zoladek, Wei-Xing Zong, Antonio Zorzano, Susu M Zughaier Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition). Autophagy: 2016, 12(1);1-222 PubMed 26799652

Taras Kotyk, Nilanjan Dey, Amira S Ashour, Dana Balas-Timar, Sayan Chakraborty, Ahmed S Ashour, João Manuel R S Tavares Measurement of glomerulus diameter and Bowman's space width of renal albino rats. Comput Methods Programs Biomed: 2015; PubMed 26796351

Objectives

Stage 13 kidney sections.jpg
  • Understand the 3 main stages of kidney development.
  • Understand development of the nephron and renal papilla.
  • Brief understanding of the mechanisms of nephron development.
  • Understand the development of the cloaca, ureter and bladder.
  • Brief understanding of abnormalities of the urinary system.

Textbook References

  • The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (8th Edition) by Keith L. Moore and T.V.N Persaud - Moore & Persaud Chapter 13 p303-346
  • Larsen’s Human Embryology by GC. Schoenwolf, SB. Bleyl, PR. Brauer and PH. Francis-West - Chapter 10 p261-306

Renal Movies

Renal Development

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 ‎‎Renal Overview
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 ‎‎Nephron
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 ‎‎Urogenital Septum
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 ‎‎Trigone
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 ‎‎Gastrointestinal
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 ‎‎Urogenital
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Background

Early fetal kidney (week 10)
  • Mesoderm then intermediate mesoderm
  • Vascular Development
  • Gastrointestional
  • Cloacal development
  • Endocrine - covered in future lecture/lab

Kidney Anatomy

Adult nephron structure
Nephron histology
  • Nephron - Functional unit of kidney
  • Humans up to 1 million
  • Filtration of waste from blood
  • Endocrine
  • Blood pressure regulation

The key structure of the adult nephron is the glomerulus (renal corpuscle), which represents the initial vascular/renal interface.

Related Images: Nephron histology overview | glomerulus structure | vascular and renal poles


Ureter

  • Bladder - Urine storage
  • Endoderm allantois

Mesoderm

  • Intermediate mesoderm - Lies between somites and lateral plate

Intermediate Mesoderm

  • development occurs laterally symmetrical (left right)
  • intermediate mesoderm lying beside the dorsal aorta
  • initially form mesonephric tubules (epithelial)
  • these tubules connect to a common duct, mesonephric duct
  • the mesonephric duct then extends within the mesoderm, rostro-caudally
  • eventually making contact with the cloaca

Mesonephric Duct

Later in development, both the mesonephric duct and the cloaca both continue to differentiate and undergo extensive remodelling (and renaming)

Uteric Bud

Mouse E12.5 kidney in vitro
  • arise near the cloacal connection of the mesonephric duct
  • branch from the mesonephric duct laterally into the intermediate mesoderm
  • induce the surrounding mesoderm to differentiate - metanephric blastema
    • this mesoderm will in turn signal back to differentiate the uteric bud

Epithelial - mesenchymal interaction

Uteric Bud forms - ureter, pelvis, calyces, collecting ducts

Metanephric Blastema

  • forms glomeruli, capsule, nephron tubules
  • this development continues through fetal period

Nephros Development

Three pairs appearing in sequence within intermediate mesoderm during development.

  1. pronephros
  2. mesonephros
  3. metanephros

Pronephros

  • week 4 few cells in cervical region fish
  • Human E18, Mouse E7.5pronephric duct forms first with associated nephrogenic mesenchyme
  • grows rostro caudally cervical -> cloaca
  • E22 nephrogenic mesenchyme differentiates to form pronephroi not functional in mammals degenerates rapidly

Mesonephros

Stage 13 mesonephros
Stage 22 mesonephros
  • Human E24, Mouse E9.5 caudal to pronephros
  • forms by induction from pronephros
  • pronephric duct now becomes mesonephric duct (also called Wolffian Duct)

Metanephros

  • Human E35-37, Mouse E11 epithelia bud at end of mesonephric duct uteric bud and associated metanephric mesenchyme

Uteric Bud

  • induced by metanephric mesenchyme to differentiate
  • forms collecting tubules, renal pelvis, ureter
  • metanephric mesenchyme induced by uteric to differentiate forms nephron

Nephron

Adult nephron structure
Nephron histology

In humans, nephrogenesis only occurs before birth, though nephron maturation continues postnatally. Mean glomerular number shown to level at 36 weeks, increasing from about 15,000 at 15 weeks to 740,000 at 40 weeks.

Nephron development has four identifiable developmental stages:
  1. Vesicle (V) stage (13-19 weeks, second trimester)
  2. S-shaped body (S) stage ( 20-24 weeks, second trimester)
  3. Capillary loop (C) stage (25-29 weeks, third trimester)
  4. Maturation (M) stage (infants aged 1-6 months, neonatal and postnatal)
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Nephron Development

  • disorganised mesenchymal cells become a highly organised epithelial tubule
  • Condensation - groups of about 100 cells condense tightly together to form a distinct mass
  • Epithelialisation - condensed cells lose their mesenchymal character and gain epithelial
  • At end of this period formed a small epithelial cyst complete with a basement membrane, cell-cell junctions and a defined cellular apico-basal polarity.

Early Morphogenesis

  • cyst invaginates twice to form a comma
  • then a S-shaped body one invagination site later becomes the glomerular cleft
  • At about this time blood vessel progenitors invade cleft to begin construction of vascular component of glomerulus
  • Tubule maturation specialised transporting segments of nephron differentiate complex of convoluted tubules is created

Fetal Kidney

Fetal kidney MRI 01.jpg MRI appearance of normal fetal kidney.[8] Sagittal T2- SSFSE of a fetal abdomen at GA 25 week. Adequate volume of the amniotic fluid and the developing lungs indicate good renal function.


  • two arrowheads - note the size and the signal appearance of the normal kidney.
  • white arrow - the fluid-filled urinary bladder
  • black arrow - the developing lung.

Note that the urinary bladder can occupy a considerable portion of the abdomen as a normal finding.


Links: Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Endocrine Kidney

Covered also in Endocrine Development lecture

  • Renin - Increase Angiotensin-aldosterone system
  • Prostaglandins - decrease Na+ reabsorption
  • Erythropoietin - Increase Erythrocyte (rbc) production
  • 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D - Calcium homeostasis
  • Prekallikreins - (plasma protein inactive precursor of kallikrein) Increase kinin production (altered vascular permeability)

Cloaca

File:Endoderm development

  • hindgut region ending at the cloacal membrane
  • divided (ventro-dorsally) by the urogenital septum
    • ventral - common urogenital sinus
    • dorsal - rectum
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 ‎‎Urogenital Septum
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Common urogenital sinus

  • superior end continuous with allantois
  • common urogenital sinus and mesonephric duct fuse (connect)
  • differentiates to form the bladder
  • inferior end forms urethra
    • this will be different in male and female development

Urinary Bladder

Adult bladder
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  • early origins of the bladder at the superior end of the common urogenital sinus
  • 8 open inferiorly to the cloaca and superiorly to the allantois
  • Septation of the claoca - divides the anterior region to the primordial bladder component from the posterior rectal component.
  • associated ureters and urethra

Dorsal view of developing bladder

  • Ultrasound measurement of the bladder size can be used as a diagnostic tool for developmental abnormalities.

Bladder Structure

Bladder histology

Can be described anatomically by its 4 layers from outside inward:

  • Serous - the superior or abdominal surfaces and the lateral" surfaces of the bladder are covered by visceral peritoneum, the serous membrane (serosa) of the abdominal cavity, consisting of mesthelium and elastic fibrous connective tissue.
  • Muscular - the detrusor muscle is the muscle of the urinary bladder wall.
  • Submucosa - connects the muscular layer with the mucous layer.
  • Mucosa - (mucus layer) a transitional epithelium layer formed into folds (rugae).

Detrusor Muscle

  • The adult detrusor muscle consists of three layers of smooth (involuntary) muscle fibres.
    • external layer - fibres arranged longitudinally
    • middle layer - fibres arranged circularly
    • internal layer - fibres arranged longitudinally

Ureter Development

  • The adult ureter is a thick-walled muscular tube, 25 - 30 cm in length, running from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
  • Anatomically can be described in two parts the abdominal part (pars abdominalis) and pelvic part (pars pelvina).
  • The ureter is composed of three layers: outer fibrous layer (tunica adventitia), muscular layer (tunica muscularis) and mucous layer (tunica mucosa).
  • The muscular layer can also be subdivided into 3 fibre layers: an external longitudinal, a middle circular, and an internal longitudinal.

Trigone Development

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Kidney Ascent

early fetal kidney
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 ‎‎Renal Vascular
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  • Pro-, Meso-, Meta- Early development descending
  • Metanephros - initially pelvic, beside aorta
  • Growth and straightening of body - Kidneys in abdomen and displace laterally

Renal Arteries

  • Arise with ascent and inferior branches lost
  • Sequential, 25% population have 2 or more renal arteries
  • branch of abdominal aorta, divides into 4-5 branches
    • each gives off small branches to suprarenal glands, ureter, surrounding cellular tissue and muscles

Note: Frequently a second renal artery (inferior renal) from abdominal aorta at a lower level, supplies lower portion of kidney

Abnormalities

Australian renal abnormalities

There are many different forms of renal development abnormalities associated with kidney, ureters, bladder and urethra. There are many genetic disorders associated with failure or abnormal renal development. Prenatal diagnosis of obstructive and renal agenesis/dysgenesis disorders are also important for early reproductive decisions by the parents. For example, with bilateral renal agenesis, failure of both kidneys to development, is not compatible with fetal/neonatal survival. Because of their close developmental association, often described as the urogenital system, there can be an associated genital abnormalities.


More detailed information is available on the links below.


Links: Renal Abnormalities | Genital Abnormalities

Horseshoe Kidney

Horseshoe kidney
  • fusion of the lower poles of the kidney.
  • During migration from the sacral region the two metanephric blastemas can come into contact, mainly at the lower pole.
  • The ureters pass in front of the zone of fusion of the kidneys.
  • The kidneys and ureters usually function adequately but there is an increased incidence of upper urinary tract obstruction or infection.
  • Some horseshoe variations have been described as having associated ureter abnormalities including duplications.

Urorectal Septum Malformation

  • thought to be a deficiency in caudal mesoderm which in turn leads to the malformation of the urorectal septum and other structures in the pelvic region.
  • Recent research has also identified the potential presence of a persistent urachus prior to septation of the cloaca (common urogenital sinus).

Bladder

  • absent or small bladder - associated with renal agenesis.

Bladder Exstrophy

Bladder_Exstrophy
  • developmental abnormality associated with bladder development.
  • origins appear to occur not just by abnormal bladder development, but by a congenital malformation of the ventral wall of abdomen (between umbilicus and pubic symphysis).
  • There may also be other anomolies associated with failure of closure of abdominal wall and bladder (epispadias, pubic bone anomolies).

Ureter and Urethra

  • Ureter - Duplex Ureter
  • Urethra- Urethral Obstruction and Hypospadias


Polycystic Kidney Disease

Multicystic kidney
  • diffuse cystic malformation of both kidneys
  • cystic malformations of liver and lung often associated, Often familial disposition
  • Two types
    • Infantile (inconsistent with prolonged survival)
    • Adult (less severe and allows survival)
  • Autosomal dominant PKD disease - recently identified at mutations in 2 different human genes encoding membrane proteins (possibly channels)

Wilms' Tumor

  • (nephroblastoma) Named after Max Wilms, a German doctor who wrote first medical articles 1899
  • most common type of kidney cancer children
  • WT1 gene - encodes a zinc finger protein
  • Both constitutional and somatic mutations disrupting the DNA-binding domain of WT1 result in a potentially dominant-negative phenotype
  • some blastema cells (mass of undifferentiated cells) persist to form a ‘nephrogenic rest’
  • Most rests become dormant or regress but others proliferate to form hyperplastic rests
  • any type of rest can then undergo a genetic or epigenetic change to become a neoplastic rest
  • can proliferate further to produce a benign lesion (adenomatous rest) or a malignant Wilms’ tumour


Prune Belly Syndrome

  • lower urinary tract obstruction
  • mainly male
  • fetal urinary system ruptures leading to collapse and "prune belly" appearance.

Renal Cysts

The Bosniak classification system (Category I - IV) was designed to separate identified cystic renal masses by analysis of computed tomography (CT) features into surgical and nonsurgical categories.[9] Named after Morton Bosniak, Yale University School of Medicine, the developer of this classification system.

Molecular

  • Foxd1 - (Brain Factor-2) transcription factor that is a renal stroma specific gene.


Links: OMIM Foxd1

References

  1. J R Nyengaard, T F Bendtsen Glomerular number and size in relation to age, kidney weight, and body surface in normal man. Anat. Rec.: 1992, 232(2);194-201 PubMed 1546799
  2. M F Schreuder, J Nauta Prenatal programming of nephron number and blood pressure. Kidney Int.: 2007, 72(3);265-8 PubMed 17495859
  3. Kun Xu, Xinyu Wu, Ellen Shapiro, Honging Huang, Lixia Zhang, Duane Hickling, Yan Deng, Peng Lee, Juan Li, Herbert Lepor, Irina Grishina Bmp7 functions via a polarity mechanism to promote cloacal septation. PLoS ONE: 2012, 7(1);e29372 PubMed 22253716
  4. Shaowei Chen, Xiao Yao, Yuwen Li, Zubaida Saifudeen, Dimcho Bachvarov, Samir S El-Dahr Histone deacetylase 1 and 2 regulate Wnt and p53 pathways in the ureteric bud epithelium. Development: 2015, 142(6);1180-92 PubMed 25758227
  5. Kun Xu, Xinyu Wu, Ellen Shapiro, Honging Huang, Lixia Zhang, Duane Hickling, Yan Deng, Peng Lee, Juan Li, Herbert Lepor, Irina Grishina Bmp7 functions via a polarity mechanism to promote cloacal septation. PLoS ONE: 2012, 7(1);e29372 PubMed 22253716
  6. Osman Sulak, Gülnur Ozgüner, Mehmet Ali Malas Size and location of the kidneys during the fetal period. Surg Radiol Anat: 2011, 33(5);381-8 PubMed 21110022
  7. Weibin Zhou, Rudrick C Boucher, Frank Bollig, Christoph Englert, Friedhelm Hildebrandt Characterization of mesonephric development and regeneration using transgenic zebrafish. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.: 2010, 299(5);F1040-7 PubMed 20810610
  8. Sahar N Saleem Fetal MRI: An approach to practice: A review. J Advanc Res: 2014, 5(5);507-23 PubMed 25685519 | J Adv Res.
  9. Gary M Israel, Morton A Bosniak How I do it: evaluating renal masses. Radiology: 2005, 236(2);441-50 PubMed 16040900 | Radiology

Textbooks

  • The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (8th Edition) by Keith L. Moore and T.V.N Persaud - Moore & Persaud Chapter 13 p303-346
  • Larsen’s Human Embryology by GC. Schoenwolf, SB. Bleyl, PR. Brauer and PH. Francis-West - Chapter 10 p261-306
  • Before We Are Born (5th ed.) Moore and Persaud Chapter14 p289-326
  • Essentials of Human Embryology, Larson Chapter 10 p173-205
  • Human Embryology, Fitzgerald and Fitzgerald Chapter 21-22 p134-152

Online Textbooks

Search Bookshelf intermediate mesoderm | kidney development | renal development | ureteric bud | nephron development | bladder development

Reviews

Peter Hohenstein, Kathy Pritchard-Jones, Jocelyn Charlton The yin and yang of kidney development and Wilms' tumors. Genes Dev.: 2015, 29(5);467-82 PubMed 25737276

Melissa Little, Kylie Georgas, David Pennisi, Lorine Wilkinson Kidney development: two tales of tubulogenesis. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol.: 2010, 90;193-229 PubMed 20691850

Gregory R Dressler Advances in early kidney specification, development and patterning. Development: 2009, 136(23);3863-74 PubMed 19906853

Odyssé Michos Kidney development: from ureteric bud formation to branching morphogenesis. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev.: 2009, 19(5);484-90 PubMed 19828308

Kimberly J Reidy, Norman D Rosenblum Cell and molecular biology of kidney development. Semin. Nephrol.: 2009, 29(4);321-37 PubMed 19615554

Susan E Quaggin, Jordan A Kreidberg Development of the renal glomerulus: good neighbors and good fences. Development: 2008, 135(4);609-20 PubMed 18184729

Andrea Brenner-Anantharam, Cristina Cebrian, Richard Guillaume, Romulo Hurtado, Tung-Tien Sun, Doris Herzlinger Tailbud-derived mesenchyme promotes urinary tract segmentation via BMP4 signaling. Development: 2007, 134(10);1967-75 PubMed 17442697

Forefronts Symposium on Nephrogenetics: from development to physiology March 8-11, 2007 Danvers, MA A meeting to synthesize an integrated view of the normal development and function of the kidney from the genetic standpoint.

Frank Costantini Renal branching morphogenesis: concepts, questions, and recent advances. Differentiation: 2006, 74(7);402-21 PubMed 16916378


Articles

Malin M Rhodin, Brian J Anderson, A Michael Peters, Malcolm G Coulthard, Barry Wilkins, Michael Cole, Etienne Chatelut, Anders Grubb, Gareth J Veal, Michael J Keir, Nick H G Holford Human renal function maturation: a quantitative description using weight and postmenstrual age. Pediatr. Nephrol.: 2009, 24(1);67-76 PubMed 18846389


Search PubMed

Search April 2010

  • Renal System Development - All (4837) Review (1505) Free Full Text (1079)
  • Renal Development - All (31984) Review (7014) Free Full Text (6564)

Search Pubmed: Renal System Development | Renal Development | intermediate mesoderm | kidney development | renal development | ureteric bud | nephron development | bladder development

Additional Images

Terms

bladder exstrophy - A congenital malformation with bladder open to ventral wall of abdomen (between umbilicus and pubic symphysis) and may have other anomolies associated with failure of closure of abdominal wall and bladder (epispadias, pubic bone anomolies).

blastema - Term used to describe a mass of undifferentiated cells. (More? Wilm's tumour)

diabetes insipidus - The disorder is related to the hormone antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also called vasopressin) its synthesis, secretion, receptors and signaling pathway. In diabetes insipidus there is an excretion of large amounts (up to 30 litres/day) of a watery urine and an unremitting thirst.

hydronephrosis - (congenital hydronephrosis, Greek, hydro = water) A kidney abnormality due to partial or complete obstruction at the pelvi-ureteric junction. This leads to a grossly dilated renal pelvis causing extensive renal damage before birth.

hyperplastic rests - In kidney development, embryonic blastema cells can persist and proliferate to form a pool of cells, which under either genetic or epigenetic influence can then change to become a neoplastic rest. Normally the majority of nephrogenic rests either regress or become dormant.

mesonephros - The second temporary stage of kidney development (pro-, meso-, meta-). The intermediate mesonephros develops and disappears with the exception of its duct, the mesonephric duct, which will form the male reproductive duct system. In males, the mesonephric tubules go on to form the ducts of the testis. In females, these degenerate. A few mesonephric tubules remain as efferent ductules in the male and vestigial remnants in the female.

mesonephric duct - (= Wollfian duct) An early developing urogenital duct running the length of the embryo that will differentiate and form the male reproductive duct system. In females this duct degenerates (some remnants may remain associated in broad ligament).

metanephros - The adult kidney, third stage of mammalian kidney (pro-, meso-, meta-) development within the intermediate mesoderm.

metanephric cap - In kidney development, the intermediate mesoderm which surrounds the ureteric bud and will develop into nephrons.

Multicystic Kidney - There is no functional kidney tissue present in the kidney and it is replaced by a multilocular cyst. This is non-familial and is produced by atresia of a ureter and is always unilateral.

neoplastic rest - In kidney development, a neoplastic rest can develop under either genetic or epigenetic influence from a hyperplastic rest, originating from an embryonic blastema cell. Normally the majority of nephrogenic rests either regress or become dormant.

nephrogenic rest - A kidney term used to describe the embryonic blastema cells which persist and under either genetic or epigenetic can change to become a neoplastic rest. These neoplastic rests can develop postnatally as a benign form (adenomatous rest) or a malignant Wilm's tumour form. The rests are further characterised by the time of generation leading to different anatomical kidney locations: early intralobar nephrogenic rests (within the renal lobe) and late pelilobar nephrogenic rests (periphery of the renal lobe) nephron - (Greek, nephros = kidney) The functional unit of the kidney.

nephros - (Greek, nephros = kidney) Term used to describe features associated with the kidney. (pronephros, mesonephros, metanephros, nephric, nephron, nephroblastoma).

podocyte - (visceral epithelial cell) kidney glomerulus cell forming the main component of the glomerular filtration barrier.

podocyte specific proteins - podocalyxin, glomerular epithelial protein-1, podocin, nephrin, synaptopodin, and alpha-actinin-4), podocyte synthesized proteins (vascular endothelial growth factor and novH), transcription factors (WT1 and PAX2).

pronephros - (Greek, pro = before) The first temporary stage of kidney development (pro-, meso-, meta-). This forms the kidney of primitive fish and lower vertebrates. Kidney development occurs within the intermediate mesoderm interacting with endoderm. In humans, this very rudimentary kidney forms very early at the level of the neck. It is rapidly replaced by the mesonephros, intermediate stage kidney, differentiating in mesoderm beneath.

proteinuria - The abnormal presence of protein in the urine and an indicator of diesease including diabetic kidney disease (DKD, diabetic nephropathy).

renal - (Latin, renes = kidney) Term used in relation to the kidney and associated structures (renal pelvis, renal artery)

ureter - The two ureters are hollow tubes that link and carries urine from kidney to the bladder. The tubes have a muscular wall lined with transitional epithelium.

urethra - The single muscular tube that links and carries urine from the bladder to the exterior. In humans, the urethral length differs between the sexes (male longer, female shorter).

urinary - Term used to describe all components of the kidney system including the bladder, ureters and urethra.

urine - Term used to describe the liquid waste produced by the kidney, stored in the bladder and excreted from teh body through the urethra.

urorectal septum - (URS) The structure which develops to separate the cloaca (common urogenital sinus) into an anterior urinary part and a posterior rectal part.

Wilms' tumour - A form of kidney/renal cancer (nephroblastoma) named after Dr Max Wilms who first described the tumor. This childhood kidney cancer is caused by the inactivation of a tumour suppressor gene (BRCA2) or Wilms tumor-1 gene (Wt1) and is one of the most common solid tumors of childhood, occurring in 1 in 10,000 children and accounting for 8% of childhood cancers. Wt1 also required at early stages of gonadal development. (More? OMIM - Wilm's tumour | Dr Max Wilms)

Wilms' tumor 1-associating protein - (WTAP) protein expressed in extraembryonic tissues and required for the formation of embryonic mesoderm and endoderm.

Wolffian duct - (= mesonephric duct, preferred terminology), runs from the mesonephros to cloaca, differentiates to form the male vas deferens and in the female regresses. Named after Caspar Friedrich Wolff (1733-1794), a German scientist and early embryology researcher and is said to have established the doctrine of germ layers. (More? Caspar Friedrich Wolff)

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2016) Embryology Renal System Development. Retrieved February 8, 2016, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Renal_System_Development

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© Dr Mark Hill 2016, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G