Cardiovascular System - Coronary Circulation Development
|Embryology - 9 Dec 2018 Expand to Translate|
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- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Coronary Vessel Anatomy
- 4 Human Coronary Vessel Development
- 5 Mouse Coronary Vessel Development
- 6 Abnormalities
- 6.1 Anomalous Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery
- 6.2 Anomalous Right Coronary Artery from the Left Sinus
- 6.3 Anomalous Single Coronary Artery from the left sinus of Valsalva
- 6.4 Ectopic Origin of the Right Coronary Artery
- 6.5 Anomalous Sinus Node Artery
- 6.6 Congenital Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm
- 7 References
- 8 Additional Images
- 9 External Links
- 10 Glossary Links
The coronary circulation provides the blood supply to the heart required for the normal muscular function. From recent mouse studies, the origin of this specialised vasculature is from the sinus venosus.
Development of the heart and vascular system begins very early in mesoderm both within (embryonic) and outside (extra embryonic) the embryo. Vascular development therefore occurs in many places, the most obvious though is the inflow and outflow in the forming heart, which grows rapidly creating an externally obvious cardiac "bulge" on the early embryo.
The coronary circulation an important medical topic postnatally. Blockage and failure of this system leads initially to angina, continued ischemia leads to hypoxic death of cardiac muscle and myocardial infarction, a heart attack.
For general information about blood vessel development, see Blood Vessel Development and note that blood vessels also occurs outside the embryo in the extra-embryonic mesoderm of the yolk sac (vitelline) and in the villi of the placenta.
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Fabio Da Silva, Filippo Massa, Fariba Jian Motamedi, Valerie Vidal, Ana Sofia Rocha, Elodie P Gregoire, Chen-Leng Cai, Kay Dietrich Wagner, Andreas Schedl Myocardial-specific R-spondin3 drives proliferation of the coronary stems primarily through the Leucine Rich Repeat G Protein coupled receptor LGR4. Dev. Biol.: 2018; PubMed 29859889
Alexandros P Patrianakos, Adam Hatzidakis, Maria Marketou, Fragiskos I Parthenakis Adult-type ALCAPA syndrome: A rare coronary artery anomaly. Echocardiography: 2018, 35(7);1056-1059 PubMed 29749648
Parag Bhalgat, Abhijeet Naik, Prasanna Salvi, Nilesh Bhadane, Kshiti Shah, Bhawan Paunipagar, Suresh Joshi Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, myocardial scar and coronary flow pattern in anomalous origin of left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. Indian Heart J: 2016, 70(2);303-307 PubMed 29716711
Kahraman Yakut, Kürşad Tokel, Birgül Varan, İlkay Erdoğan, Murat Özkan [Case report and the surgical treatment of two cases with pulmonary atresia in which pulmonary arteries is circulated by coronary arteries]. [Pulmoner arter kanlanması koroner arterler yoluyla olan pulmoner atrezili iki olgu sunumu ve cerrahi tedavisi.] Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars: 2018, 46(3);216-220 PubMed 29664428
Ch Bharat Siddharth, Mayank Yadav, Amol Bhoje, Milind P Hote Dual drainage total anomalous pulmonary venous connection: a rare mixed variant. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann: 2018, 26(4);305-307 PubMed 29649881
Coronary Vessel Anatomy
| Three aortic sinuses, or sinuses of Valsalva, are the left, right and posterior that give rise to the two coronary arteries, the posterior aortic sinus is the non-coronary sinus.
Human Coronary Vessel Development
An early research paper identified development of the coronary arteries in the embryonic human heart using embryos from the Carnegie Collection.
- six sinuses of the embryonic great arteries
- Carnegie Embryological Collection coronary vasculature in 351 staged, serially sectioned human embryos (Carnegie stages 9 to 23).
stage 18 - connection of the proximal coronary arteries to the aorta.
Mouse Coronary Vessel Development
Image showing changes in venous (blue) and arterial (red) marker expression during coronary development; black indicates dedifferentiated venous cells.
There are several abnormalities associated with the anatomical variation in vascular pattern of vessels including abnormal origins and absence.
The image shows a human coronary sinus defect as viewed from the left atrial aspect.
There is a persistent left superior caval vein (SCV) opening to the leftward and cranial margin of the left atrium. The caval vein would normally have been incorporated into the left atrioventricular groove, but the walls which would normally extend to its opening to the right atrium (black dotted lines) have disappeared. Note the integrity of the oval fossa.
Anomalous Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery
Anomalous origin of left coronary artery from pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare malformation (incidence of 0.25–0.50% )in children with abnormal cardiac development leading to a mortality rate of 90% in unoperated infants. There are a variety of surgical repair techniques including: direct aortic implantation, a modified tubular extension technique, and an intrapulmonary baffling technique.
Anomalous Right Coronary Artery from the Left Sinus
Anomalous Single Coronary Artery from the left sinus of Valsalva
This abnormality has been reported as occurring with an absence of the right coronary artery. 
Ectopic Origin of the Right Coronary Artery
The right coronary artery arises outside the borders of the right coronary sinus, the most common locations are the left sinus (either the anterior, superior portion) or directly from the left main coronary artery. Anterior displacement is the most prevalent anatomical variant. Also very rarely arising from other anatomical locations including; the non-coronary (posterior) sinus, left anterior descending coronary artery, left circumflex coronary artery, pulmonic artery, and the descending aorta. Clinically seen as cardiac ischemia and arrhythmia.
Anomalous Sinus Node Artery
The sinus node artery normally originates from the proximal segment of the right coronary artery, left circumflex artery, or from both. With anomalous sinus node artery this vessel can originate from the left anterior descending artery.
Congenital Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm
This aneurysm, a blood-filled dilatation, arises due to a localized weakness of the wall of the sinus bulging that may rupture into an adjacent cardiac chamber, forming an aortocardiac fistula.
- Bikram Sharma, Andrew Chang, Kristy Red-Horse Coronary Artery Development: Progenitor Cells and Differentiation Pathways. Annu. Rev. Physiol.: 2017, 79;1-19 PubMed 27959616
- Diane E Spicer, Deborah J Henderson, Bill Chaudhry, Timothy J Mohun, Robert H Anderson The anatomy and development of normal and abnormal coronary arteries. Cardiol Young: 2015, 25(8);1493-1503 PubMed 26675596
- Kristy Red-Horse, Hiroo Ueno, Irving L Weissman, Mark A Krasnow Coronary arteries form by developmental reprogramming of venous cells. Nature: 2010, 464(7288);549-53 PubMed 20336138
- Nynke M S van den Akker, Vincenza Caolo, Lambertus J Wisse, Patricia P W M Peters, Robert E Poelmann, Peter Carmeliet, Daniël G M Molin, Adriana C Gittenberger-de Groot Developmental coronary maturation is disturbed by aberrant cardiac vascular endothelial growth factor expression and Notch signalling. Cardiovasc. Res.: 2008, 78(2);366-75 PubMed 18093989
- G M Hutchins, A Kessler-Hanna, G W Moore Development of the coronary arteries in the embryonic human heart. Circulation: 1988, 77(6);1250-7 PubMed 3286038
- K M Cherian, S Bharati, S G Rao Surgical correction of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. J Card Surg: 1994, 9(4);386-91 PubMed 7949665
- Tiina Ojala, Jukka Salminen, Juha-Matti Happonen, Jaana Pihkala, Eero Jokinen, Heikki Sairanen Excellent functional result in children after correction of anomalous origin of left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery--a population-based complete follow-up study. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg: 2010, 10(1);70-5 PubMed 19808708 | Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg.
- Tanyanan Tanawuttiwat, Tasma Harindhanavudhi, Dinker Trivedi Anomalous single coronary artery with absent right coronary artery diagnosed with the aid of 64-slice multidetector computed tomographic angiography. Tex Heart Inst J: 2009, 36(4);362-3 PubMed 19693319 PMC2720291
- Pallavi Solanki, Christine Gerula, Preet Randhawa, Michael Benz, James Maher, Bunyad Haider, Marc Klapholz, Jack Palmaro, Diane Alfano, Edo Kaluski Right coronary artery anatomical variants: where and how? J Invasive Cardiol: 2010, 22(3);103-6 PubMed 20197575 | J Invasive Cardiol.
Bikram Sharma, Andrew Chang, Kristy Red-Horse Coronary Artery Development: Progenitor Cells and Differentiation Pathways. Annu. Rev. Physiol.: 2017, 79;1-19 PubMed 27959616
Diane E Spicer, Deborah J Henderson, Bill Chaudhry, Timothy J Mohun, Robert H Anderson The anatomy and development of normal and abnormal coronary arteries. Cardiol Young: 2015, 25(8);1493-1503 PubMed 26675596
Search Pubmed: Coronary Circulation Development
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, December 9) Embryology Cardiovascular System - Coronary Circulation Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Cardiovascular_System_-_Coronary_Circulation_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G