Australian Statistics

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Contents

Introduction

Australia

This page links to the current online resources available to explore Australian population and birth data. The Australian Bureau of Statistics has detailed demographical information about the Australian population.

  • Population size about 24 million (0.33% of the world), is listed as 52 and is about that of North Korea, Mozambique or Taiwan. Note that it used to be (2014) about that of Romania which has recently declined.
  • Population density by country is listed 236 (3.14/km²) about that of Iceland (3.24/km²).


Over the last 30 years there has been a decrease in teenage women having children, with most women now have children when they are older (28-31 age), but older women (40+) are also decreasing. The births text excerpt below is an analysis of birth trends this century in Australia from Australia Now (ABS).


A separate body, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) National Perinatal Statistics Unit, also keeps accurate Australia-wide statistics on birth related issues including assisted reproductive technologies and major congenital malformations in Australia.


Medical Undergraduate discussion of this data occurs in the BGD Tutorial - Applied Embryology and Teratology.


Statistics Links: Introduction | Reports | World Population | World Fertility | World Infant Mortality | Maternal Mortality | Australia | Brazil | Canada | China | Germany | India | Indonesia | Europe | Myanmar | Netherlands | Spain | United Kingdom | Romania | Uganda | United States | Australia’s mothers and babies - 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | Abnormal Development - Australian Statistics | BGD Tutorial - Applied Embryology and Teratology | AIHW National Perinatal Statistics Unit | Category:Statistics
Australian Population Clock - 24,317,037  

2 January 2017

  • one birth every 1 minute and 40 seconds,
  • one death every 3 minutes and 17 seconds,
  • a net gain of one international migration every 2 minutes and 25 seconds, leading to
  • an overall total population increase of one person every 1 minute and 24 seconds.
  • 21 July 2016 - 24,135,203
  • 23 January 2014 - 23,360,679

(These assumptions are consistent with figures released in Australian Demographic Statistics, June Quarter 2016 (cat. no. 3101.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics Population Clock

Assisted Reproductive Technology

2017

Report - Health expenditure Australia 2015–16

  • Australia total spending on health in was $170.4 billion in 2015-16[1]
  • $6.0 billion (3.6%) higher in real terms than in 2014-15.
  • Due to low GDP growth, health’s share of GDP has risen to 10.3%.
Link: AIHW Dynamic Report page
Australia - insulin-treated diabetes by type 2015
Australia - insulin-treated diabetes by type 2015

Incidence of insulin-treated diabetes in Australia 2015

This fact sheet published in 2017[2] provides the latest available national data on new cases of insulin-treated diabetes in Australia.

It shows that in 2015 there were 28,775 people who began using insulin to treat their diabetes in Australia:

  • 63% had type 2 diabetes
  • 26% (18,142) had gestational diabetes
  • 9% had type 1 diabetes
  • 2% had other forms of diabetes or their diabetes status was unknown.

In 2015, 7,405 women began using insulin to manage gestational diabetes—130 cases per 100,000 women of reproductive age (15–49 years), or around 1 in every 800 women aged 15–49. This represents almost 1 in 4 (24%) women diagnosed with gestational diabetes aged 15–49 in 2015.

Gestational diabetes occurs when higher than normal blood glucose is diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy. It generally occurs in the second or third trimester, among women who have not previously been diagnosed with other forms of diabetes.


Links: AIWH Factsheet

NSW Mothers and Babies 2015 Report

New South Wales Mothers and Babies 2015 cover
New South Wales Mothers and Babies 2015
NSW Perinatal Data Collection form
NSW Perinatal Data Collection form

NSW is one of the largest states in Australia by population. The New South Wales Perinatal Data Collection (PDC) is a population-based surveillance system covering all births in NSW public and private hospitals, as well as home births. It encompasses all live births, and stillbirths of at least 20 weeks gestation or at least 400 grams birth weight.[3]

  • The number of births in NSW fell from 97,245 in 2011 to 96,391 in 2015, an overall decrease of 0.9%.
  • The percentage of mothers who were teenagers fell from 3.2% in 2011 to 2.5% in 2015.
  • The rate of normal vaginal birth decreased from 56.9% in 2011 to 56.0% in 2015.
  • Operative and instrumental births were more common among privately than publicly insured mothers.
  • The proportion of mothers reporting any smoking during pregnancy declined from 11.1% in 2011 to 8.9% in 2015.
  • In 2015, the majority of mothers planned to give birth in a hospital labour ward, and 2.5% of mothers planned to give birth in a birth centre.
    • Eighty-seven per cent of mothers who planned to give birth in a birth centre actually did so.
    • There were 187 homebirths in NSW reported in 2015.
  • In 2015, 7.9% of babies were born prematurely (less than 37 weeks gestation), a slight increase from 7.5% in 2011.
  • Since 2011, the rate of low birth weight (less than 2,500 grams) has remained stable, ranging from 6.1% to 6.6%.
    • The rate of low birth weight was 6.6% in 2015.
  • Between 2011 and 2015, the reported number of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander mothers giving birth increased from 2,975 to 3,823, an increase from 3.1% to 4.0% of all mothers.
  • The percentage of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander mothers who were teenagers fell from 19.0% in 2011 to 15.4% in 2015.
  • In 2015, 45.0% of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander mothers reported smoking at some time during pregnancy.
  • Since 2011, rates of low birth weight and prematurity in Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander babies has been over 11%. In 2015, 11.3% of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander babies were low birth weight and 12.7% were premature.
  • The perinatal mortality rate of 9.6 per 1,000 births in Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander mothers in 2015 is higher than the rate of 8.1 per 1,000 births experienced among babies born to non-Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander mothers.


Links: NSW Health Link page | Report PDF

2016

Australia's mothers and babies 2014

Australia's mothers and babies 2014[4]
  • In 2014, 307,844 women gave birth in Australia—an increase of 18% since 2004 (252,871)[4]
  • The rate of women giving birth increased from 59 per 1,000 women of reproductive age (15–44 years) in 2004 to 63 per 1,000 in 2014.
  • The average age of all women who gave birth continues to rise and was 30.2 in 2014,
  • The proportion of mothers aged 35 and over has increased from 20% in 2004 to 22% in 2014.
  • The proportion of mothers aged under 25 has decreased from 19% to 16%.
  • There were 312,548 babies born in 2014—an increase of 18% since 2004.

Australian Burden of Disease Study 2011

There were 4.5 million years lost to premature death or living with illness in Australia in 2011. This was based on an analyses of the impact of nearly 200 diseases and injuries in terms of their fatal and non-fatal burden for the Australian population. Most of the burden was from chronic diseases and injuries. [5]

Five disease groups that caused the most burden:

  1. cancer (19%)
  2. cardiovascular diseases (15%)
  3. mental and substance use disorders (12%)
  4. musculoskeletal conditions (12%)
  5. injuries (9%).

Chronic diseases accounted for 61% of the total burden. At the specific disease level, coronary heart disease, other musculoskeletal conditions, back pain and problems, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer caused the most burden.

National Core Maternity Indicators stage 3 and 4 results from 2010–2013

(19 Jul 2016)

"The National Core Maternity Indicators (NCMIs) present information on measures of clinical activity and outcomes between 2004 and 2013. The purpose of the NCMIs is to monitor the safety and quality of maternity care to ensure that there is continual improvement in the quality of maternity services following the introduction of the National Maternity Services Plan (AHMC 2011). This report covers 10 indicators previously reported and 2 new indicators. Data are presented by jurisdiction, at the national level by hospital annual number of births, hospital sector, and mother's Indigenous status. Some indicators are presented by remoteness, disadvantage quintile and other disaggregations where relevant. From the 12 indicators, the following observations can be made."[6]

Antenatal period 2013:

  • fewer than 1 in 8 women (34,000 or 11.2%) smoked in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy
    • a decrease from 12.7% in 2011, and around one-quarter quit smoking after the first 20 weeks of pregnancy.
  • around 26,000 (73.6%) women who previously reported smoking continued to smoke after the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, an increase from 2011.
  • proportion of women receiving antenatal care in the first trimester remained steady.

During labour and birth:

  • first-time mothers for whom labour was induced increased by 5 percentage points from 31.1% in 2004 to 36.1% in 2013.
    • may reflect increasing maternal age and the pre-existing medical conditions that may have prevented the spontaneous onset of labour.
  • 2004 to 2013 - rate of unassisted vaginal births decreased while assisted vaginal births increased.
  • 2013 - one-fifth of women (almost 11,000 or 18.4%) received an episiotomy in an unassisted birth an increase of 2.2 percentage points from 16.2% in 2004.
    • around two-thirds of women (around 21,000 or 69.6%) received an episiotomy in an assisted birth, an increase of 8.9% percentage points from 60.7% in 2004.
  • rate of caesarean sections in first-time mothers increased from 25.3% in 2004 to 27.5%
    • in 2013 an increase of 2.2 percentage points - consistent with increasing trends observed in other developed countries.
  • around 1 in 8 women (about 3,400 or 13.5%) had a second birth vaginally after having their first birth by caesarean section
    • an increase of 0.4 percentage points from 13.1% in 2007.

Birth outcomes 2013:

  • 1.3% of babies (3,800) had an Apgar score of less than 7 at 5 minutes, an increase of 0.4 percentage points from 0.9% in 2004
    • may be associated with maternal risk factors such as increasing maternal age and increasing maternal obesity.
  • decrease in the proportion of small babies born at or after term by 0.5% from 2.1 percentage points in 2004 to 1.6% in 2013.


Links: AIHW report page

Poisoning in children and young people 2012–13

"almost half (49%) of all cases occurred among 18-24 year olds, and a quarter among 15-17 year olds (26%). The highest rate of poisoning by pharmaceuticals was seen in 15–17 year old girls (589 cases per 100,000)."[6]

Links: Abnormal Development - Drugs
Folic acid and iodine fortification (2016)

Monitoring the health impacts of mandatory folic acid and iodine fortification 2016

Decrease in neural tube defects since folic acid added to bread[7]

  • Mandatory fortification of bread with folic acid (in Australia) and iodine (in Australia and New Zealand) was introduced in 2009
  • Overall decrease in the rate of neural tube defects (NTDs) by 14.4%
  • Teenagers the rate of NTDs decreased by almost 55%
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women the rate of NTDs decreased by 74%
Links: Folic Acid and Neural Tube Defects | Iodine Deficiency

Nursing and midwifery workforce 2015 Report

  • Total number of all nurses and midwives registered in Australia increased from 330,680 in 2011 to 360,008 in 2015 (8.9%).
  • in 2015, 91.9% of all registered nurses and midwives were in the nursing and midwifery workforce (331,015).
    • 8,930 were looking for work in nursing and midwifery, down from 9,110 in 2014.
  • In 2015, the overall supply of employed nurses and midwives was 1,138 full-time equivalents or FTEs for every 100,000 people.
    • This compares with the figure of 1,107 FTEs per 100,000 in 2011.
  • In 2011 and 2015, there were more employed nurses and midwives in the 50-54 year age group than any other age group.
    • The proportion aged 50 and over grew from 38.3% in 2011 to 39.0% in 2015. The proportion in 2014 was 39.4%."
Links: Nursing and midwifery workforce

Pertussis NSW

Pertussis - (whooping cough) There has been a recent significant increase in the total number of pertussis (whooping cough) notifications in NSW.
NSW Pertussis Notification Graph (2012-16)
NSW Pertussis Notification Graph (2012-16)
Links: Postnatal - Infectious Diseases School Exclusion | Bacterial Infection | Neonatal Development

2015

New cases of breast cancer by histology type and age group (Australia, 2009)

Breast cancer in young women

26 Oct 2015 Key facts about breast cancer in women in their 20s and 30s[8]

  • In 2015, it is projected that 795 young women will be diagnosed with breast cancer and 65 will die from this disease.
    • On average, this is more than 2 breast cancers diagnosed every day and more than 1 death every week.
  • most commonly diagnosed cancer for women aged 20 to 39 and is associated with poorer survival outcomes.
    • for women aged 40 and over, 40 new cases per day and 57 deaths per week-breast cancer.
  • Overall, 5-year relative survival is significantly lower in younger women, who had an 88% chance of surviving for 5 years in 2007-2011 compared with the 5-year relative survival rate for women aged 40 and over of 90%. However, the 5-year relative survival rate has improved for young women, from 72% in 1982-1986 to 88% in 2007-2011.


Links: Mammary Gland Development

Prevalence of type 1 diabetes among children aged 0–14 in Australia 2013

Prevalence of type 1 diabetes among children aged 0–14 in Australia 2013

[9]

Type 1 diabetes is a non-preventable lifelong autoimmune disease, which is most commonly diagnosed in children. It is a difficult condition to manage, and if left untreated or improperly managed, can lead to many health complications or death.

Ongoing, regular monitoring of type 1 diabetes is essential to improve Australia's ability to respond to this important health problem.

  • In 2013, 6,091 children aged 0-14 had type 1 diabetes in Australia-representing 139 cases per 100,000 population, or about 1 in every 720 children in that age group.
  • Rates of type 1 diabetes were similar for both boys and girls.
  • Rates for children aged 10-14 were twice as high (278 cases per 100,000 population) as for children aged 5-9 (123 per 100,000), and more than 10 times as high as for children aged 0-4 (27 per 100,000).
  • The Northern Territory had the lowest prevalence of type 1 diabetes in children (50 cases per 100,000 population), while Tasmania had the highest (166 per 100,000).
  • Children living in Remote and very remote areas had the lowest prevalence of type 1 diabetes (82 cases per 100,000 population) compared with all other areas in Australia (where rates varied between 133 and 169 cases per 100,000 population).
  • The prevalence of type 1 diabetes among children was relatively similar across socioeconomic groups.
  • There were 167 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children with type 1 diabetes-equating to 69 cases per 100,000 Indigenous children, or 1 in almost 1,500.
  • Just over 2 in 5 children (43%) with type 1 diabetes used a pump to administer insulin.


Links: Endocrine - Pancreas Development | Immune System Development | Diabetes Australia - Type 1 Diabetes

Health expenditure Australia 2013-14

Health expenditure Australia 2013-14[10]

  • Total expenditure on health was estimated at $154.6 billion in 2013-14, up by 3.1% on 2012-13 in real terms. Growth in expenditure per person was $6,639, which was $94 more in real terms than in 2012-13. Despite this relatively slow growth, total expenditure was 9.8% of GDP in 2013-14, up from 9.7% in 2012-13.
  • Governments provided $104.8 billion (or 67.8%) of total health expenditure, which represented about 25% of taxation revenue (unchanged from 2012-13).
  • The non-government sector share of total expenditure increased from 30.0% in 2011-12 to 32.2% in 2013-14, despite generally falling throughout the decade. Funding by individuals was the fastest growing area of non-government sector expenditure over the decade.

Australian health-care structure and funding.jpg

Australian Health-care Structure and Funding[10]

2014

December

Australia’s mothers and babies (2012) cover

Australia’s mothers and babies 2012

This data summarised below is provided to help you as a clinician or researcher understand the current trends in reproductive medicine within Australia.

The information is based upon data from the publication "Australia's mothers and babies 2012"[11] and is provided for educational purposes only. The original full publication is available online from AIHW Perinatal statistics series no. 69.

In 2012, 307,474 women gave birth to 312,153 babies in Australia. This was an increase of 10,343 births (3.4%) from that reported in 2011, and a total increase of 21.5% since 2003. Nationally, the proportion of teenage mothers (younger than 20) declined from 3.7% in 2011 to 3.6% in 2011, compared with 4.6% in 2003.

Mothers

  • The average maternal age in 2012 was 30.1 compared with 29.5 in 2003. Approximately 42% of women were having their first baby and the average age of first-time mothers was 28.4. Of all first-time mothers in 2012, 14% were aged 35 or older compared with 12% in 2003. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) was used by 4% of women who gave birth in the 5 jurisdictions for which data on ART were available.

Baby outcomes

  • In 2012, 9% of babies were born pre-term (before 37 completed weeks of gestation) and 0.6% post-term (42 weeks gestation or more). Overall, 6% of liveborn babies were of low birthweight (less than 2,500 grams) and this doubled (12%) among mothers who smoked during pregnancy. One in 5 (20%) babies received some form of resuscitation at birth, although almost half (49%) received only suction or oxygen therapy.

November

Australian low birth weight table 2008–2009
Australian low birth weight (2008–2009)[12]

Health indicators for Remote Service Delivery communities: a summary report.[12]

This report provides information on antenatal care, live births, low birthweight babies, hospitalisations (all and selected causes), disability, mortality, child protection, juvenile justice, alcohol and other drug use and aged care for 29 remote Indigenous communities. Where possible, data are presented at the jurisdictional and national level, and time series data provided for comparison. This information was compiled to inform an evaluation of the National Partnership Agreement on Remote Service Delivery (NPA RSD), conducted in 2013.

"Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women have a higher overall fertility rate and teenage fertility rate than non-Indigenous women. The teenage fertility rate is an indicator of the health and wellbeing of mothers and children. Babies born to teenage mothers are more likely to be of low birth weight. Teenage pregnancy has also been associated with lower educational attainment, high unemployment, greater welfare dependency and lower levels of social and emotional wellbeing for both mothers and children."
Links:Birth Weight

August

Gestational diabetes in a rural, regional centre in south Western Australia: predictors of risk[13]

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common antenatal complication in Western Australia. Rural areas may be at greater risk due to poorer socioeconomic status, reduced healthcare access, increased obesity and greater Aboriginal population. This paper reviews the prevalence and risk factors of GDM and outcomes for pregnancies in a regional rural centre, with a view to predicting the risk of GDM in this population, given factors identified early in the pregnancy. ...Of 1645 women delivered at BRH in the study period, nine had pre-existing diabetes and were excluded. A further 73 (4.46%) developed GDM in the current pregnancy. ...These results confirm the known association of GDM with age; obesity, lower socioeconomic quintile and Asian ethnicity are also present in the rural population. The absence of association with Aboriginal ethnicity was not expected and is discussed.


Links: Maternal Diabetes

Maternal deaths in Australia 2006-2010[14]

Over the five years 2006-2010, there were 99 maternal deaths in Australia according to the report, Maternal deaths in Australia 2006-2010. This equates to a rate of 6.8 deaths per 100,000 women who gave birth in Australia. While lower than the rates for the previous three year reporting period 2003-2005 (8.4 deaths per 100,000 women who gave birth), and 2000-2002 (11.1 deaths per 100,000 women who gave birth), trends should be interpreted with caution due to the small numbers and the rare occurrence of these deaths.

In 2006-2010 there were 39 direct maternal deaths and 57 indirect deaths. Three deaths were not able to be classified as direct or indirect.

  • leading causes of direct maternal death included embolism (a blockage of major blood vessels) caused by amniotic fluid (accounting for 9 deaths) or blood clot (8), and haemorrhage (7).
  • leading cause of indirect maternal death was cardiac disease (15 deaths), followed by deaths due to psychosocial morbidity (related to mental health and substance abuse issues) (13 deaths).
  • women who died were aged between 17 and 45 years, with women aged over 40 being at higher risk of maternal death.
  • A higher number of previous pregnancies was also associated with increased risk, as was residing in Remote or Very remote areas.
  • Indigenous women were about three times as likely to die as non-Indigenous women, with a maternal mortality rate of 16.4 deaths per 100,000 women giving birth (9 deaths).
  • Sepsis and cardiac conditions have been the leading causes of maternal death among Indigenous women over the period 1997 to 2010.


Links: Maternal Mortality

June

Birthweight percentiles by gestational age for births following assisted reproductive technology in Australia and New Zealand, 2002-2010[15]

What is the standard of birthweight for gestational age for babies following assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment? A total of 69 315 births (35 580 males and 33 735 females) following ART treatment were analysed for the birthweight percentile. Exact percentiles of birthweight in grams were calculated for each gestational week between Week 25 and 42 for fresh and thaw cycles by infant sex. Univariate analysis was used to determine the exact birthweight percentile values. Student t-test was used to examine the mean birthweight difference between male and female infants, between single embryo transfer (SET) and double embryo transfer (DET) and between fresh and thaw cycles.

Preterm births (birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation) and low birthweight (<2500 g) were reported for 9.7 and 7.0% of live born singletons following ART treatment. The mean birthweight was 3280 g for live born singletons following fresh cycles (3338 g for male infants and 3217 for female infants) and 3413 g for live born singletons following thaw cycles (3475 g for male infants and 3349 for female infants).

The comparison of birthweight percentile charts for ART births and general population births provide evidence that the proportion of SGA births following ART treatment was comparable to the general population for SET fresh cycles and significantly lower for thaw cycles. Both fresh and thaw cycles showed better outcomes for singleton births following SET compared with DET. Policies to promote single embryo transfer should be considered in order to minimize the adverse perinatal outcomes associated with ART treatment.

Links: Assisted Reproductive Technology | Birth Weight

2013

December

Pregnancy And Neonatal Diabetes Outcomes in Remote Australia (PANDORA) Study[16]

"Diabetes in pregnancy carries an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes for both the mother and foetus, but it also provides an excellent early opportunity for intervention in the life course for both mother and baby. In the context of the escalating epidemic of chronic diseases among Indigenous Australians, it is vital that this risk is reduced as early as possible in the life course of the individual. The aims of the PANDORA Study are to: (i) accurately assess rates of diabetes in pregnancy in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia, where 38% of babies are born to Indigenous mothers; (ii) assess demographic, clinical, biochemical, anthropometric, socioeconomic and early life development factors that may contribute to key maternal and neonatal birth outcomes associated with diabetes in pregnancy; and (iii) monitor relevant post-partum clinical outcomes for both the mothers and their babies."
Links: Maternal Diabetes

March

National Core Maternity Indicators (data for 2004 through to 2009) - "Mixed trends for maternity indicators"

  • higher proportion of women (80%) attending antenatal care during the first trimester.
  • proportion of babies born weighing less than 2,750 grams at or after 40 weeks fell from 2.1% to 1.8% (indicates that very few exceptionally small babies are being missed during antenatal screening for poor fetal growth)
  • episiotomy dropped from 16.2% to 15.1% for women giving birth without instruments.
  • Rates of smoking in pregnancy in Australia also dropped-from 16.7% to 14.5%.
  • induction, caesarean section and instrumental vaginal birth rates increased over the period among most groups of women.
  • normal vaginal birth rates decreased proportionately.

2012

Data from Australia's health[17]

Health

  • Life expectancy has increased dramatically over the last century and continues to increase. A boy born in 2008–2010 can expect to live 79.5 years and a girl 84.0 years.
  • Life expectancy at birth for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people is much lower than for non-Indigenous Australians—12 years lower for boys and 10 years for girls.

Fertility

  • Fertility rates differ among women of different backgrounds. Indigenous women, women from areas of low socioeconomic status, and women with lower educational qualifications have higher fertility rates than the general female population.
  • Australian clinics performed more than 65,000 assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment cycles in 2009, an increase of 15% since 2008 and almost 50% since 2005. This represents about 3% of all women who gave birth in Australia in 2009.

Mothers and babies

  • The age at which women are giving birth continues to rise: in 2009 the average age of all women who gave birth was 30.0 years, compared with 29.0 in 2000. This mainly reflects an increasing proportion of older mothers (aged 35 and over) giving birth.
  • Low birthweight is a key determinant of a baby’s subsequent survival and health. In 2009, the proportion of babies born with low birthweight was twice as high for women who reported smoking in pregnancy as for women who did not.

Australian Bureau Statistics 2011

Australian Births 2001-2011
Australia's mothers and babies 2011

Births

  • "There were 301,617 births registered in Australia in 2011, approximately 3,700 (1.2%) more than the number registered in 2010 (297,903). Just over half (51%) of all births registered in 2011 were male babies, resulting in a sex ratio at birth of 105.7 male births per 100 female births."
  • "The median age of all mothers for births registered in 2011 was 30.6 years, while the median age of fathers was 33.0 years."
  • "There were 17,621 births (6% of all births) registered in Australia during 2011 where at least one parent reported themselves as being an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander on the birth registration form."

Fertility

  • "In 2011, Australia's total fertility rate (TFR) was 1.88 babies per woman, down very slightly from the 2010 TFR of 1.89 babies per woman. Since 1976, the total fertility rate for Australia has been below replacement level. That is, the average number of babies born to a woman throughout her reproductive life (measured by the TFR) has been insufficient to replace herself and her partner. The TFR required for replacement is currently considered to be around 2.1 babies per woman. The TFR reached a low of 1.73 babies per woman in 2001 before increasing to a thirty-year high of 1.96 babies per woman in 2008."
  • "The median age of first-time mothers in 2011 was 28.9 years, 62% of whom were married at the time of giving birth."

Birth Statistics

Australian Births by Year

This recent data summarised below from Australia's mothers and babies 2007[18] and 2008[19] is provided to help you as a clinician and researcher understand the current trends in reproductive medicine within Australia. Also see recent general population data in Australian Statistics.

Mothers

Australian Public Health Activities (2007-08)
  • 2007 289,496 women gave birth to 294,205 babies
  • 2008 292,156 women gave birth to 296,925 babies
    • 2007 increase of 4.3% from 2006, and 14.4% increase since 2004
  • fetal death component was 2,177 and 2,188 respectively
  • 29.9 years was the maternal mean age in 2007
  • the rate of women aged 15–44 years giving birth in the population decreased slightly between 2007 and 2008.
  • 41.6% of mothers had their first baby and 33.5% had their second baby
  • 10,883 women were Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander (3.8% of all women who gave birth)
    • 39.5% of all mothers in the Northern Territory
    • 25.2 years was the average age of these women who gave birth
  • 3.1% women received ART treatment (see also below Assisted Reproduction Technology)

Babies

  • 292,027 live births and 2,177 fetal deaths
    • stillbirth rate of 7.4 per 1,000 births
  • most births occurred in March, August and October
  • 105.6 sex ratio (number of male per 100 female liveborn babies)

Gestational age

  • 90.9% term (37–41 weeks gestation)
  • 8.1% were preterm and 33.2 weeks was the mean gestational age for all preterm births
    • Preterm births were classified groups of 20–27 weeks, 28–31 weeks and 32–36 weeks

Birthweight

  • 92.1% of liveborn babies had a birthweight in the range 2,500–4,499 grams
    • average birthweight was 3,374 grams
  • 17,976 (6.2%) low birthweight (weighing less than 2,500 grams) (6.1% for 2008)
  • 2,956 (1.0%) very low birthweight (weighing less than 1,500 grams)
  • 1,288 (0.4%) extremely low birthweight (weighing less than 1,000 grams)

Apgar scores - 1.4% of liveborn babies had a low Apgar score (between 0 and 6) at 5 minutes (More? Apgar test)

Special care nurseries or neonatal intensive care units - 14.5% of liveborn babies were admitted to an SCN or NICU

Perinatal Mortality

Perinatal mortality rate NSW 1992-2002
  • 2,177 fetal deaths (7.4 per 1,000 births)
    • fetal deaths are if the birthweight is at least 400 grams or the gestational age is 20 weeks or more
  • 846 neonatal deaths (2.9 per 1,000 live births)
    • neonatal deaths are those occurring in live births up to 28 completed days after birth
  • 3,024 Australian perinatal deaths
    • perinatal death includes birthweight of at least 400 grams or, where birthweight is unknown, a gestational age of at least 20 weeks
  • 23.5% congenital abnormalities (anomalies)
  • 13.8% maternal conditions
  • 12.6% unexplained antepartum death

Ten most frequently reported Birth Anomalies

  1. Hypospadias (More? Development Animation - Genital Male External | Genital Abnormalities - Hypospadia)
  2. Obstructive Defects of the Renal Pelvis (More? Renal System - Abnormalities)
  3. Ventricular Septal Defect (More? Cardiovascular Abnormalities - Ventricular Septal Defect)
  4. Congenital Dislocated Hip (More? Musculoskelal Abnormalities - Congenital Dislocation of the Hip (CDH))
  5. Trisomy 21 or Down syndrome - (More? Trisomy 21)
  6. Hydrocephalus (More? Hydrocephalus)
  7. Cleft Palate (More? Palate_Development)
  8. Trisomy 18 or Edward Syndrome - multiple abnormalities of the heart, diaphragm, lungs, kidneys, ureters and palate 86% discontinued (More? (More? Trisomy 18)
  9. Renal Agenesis/Dysgenesis - reduction in neonatal death and stillbirth since 1993 may be due to the more severe cases being identified in utero and being represented amongst the increased proportion of terminations (approximately 31%). (More? Renal System - Abnormalities)
  10. Cleft Lip and Palate - occur with another defect in 33.7% of cases.(More? Palate Development | Head Development)

(From the Victorian Perinatal Data Collection Unit in the Australian state of Victoria between 2003-2004)


2008

Congenital Anomalies in Australia 2002-2003

Congenital anomalies in Australia 2002-2003[20] is the third report in a new revised series on congenital anomalies. This report provides national information on selected congenital anomalies from 2002-2003. Presents epidemiological data on 33 selected conditions because they are monitored internationally by the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and Research.

Congenital Anomalies in Australia 2002-2003  
Congenital anomalies in Australia 2002-2003[21] was published in 2008 as part a new revised series on 33 selected congenital anomalies also monitored internationally by the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and Research.
  • Hypospadia is the most commonly reported condition at birth, but severity of the condition is not reported to the national data collection.
  • Trisomy 21 (Down’s syndrome) is the next most commonly reported condition at birth (11.1 per 10,000 births), but many affected pregnancies are detected early and managed by early termination. An estimated 63.6% of the fetuses diagnosed with trisomy 21 were managed by terminations of pregnancy or were fetal deaths. When terminations of pregnancy were included, the estimated rate for trisomy 21 was 26.3 per 10,000 pregnancies. Trisomy 21 was more common with advancing maternal age.
    • Other chromosomal abnormalities such as trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 also had a large proportion of fetal deaths or terminations of pregnancy and were more common in women aged 40 years or older.
  • Neural tube defects were diagnosed in about 4.2 per 10,000 births.
  • More males than females diagnosed with congenital anomalies for many of the reported conditions (e.g. hydrocephalus, most of the reported congenital heart diseases, oesophageal atresia and polycystic kidneys).
  • Anencephaly - younger women had a higher rate compared with older women, most of the women who gave birth to a baby with anencephaly (77.2%) were in the 20–34 years age group.
Links: Human Abnormal Development | Hypospadia | Trisomy 21 | Trisomy 13 Trisomy 18 | Neural Tube Defects | Folic Acid and Neural Tube Defects | Hydrocephalus | Cardiovascular Abnormalities | Polycystic Kidney Disease | Anencephaly | Australian Statistics | Reports
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.
External Links: AIHW Report Page | NPESU Report Page | International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and Research


Links: AIHW Report page | NPESU Report page | Abnormal Development

Immunisation

Australian Child Immunisation Programs 2013  
Age Vaccine
Birth
  • Hepatitis B (hepB)a
2 months
  • Hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (whooping cough), Haemophilus influenzae type b, inactivated poliomyelitis (polio) (hepB-DTPa-Hib-IPV)
  • Pneumococcal conjugate (13vPCV)
  • Rotavirus
4 months
  • Hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (whooping cough), Haemophilus influenzae type b, inactivated poliomyelitis (polio) (hepB-DTPa-Hib-IPV)
  • Pneumococcal conjugate (13vPCV)
  • Rotavirus
6 months
  • Hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (whooping cough), Haemophilus influenzae type b, inactivated poliomyelitis (polio) (hepB-DTPa-Hib-IPV)
  • Pneumococcal conjugate (13vPCV)
  • Rotavirusb
12 months
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)
  • Meningococcal C (MenCCV)

  • Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR)
18 months
  • Varicella (chickenpox)
4 years
  • Diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (whooping cough) and inactivated poliomyelitis (polio) (DTPa-IPV)
  • Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR)
  Notes: Information provided for educational purposes only. Postnatal - Vaccination | Immunise Australia Program

a Hepatitis B vaccine: should be given to all infants as soon as practicable after birth. The greatest benefit is if given within 24 hours, and must be given within 7 days.

b Rotavirus vaccine: third dose of vaccine is dependent on vaccine brand used.

  Source: Australian Immunisation Handbook 10th edition (April 2013).[22] National Immunisation Program Schedule From 1 February 2013 to 30 June 2013 PDF Immunise Australia Program.

Historic Birth Data

  • 1903 - when the crude birth rate was lower than it had ever been before, the Royal Commission On the Decline in the Birth-rate and On the Mortality of Infants in New South Wales was appointed. It reported in 1904 and concluded that '...the cause or causes of the Decline of the Birth-rate must be a force or forces over which the people themselves have control...'. In other words, couples were limiting the size of their families.
    • At the turn of last century there were 117 births per 1,000 women of child bearing age (15-44 years). This approximates a total fertility rate of 3.5 babies per woman. By 1924 the total fertility rate was 3.0 and falling.
  • 1934 - in the middle of the Great Depression, the total fertility rate fell to 2.1 babies per woman. It then increased during the second half of the Depression, as women who had deferred childbearing in the early years of the Depression began to have children. Fertility increased through World War II and the 1950s, and peaked in 1961 when the total fertility rate reached 3.6 babies per woman. This period of high fertility is known as the baby boom (see graph 5.28).
  • 1961 - peak then total fertility rate fell rapidly, to 2.9 babies per woman by 1966. This fall can be attributed to changing social attitudes, in particular a change in people's perception of desired family size, facilitated by the contraceptive pill becoming available.
  • 1970s - the total fertility rate dropped again, falling to below replacement level in 1976 where it has remained since. This fall was more marked than the fall in the early 1960s and has been linked to the increasing participation of women in the labour force, coupled with changing attitudes to family size, standard of living and lifestyle choices.
  • 1996
    • Women are starting childbearing later in life, and are having fewer children. In 1966, peak fertility was among 25 year old women, with 21% having babies. By 1996, peak fertility was among 29 year old women, but only 13% had babies. Primarily because fewer women are having large families, the proportion of all women having babies after they turn 40 has fallen (see graph 5.29).
    • In the last 30 years, there has been a fall in the proportion of births to teenage mothers, from 11.3% of all births in 1966 to 4.9% in 1996.
    • The number of babies born to mothers aged 40 years or over has also fallen, from 2.6% in 1966 to 2.1% in 1996.

Excerpt from Australia Now (ABS)

World Factbook

The World Factbook is a freely available data source that provides a "snapshot" overview of countries around the world. More accurate statistics can be found by studying data from individual countries Bureau of Statistics. The "country comparison" shows Australia's position relative to other countries around the world, the entry information in italics may have been edited from the original source.

Population

  • 21,515,754 (July 2010 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 54

Population breakdown by state or territory (Australian Bureau of Statistics, June 2010 population estimates)

Rank State/Territory Population  %
1 New South Wales 7,238,819 32.4
2 Victoria 5,547,527 24.8
3 Queensland 4,516,361 20.2
4 Western Australia 2,296,411 10.3
5 South Australia 1,644,642 7.4
6 Tasmania 507,626 2.3
7 Australian Capital Territory 358,894 1.6
8 Northern Territory 229,675 1.0
9 Australian Antarctic Territory 1,000 0.0
10 Jervis Bay Territory 495 0.0

Age structure

  • 0-14 years: 18.6% (male 2,026,975/female 1,923,828)
  • 15-64 years: 67.9% (male 7,318,743/female 7,121,613)
  • 65 years and over: 13.5% (male 1,306,329/female 1,565,153) (2010 est.)


The age structure of a population affects a nation's key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations (high percentage under age 15) need to invest more in schools, while countries with older populations (high percentage ages 65 and over) need to invest more in the health sector.

Median age

  • total: 37.5 years
  • male: 36.8 years
  • female: 38.3 years (2010 est.)


This entry is the age that divides a population into two numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age and half are older. It is a single index that summarizes the age distribution of a population. Currently, the median age ranges from a low of about 15 in Uganda and Gaza Strip to 40 or more in several European countries and Japan.

Population growth rate

  • 1.171% (2010 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 107

Birth rate

  • 12.39 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 161


This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per 1,000 persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate. The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility and the age structure of the population.

Death rate

  • 6.81 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 145

Net migration rate

  • 6.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 14

Urbanization

  • urban population: 89% of total population (2008)
  • rate of urbanization: 1.2% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio

  • at birth: 1.055 male(s)/female
  • under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  • 15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  • 65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
  • total population: 1 male(s)/female (2010 est.)


Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong preference for sons. This will affect future marriage patterns and fertility patterns.

Infant mortality rate

  • total: 4.67 deaths/1,000 live births
  • country comparison to the world: 192
  • male: 5 deaths/1,000 live births
  • female: 4.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)


This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1,000 live births in the same year; included is the total death rate, and deaths by sex, male and female. This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country.

Life expectancy at birth

  • total population: 81.72 years
  • country comparison to the world: 9
  • male: 79.33 years
  • female: 84.25 years (2010 est.)


This entry contains the average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future. Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages.

Total fertility rate

  • 1.78 children born/woman (2010 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 158


This entry gives a figure for the average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age. The total fertility rate (TFR) is a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman. This indicator shows the potential for population change in the country. A rate of two children per woman is considered the replacement rate for a population, resulting in relative stability in terms of total numbers.

HIV/AIDS

  • adult prevalence rate 0.2% (2007 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 92
  • people living with HIV/AIDS 18,000 (2007 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 81
  • deaths fewer than 100 (2007 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 127

Ethnic groups

  • white 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1%

Religions

  • Catholic 25.8%, Anglican 18.7%, Uniting Church 5.7%, Presbyterian and Reformed 3%, Eastern Orthodox 2.7%, other Christian 7.9%, Buddhist 2.1%, Muslim 1.7%, other 2.4%, unspecified 11.3%, none 18.7% (2006 Census)

Languages

  • English 78.5%, Chinese 2.5%, Italian 1.6%, Greek 1.3%, Arabic 1.2%, Vietnamese 1%, other 8.2%, unspecified 5.7% (2006 Census)


Data source: The World Factbook Australia

Countries about Australian Population Size (2011)

Rank in World Country Population
48 Korea, North 24,457,492
49 Yemen 24,133,492
50 Taiwan 23,071,779
51 Mozambique 22,948,858
52 Syria 22,517,750
53 Madagascar 21,926,221
54 Romania 21,904,551
55 Australia 21,766,711
56 Cote d'Ivoire 21,504,162
57 Sri Lanka 21,283,913

Historic Data - July 1998

Country Comparison (1998)

(July 1998)
Australia
United States
United Kingdom
Germany
China
India

Population

18,613,087

270,311,756

58,970,119

82,079,454

1,236,914,658

984,003,683

Age structure

0-14 years:

21%

22%

19%

16%

26%

34%

15-64 years:

66%

66%

65%

68%

68%

61%

65 years +:

13%

12%

16%

16%

6%

5%

Population growth rate

0.93%

0.87%

0.25%

0.02%

0.83%

1.71%

Birth rate
births/1,000 population

13.47

14.4

12.01

8.84

15.73

25.91

Death rate
deaths/1,000 population

6.89

8.8

10.72

10.77

6.99

8.69

Sex ratio (male(s)/female)

at birth:

1.06

1.05

1.05

2.08

1.15

1.05

under 15 years:

1.05

1.05

1.05

1.06

1.13

1.06

15-64 years:

1.02

0.99

1.01

1.05

1.07

1.08

65 years +:

0.77

0.7

0.7

0.59

0.88

1.04

Infant mortality rate
(deaths/1,000 live births)

5.26

6.44

5.87

5.2

45.46

63.14

Life expectancy at birth (years)

total population:

79.89

76.13

77.19

76.99

69.59

62.9

male:

76.95

72.85

74.57

73.83

68.32

62.11

female:

82.98

79.58

79.96

80.33

71.06

63.73

Total fertility rate (children born/woman)

1.82

2.07

1.7

1.25

1.8

3.24

Population Data Neighbours (1998)

(July 1998 est.)
Australia

New Zealand

Indonesia

Papua
New Guinea

Singapore

Malaysia

Population

18,613,087

3,625,388

212,941,810

4,599,785

3,490,356

20,932,901

Age structure

0-14 years:

21%

23%

31%

40%

21%

36%

15-64 years:

66%

65%

65%

57%

72%

60%

65 years +:

13%

12%

4%

3%

7%

4%

Population growth rate

0.93%

1.04%

1.49%

2.27%

1.2%

2.11%

Birth rate
births/1,000 population

13.47

14.89

23.1

32.37

13.79

26.5

Death rate
deaths/1,000 population

6.89

7.6

8.22

9.65

4.68

5.36

Sex ratio (male(s)/female)

at birth:

1.06

1.05

1.05

1.05

1.08

1.06

under 15 years:

1.05

1.05

1.03

1.05

1.06

1.05

15-64 years:

1.02

1.01

0.99

1.09

1

1

65 years +:

0.77

0.76

0.79

0.84

0.8

0.77

Infant mortality rate
(deaths/1,000 live births)

5.26

6.37

59.23

57.09

3.87

22.45

Life expectancy at birth (years)

total population:

79.89

77.55

62.49

58.06

78.49

70.36

male:

76.95

74.35

60.28

57.18

75.46

67.35

female:

82.98

80.91

64.81

58.98

81.77

73.56

Total fertility rate (children born/woman)

1.82

1.91

2.61

4.26

1.46

3.37

Australian Law

The information below relates to Commonwealth Acts and Australian Law Reform Commission discussion papers.

Commonwealth Consolidated Acts

The following Australasian Government Acts relate to embryonic development and include links to the legislation provided by the Australasian Legal Information Institute (AustLII).

  • Research Involving Human Embryos Act 2002 AustLII
  • Prohibition of Human Cloning for Reproduction Act 2002 AustLII
  • Prohibition of Human Cloning for Reproduction and the Regulation of Human Embryo Research Amendment Act 2006 AustLII | Act No. 172 of 2006

Australian Law Reform Commission

  • ALRC Discussion Paper 68 Gene Patenting and Human Health AustLII


Search Australasian Legal Information Institute: human embryo


National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)


Congenital Anomalies

Australian Birth Anomalies System

The Australian Congenital Anomalies Monitoring System (ACAMS) supersedes the National Congenital Malformations and Birth Defects Data Collection (NCM&BD).

"The national collation and reporting of birth anomalies data has been suspended in recent years due to concerns about data quality and comparability."
  • Variability among states and territories in scope of birth anomalies data collections: sources of birth anomalies notifications and definitions and classifications used; method of data collection and available resources.
  • Variability among the states and territories in the timing and method of the provision of birth anomalies data to the AIHW National Perinatal Statistics Unit (NPSU) for national collation and reporting.
  • New Australian Birth Anomalies System should be data for birth anomalies detected up to 1 year of age.
    • including data on terminations of pregnancies with birth anomalies and regardless of gestational age (i.e. including less than 20 weeks gestation).
  • System will initially be based on data from the states able to detect birth anomalies at least up to 1 year of age (NSW, VIC, WA and SA), further extending the period of detection in the future.
Links: Australian Congenital Anomalies Monitoring System


National Perinatal Statistics Unit Publications

External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.

References

  1. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2017. Health expenditure Australia 2015–16. Health and welfare expenditure series no. 58. Cat. no. HWE 68. Canberra: AIHW.
  2. AIHW 2017. Incidence of insulin-treated diabetes in Australia, 2015. Diabetes series no. 27. Cat. no. CVD 78. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 20 February 2017 http://www.aihw.gov.au/publication-detail/?id=60129558632.
  3. Centre for Epidemiology and Evidence. New South Wales Mothers and Babies 2015. Sydney: NSW Ministry of Health, 2016.
  4. 4.0 4.1 AIHW 2016. Australia's mothers and babies 2014—in brief. Perinatal statistics series no. 32. [ http://www.aihw.gov.au/publication-detail/?id=60129557656 Cat. no. PER 87]. Canberra: AIHW.
  5. AIHW 2016. Australian Burden of Disease Study: impact and causes of illness and death in Australia 2011—summary report. Australian Burden of Disease Study series no. 4. Cat. no. BOD 5. Canberra: AIHW.
  6. 6.0 6.1 AIHW 2016. National Core Maternity Indicators stage 3 and 4 results from 2010–2013. Cat. no. PER 84]. Canberra: AIHW. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "AIHW-INJCAT173" defined multiple times with different content
  7. AIHW 2016. Monitoring the health impacts of mandatory folic acid and iodine fortification 2016. Cat. no. PHE 208. Canberra: AIHW. PDF
  8. AIHW 2015. Breast cancer in young women: key facts about breast cancer in women in their 20s and 30s. Cancer series no. 96. Cat. no. CAN 94. Canberra: AIHW. http://www.aihw.gov.au/publication-detail/?id=60129553359
  9. AIHW 2015. Prevalence of type 1 diabetes among children aged 0–14 in Australia 2013. Diabetes series no. 24. Cat. no. CVD 70. Canberra: AIHW.
  10. 10.0 10.1 AIHW 2015. Health expenditure Australia 2013–14. Cat. no. HWE 63. Canberra: AIHW.
  11. Hilder L, Zhichao Z, Parker M, Jahan S, Chambers GM 2014. Australia’s mothers and babies 2012. Perinatal statistics series no. 30. Cat. no. PER 69. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 16 December 2014. http://www.aihw.gov.au/publication-detail/?id=60129550033
  12. 12.0 12.1 AIHW 2014. Health indicators for Remote Service Delivery communities: a summary report. Cat. no. IHW 142. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 5 November 2014 http://www.aihw.gov.au/publication-detail/?id=60129548650.
  13. Andrew B Kirke, Sharon F Evans, Barry N J Walters Gestational diabetes in a rural, regional centre in south Western Australia: predictors of risk. Rural Remote Health: 2014, 14(3);2667 PubMed 25171091
  14. Johnson S, Bonello MR, Li Z, Hilder L & Sullivan EA. 2014. Maternal deaths in Australia 2006-2010. Maternal deaths series no. 4. Cat. no. PER 61. Canberra: AIHW. AIHW
  15. Zhuoyang Li, Yueping A Wang, William Ledger, Elizabeth A Sullivan Birthweight percentiles by gestational age for births following assisted reproductive technology in Australia and New Zealand, 2002-2010. Hum. Reprod.: 2014, 29(8);1787-800 PubMed 24908671
  16. Louise J Maple-Brown, Alex Brown, I-Lynn Lee, Christine Connors, Jeremy Oats, Harold D McIntyre, Cherie Whitbread, Elizabeth Moore, Danielle Longmore, Glynis Dent, Sumaria Corpus, Marie Kirkwood, Stacey Svenson, Paula van Dokkum, Sridhar Chitturi, Sujatha Thomas, Sandra Eades, Monique Stone, Mark Harris, Chrissie Inglis, Karen Dempsey, Michelle Dowden, Michael Lynch, Jacqueline Boyle, Sue Sayers, Jonathan Shaw, Paul Zimmet, Kerin O'Dea Pregnancy And Neonatal Diabetes Outcomes in Remote Australia (PANDORA) Study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth: 2013, 13;221 PubMed 24289168
  17. AIHW 2012. Australia's health 2012. Australia's health no. 13. Cat. no. AUS 156. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed February 14 2013 <http://www.aihw.gov.au/publication-detail/?id=10737422172>
  18. Laws P & Sullivan EA 2009. Australia's mothers and babies 2007 AIHW Perinatal statistics series no. 23 Cat. no. PER 48. Sydney: AIHW National Perinatal Statistics Unit.
  19. Laws P & Sullivan EA 2010 Australia's mothers and babies 2008 AIHW Perinatal statistics series no. 24 Cat. no. PER 48. Sydney: AIHW National Perinatal Statistics Unit.
  20. Abeywardana S & Sullivan EA 2008. Congenital anomalies in Australia 2002–2003. Birth anomalies series no. 3 Cat. no. [PER 41. Sydney: AIHW National Perinatal Statistics Unit.
  21. Abeywardana S & Sullivan EA 2008. Congenital anomalies in Australia 2002–2003. Birth anomalies series no. 3 Cat. no. PER 41. Sydney: AIHW National Perinatal Statistics Unit.
  22. Australian Immunisation Handbook 10th edition (April 2013) Immunise Australia Program

External Links

External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Australian Statistics. Retrieved December 17, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Australian_Statistics

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