Abnormal Development - Parvovirus
|Embryology - 15 Dec 2018 Expand to Translate|
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Human parvovirus B19 (Latin, parvo = poor), infection is also called "fifth disease" and occurs mainly in children. Pets (dogs and cats) have their own animal parvoviruses that do not infect humans.
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is the only member of the Parvoviridae family known to cause disease in humans and is a single-strand 5,594 nucleotide DNA Class II virus. The virions have a diameter of 22-25 nm and are transmitted by respiratory secretions between humans and can also cross the placenta. Virus replication requires help from either host cells or other viruses.
Some Recent Findings
Historic terminology referring to the fifth in a group of once-common childhood diseases (the other four are measles, rubella, scarlet fever and Dukes' disease) that all have similar rashes.
- First disease - measles
- Second disease - scarlet fever (Streptococcus pyogenes)
- Third disease - rubella
- Fourth disease - Dukes' disease is also a historic term for a febrile disease of childhood (suggested as Staphylococcus aureus)
- Fifth disease - Parvovirus
Professor Yvonne Cossart (University of Sydney, Bosch Professor of Infectious Diseases)
Yvonne Cossart coined the nomenclature "B19", from the well on a microtitre (microtiter) plate where the virus antigen was first discovered in blood. Microtitre plates are generally organised by rows (alphabetically) and columns (numerically).
- "A parvovirus-like antigen has been found in sera of nine healthy blood-donors and two patients. Its pathogenicity is unknown, but 30% of adults possess specific antibody. The new agent can be confused with hepatitis-B antigen both morphologically and serologically."
The following information is based on infection in a pregnant woman followed by transplacental transmission to the fetus.
- Most parvovirus B19 infections during pregnancy do not lead to loss of the fetes.
- estimated 30% risk of transplacental infection among women who are infected with parvovirus B19 during pregnancy
- Transmission to the fetus can lead to miscarriage or hydrops fetalis.
- estimated 5 to 9 % risk of fetal loss.
- Infection during the second trimester poses the greatest risk of hydrops fetalis.
- Parvovirus infects the fetal liver that is involved with early erythrocyte production.
- Seroprevalence data indicate that about half of pregnant women are susceptible to parvovirus infection.
- E P de Jong, F J Walther, A C M Kroes, D Oepkes Parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy: new insights and management. Prenat. Diagn.: 2011, 31(5);419-25 PubMed 21351281
- Y E Cossart, A M Field, B Cant, D Widdows Parvovirus-like particles in human sera. Lancet: 1975, 1(7898);72-3 PubMed 46024
- Neal S Young, Kevin E Brown Parvovirus B19. N. Engl. J. Med.: 2004, 350(6);586-97 PubMed 14762186
R F Lamont, J D Sobel, E Vaisbuch, J P Kusanovic, S Mazaki-Tovi, S K Kim, N Uldbjerg, R Romero Parvovirus B19 infection in human pregnancy. BJOG: 2011, 118(2);175-86 PubMed 21040396
Monika Schiesser, Consolato Sergi, Martin Enders, Holger Maul, Paul Schnitzler Discordant outcomes in a case of parvovirus b19 transmission into both dichorionic twins. Twin Res Hum Genet: 2009, 12(2);175-9 PubMed 19335188
R A Simms, R E Liebling, R R Patel, M L Denbow, S A Abdel-Fattah, P W Soothill, T G Overton Management and outcome of pregnancies with parvovirus B19 infection over seven years in a tertiary fetal medicine unit. Fetal. Diagn. Ther.: 2009, 25(4);373-8 PubMed 19786782
Richard H Beigi, Harold C Wiesenfeld, Daniel V Landers, Hyagriv N Simhan High rate of severe fetal outcomes associated with maternal parvovirus b19 infection in pregnancy. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol: 2008, 2008;524601 PubMed 18464909
A Kempe, B Rösing, C Berg, D Kamil, A Heep, U Gembruch, A Geipel First-trimester treatment of fetal anemia secondary to parvovirus B19 infection. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol: 2007, 29(2);226-8 PubMed 17252527
Jin Xu, Thomas C Raff, Nabil S Muallem, A George Neubert Hydrops fetalis secondary to parvovirus B19 infections. J Am Board Fam Pract: 2003, 16(1);63-8 PubMed 12583652
N Yaegashi Pathogenesis of nonimmune hydrops fetalis caused by intrauterine B19 infection. Tohoku J. Exp. Med.: 2000, 190(2);65-82 PubMed 10770616
A D Cameron, S Swain, W J Patrick Human parvovirus B19 infection associated with hydrops fetalis. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol: 1997, 37(3);316-9 PubMed 9325515
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, December 15) Embryology Abnormal Development - Parvovirus. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Parvovirus
- © Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G