Abnormal Development - Human Immunodeficiency Virus
|Embryology - 22 Mar 2019 Expand to Translate|
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The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Maternal transmission of HIV can occur perinatally in utero, during labour and delivery, or postnatally through breastfeeding and can be reduced by the use of antiretroviral treatment and avoidance of breastfeeding.
Neonatal infection diagnosis can be made by PCR from 6-12 week.
UNAIDS, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, estimated that 38.6 million people had HIV (2005), 17.3 million were women. About 3.28 million pregnant women infected with HIV give birth each year (the majority in sub-Saharan Africa) leading to 700,000 new infections of HIV in children each year. (text modified from Gray and McIntyre, BMJ 2007;334:950-953)
Some Recent Findings
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<pubmed limit=5>Maternal HIV</pubmed>
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<pubmed></pubmed> <pubmed></pubmed> <pubmed>23217137</pubmed> <pubmed>22690108</pubmed> <pubmed>22129112</pubmed>
|Environmental Links: Introduction | low folic acid | iodine deficiency | Nutrition | Drugs | Australian Drug Categories | USA Drug Categories | thalidomide | herbal drugs | Illegal Drugs | smoking | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | TORCH | viral infection | bacterial infection | fungal infection | zoonotic infection | toxoplasmosis | Malaria | maternal diabetes | maternal hypertension | maternal hyperthermia | Maternal Inflammation | Maternal Obesity | hypoxia | Biological Toxins | chemicals | heavy metals | air pollution | radiation | Prenatal Diagnosis | Neonatal Diagnosis | International Classification of Diseases | Fetal Origins Hypothesis|
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- World Health Organization HIV-infected women and their families: psychosocial support and related issues. A literature review. 2003
- British HIV Association Guidelines for management of HIV and hepatitis C coinfection in adults | Guidelines for the management of HIV infection in pregnant women and the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, 2005 | Guidelines for management of HIV and hepatitis B coinfection in adults
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, March 22) Embryology Abnormal Development - Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Human_Immunodeficiency_Virus
- © Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G