Abnormal Development - Human Immunodeficiency Virus

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Introduction

Human Immunodeficiency Virus, transmission electron micrograph (Image: CDC USA)

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Maternal transmission of HIV can occur perinatally in utero, during labour and delivery, or postnatally through breastfeeding and can be reduced by the use of antiretroviral treatment and avoidance of breastfeeding.

Neonatal infection diagnosis can be made by PCR from 6-12 week.

UNAIDS, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, estimated that 38.6 million people had HIV (2005), 17.3 million were women. About 3.28 million pregnant women infected with HIV give birth each year (the majority in sub-Saharan Africa) leading to 700,000 new infections of HIV in children each year. (text modified from Gray and McIntyre, BMJ 2007;334:950-953)


Viral Links: viral infection | TORCH | cytomegalovirus | hepatitis | HIV | parvovirus | polio | rubella virus | chickenpox | Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus | Zika virus | human papillomavirus | rotavirus | vaccination | varicella virus | environment
Historic Embryology - Viral 
1941 Rubella Cataracts | 1944 Rubella Defects

Some Recent Findings

  • HIV-1 Nef Breaches Placental Barrier in Rat Model[1] "The vertical transmission of HIV-1 from the mother to fetus is known, but the molecular mechanism regulating this transmission is not fully characterized. The fetus is highly protected by the placenta, which does not permit microbial pathogens to cross the placental barrier. In the present study, a rat model was established to observe the effect of HIV-1 protein Nef on placental barrier. ...Based on this study, it can be concluded that the HIV-1 Nef protein has a direct effect on breaching of the placental barrier in the model we have established in this study."
  • Prenatal diagnosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women: a new screening program for chromosomal anomalies[2] "This study was undertaken to describe a new prenatal diagnosis program among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women, and the perinatal outcome of this program's application over a more than 2-year period (June 2000 to December 2003). ... A total of 116 pregnancies (including 3 sets of twins) were seen: 96 women were offered and accepted screening for chromosomal anomalies. Thirteen pregnancies had a positive screening test and amniocentesis was performed in 10 at median 16.5 gestational weeks: a trisomy 21 and a monosomy X were diagnosed. No vertical transmissions were documented by age 6 months in the 6 liveborn infants who underwent amniocentesis."
More recent papers
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Search term: Maternal HIV

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References

  1. <pubmed>23240037</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>16389031</pubmed>

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Search Pubmed: Human Immunodeficiency Virus | embryo infection | fetal infection |neonatal infection




Environmental Links: Introduction | low folic acid | iodine deficiency | Nutrition | Drugs | Australian Drug Categories | USA Drug Categories | thalidomide | herbal drugs | Illegal Drugs | smoking | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | TORCH | viral infection | bacterial infection | fungal infection | zoonotic infection | toxoplasmosis | Malaria | maternal diabetes | maternal hypertension | maternal hyperthermia | Maternal Inflammation | Maternal Obesity | hypoxia | biological toxins | chemicals | heavy metals | air pollution | radiation | Prenatal Diagnosis | Neonatal Diagnosis | International Classification of Diseases | Fetal Origins Hypothesis

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, September 24) Embryology Abnormal Development - Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Human_Immunodeficiency_Virus

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G