Abnormal Development - Hepatitis Virus

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Educational Use Only - Embryology is an educational resource for learning concepts in embryological development, no clinical information is provided and content should not be used for any other purpose.

Introduction

Hepatitis A virions (CDC)
Hepatitis B virions (CDC)

Hepatitis (inflammation of the liver) is caused in humans by one of 7 viruses (A, B, C, D, E) with the 2 additional F has not been confirmed as a distinct genotype; and G is a newly described flavivirus. CDC states that all of these viruses can cause an acute disease with symptoms lasting several weeks including yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice); dark urine; extreme fatigue; nausea; vomiting and abdominal pain. It can take several months to a year to feel fit again.


An estimated 400 million people worldwide are living with chronic hepatitis B infection.


Viral Links: TORCH Infections | Cytomegalovirus | Hepatitis Virus | HIV | Parvovirus | Polio Virus | Rubella Virus | Chickenpox | Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus | Zika Virus | Vaccination | Environmental
| Liver Development | Liver Histology

Some Recent Findings

  • Update on childhood and adolescent immunizations: selected review of US recommendations and literature: part 2[1] "Vaccine coverage is relatively static or improving for the vaccines included in the 2010 annual harmonized immunization schedules. Providers should be reviewing patients' immunization records at each visit to take advantage of any opportunity to administer indicated, age-appropriate vaccines. There have been infectious disease outbreaks among highly immunized populations, although unvaccinated or undervaccinated individuals continue to play large roles in the spread of disease. Infants, many of whom are too young to be vaccinated, continue to bear a large disease burden, which underscores the importance of cocooning and, in some cases, vaccination of pregnant women. Influenza, measles, mumps, and rubella, varicella, hepatitis A, meningococcal conjugate, human papillomavirus, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis, and tetanus and diphtheria toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccines are reviewed in this second of two articles."
More recent papers
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent | Journal Searches


Search term: Teratogen Hepatitis Virus

Yuanyuan Wang, Junli Hao, Xiaohong Liu, Hongxin Wang, Xin Zeng, Jing Yang, Lei Li, Xi Kuang, Tao Zhang The mechanism of apoliprotein A1 down-regulated by Hepatitis B virus. Lipids Health Dis: 2016, 15;64 PubMed 27015844

C Ferreli, L Atzori, F Manunza, M Pau, A Caddori Thalidomide-induced granuloma annulare. G Ital Dermatol Venereol: 2014, 149(3);329-33 PubMed 24819760

H Quan, F Zhou, D Nie, Q Chen, X Cai, X Shan, Z Zhou, K Chen, A Huang, S Li, N Tang Hepatitis C virus core protein epigenetically silences SFRP1 and enhances HCC aggressiveness by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Oncogene: 2014, 33(22);2826-35 PubMed 23770846

Kyoungsub Song, Chang Han, Jinqiang Zhang, Dongdong Lu, Srikanta Dash, Mark Feitelson, Kyu Lim, Tong Wu Epigenetic regulation of MicroRNA-122 by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma and hepatitis b virus X protein in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Hepatology: 2013, 58(5);1681-92 PubMed 23703729

Li Mai, Lin Yang, Jian-Yu Kuang, Shao-Quan Zhang, Yan-Hong Kang, Qi-Huan Xu, Qi-Feng Xie [Small interfering RNA targeting to hepatitis B virus X gene and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidineon inhibited growth of the subcutaneous implanted tumor of hepatocellular carcinoma in nude mice]. Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi: 2012, 26(5);362-5 PubMed 23547460

Hepatitis Virus

Virus particles measure 42nm in overall diameter and contain a 27nm diameter DNA-based core.


Hepatitis Transmission Risk to the Fetus

Hepatitis A

  • Fetal transmission of virus occurs with extreme rarity.

Hepatitis B

  • Can occur as a consequence of intrapartum exposure, transplacental transmission, and breastfeeding.
  • 20% - 30% of HBsAg-positive/HbeAg-negative women will transmit virus to their infants.
  • 90% of HBsAg- and HBeAg-positive women will transmit virus to their infants.
  • Immunoprophylaxis at birth with both HBIG and Hepatitis B vaccine within 12 hours of birth decreases the risk of transmission.
  • Passive (HBIG) and active immunization is 85-95% effective in preventing neonatal HBV infection.
  • Chronic infection occurs in almost all children who are infected with hepatitis B during the perinatal period and in up to 50% of children who become infected between 1 and 5 years of age.

Hepatitis C

  • The overall risk of transmission is approximately 2-6% with unknown maternal viral titers.
  • All pregnant women with HCV should have viral titers performed.
  • The placenta appears to act as an immunological organ providing antiviral protection against hepatitis C viral transmission in the majority of cases.[2]
  • Children and adolescents with chronic infection generally have no symptoms.
  • Breast-feeding does not appear to transmit virus.

Data Sources[3][4][5]


Hepatitis E virus.jpg

Hepatitis E virions (CDC)

Adult Hepatitis B Treatment

Women who are HBsAg-positive have a very high risk for vertical transmission to their infants. NIH currently recommends that infants of HBsAg-positive women receive hepatitis B immunoglobulin and hepatitis B vaccination within 12 hours of birth and receive a complete set of 3 vaccinations and long-term follow-up. This has been shown to substantially reduce the risk for perinatal transmission.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration have approved 7 agents, used as monotherapy or in combination, for use in the treatment of adults with Hepatitis B.

  • interferons (interferon-α2b and peginterferon-α2a)
    • Interferon use has a defined self-limited course.
  • nucleoside or nucleotide analogues (lamivudine, adefovir, entecavir, tenofovir, and telbivudine)
    • therapy can be long-term or indefinite treatment.

Liver Damage

Sequelae of chronic Hepatitis C infection are progressive liver fibrosis leading to cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC).

Cirrhosis

Hepatocellular Carcinoma

References

  1. Joanne Lai, Kathryn E Fay, Joseph A Bocchini Update on childhood and adolescent immunizations: selected review of US recommendations and literature: part 2. Curr. Opin. Pediatr.: 2011, 23(4);470-81 PubMed 21743328
  2. Christine Waasdorp Hurtado, Lucy Golden-Mason, Megan Brocato, Mona Krull, Michael R Narkewicz, Hugo R Rosen Innate immune function in placenta and cord blood of hepatitis C--seropositive mother-infant dyads. PLoS ONE: 2010, 5(8);e12232 PubMed 20814429 | PLoS One.
  3. Practice Committee of American Society for Reproductive Medicine Hepatitis and reproduction. Fertil. Steril.: 2008, 90(5 Suppl);S226-35 PubMed 19007636
  4. Asher Ornoy, Alexander Tenenbaum Pregnancy outcome following infections by coxsackie, echo, measles, mumps, hepatitis, polio and encephalitis viruses. Reprod. Toxicol.: 2006, 21(4);446-57 PubMed 16480851
  5. Chuanfang Lee, Yan Gong, Jesper Brok, Elizabeth H Boxall, Christian Gluud Effect of hepatitis B immunisation in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ: 2006, 332(7537);328-36 PubMed 16443611


Books

Reviews

Kumaresan Yogeswaran, Scott K Fung Chronic hepatitis B in pregnancy: unique challenges and opportunities. Korean J Hepatol: 2011, 17(1);1-8 PubMed 21494071


Articles

Michelle L Giles, Kumar Visvanathan, Sharon R Lewin, Joe Sasadeusz Chronic hepatitis B infection and pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Surv: 2012, 67(1);37-44 PubMed 22278077

Ashish Kumar Hepatitis B virus infection and pregnancy: a practical approach. Indian J Gastroenterol: 2012, 31(2);43-54 PubMed 22528342

Laura E Connell, Hamisu M Salihu, Jason L Salemi, Euna M August, Hanna Weldeselasse, Alfred K Mbah Maternal hepatitis B and hepatitis C carrier status and perinatal outcomes. Liver Int.: 2011, 31(8);1163-70 PubMed 21745298


Search Pubmed

Search PubMed: term = Hepatitis Virus teratology | embryo infection | fetal infection | neonatal infection

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Abnormal Development - Hepatitis Virus. Retrieved February 26, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Hepatitis_Virus

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