Musculoskeletal System - Muscle Development Timeline

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Introduction

These notes summarise the timecourse of development of skeletal muscle in humans.


Musculoskeletal Links: Introduction | Mesoderm | Somitogenesis | Limb | Cartilage | Bone | Bone Timeline | Axial Skeleton | Skull | Joint | Muscle | Muscle Timeline | Tendon | Diaphragm | Lecture - Musculoskeletal Development | Lecture Movie | Abnormalities | Limb Abnormalities | Cartilage Histology | Bone Histology | Skeletal Muscle Histology | Category:Musculoskeletal
Historic Musculoskeletal Embryology  
1902 - Pubo-femoral Region | Spinal Column and Back | Body Segmentation | Cranium | Body Wall, Ribs, and Sternum | Limbs | 1901 - Limbs | 1902 - Arm Development | 1906 Human Embryo Ossification | 1906 Lower limb Nerves and Muscle | 1907 - Muscular System | Skeleton and Limbs | 1909 Mandible | 1910 - Skeleton and Connective Tissues | Muscular System | Coelom and Diaphragm | 1913 Clavicle | 1920 Clavicle | 1921 - External body form | Connective tissues and skeletal | Muscular | Diaphragm | 1929 Rat Somite | 1932 Pelvis | 1940 Synovial Joints | 1943 Human Embryonic, Fetal and Circumnatal Skeleton | 1949 Cartilage and Bone | 1957 Chondrification Hands and Feet

Some Recent Findings

  • Muscle patterning in mouse and human abdominal wall development and omphalocele specimens of humans.[1] "We hypothesized that omphalocele is the result of an arrest in the secondary abdominal wall development and predicted that we would observe delays in myoblast maturation and an arrest in secondary abdominal wall development. To look for evidence in support of our hypothesis, we performed a histological analysis of normal human abdominal wall development and compared this to mouse. We also conducted the first histological analysis of two human specimens with omphalocele. In these two omphalocele specimens, secondary abdominal wall development appears to have undergone an arrest around Carnegie Stage 19. "
More recent papers
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.

  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

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Search term: Muscle Development Timeline

Mehari Endale, Shawn Ahlfeld, Erik Bao, Xiaoting Chen, Jenna Green, Zach Bess, Matthew Weirauch, Yan Xu, Anne Karina Perl Dataset on transcriptional profiles and the developmental characteristics of PDGFRα expressing lung fibroblasts. Data Brief: 2017, 13;415-431 PubMed 28702480

Yifei Yao, Lucas Xian Da Ong, Xiaotong Li, Kinlun Wan, Arthur F T Mak Effects of Biowastes Released by Mechanically Damaged Muscle Cells on the Propagation of Deep Tissue Injury: A Multiphysics Study. Ann Biomed Eng: 2016; PubMed 27624658

Yuting Ling, Chunhui Li, Kairui Feng, Robyn Duncan, Roos Eisma, Zhihong Huang, Ghulam Nabi Effects of fixation and preservation on tissue elastic properties measured by quantitative optical coherence elastography (OCE). J Biomech: 2016; PubMed 26903410

Adam K Walker, Krista J Spiller, Guanghui Ge, Allen Zheng, Yan Xu, Melissa Zhou, Kalyan Tripathy, Linda K Kwong, John Q Trojanowski, Virginia M-Y Lee Functional recovery in new mouse models of ALS/FTLD after clearance of pathological cytoplasmic TDP-43. Acta Neuropathol.: 2015; PubMed 26197969

Gi Fay Mok, Rabeea Hazim Mohammed, Dylan Sweetman Expression of myogenic regulatory factors in chicken embryos during somite and limb development. J. Anat.: 2015; PubMed 26183709

Muscle Types

Fibre Type Type I fibres Type II a fibres Type II x fibres Type II b fibres
Contraction time Slow Moderately Fast Fast Very fast
Size of motor neuron Small Medium Large Very large
Resistance to fatigue High Fairly high Intermediate Low
Activity Used for Aerobic Long-term anaerobic Short-term anaerobic Short-term anaerobic
Maximum duration of use Hours <30 minutes <5 minutes <1 minute
Power produced Low Medium High Very high
Mitochondrial density High High Medium Low
Capillary density High Intermediate Low Low
Oxidative capacity High High Intermediate Low
Glycolytic capacity Low High High High
Major storage fuel Triglycerides Creatine phosphate, glycogen Creatine phosphate, glycogen Creatine phosphate, glycogen
Myosin heavy chain,
human genes
MYH7 MYH2 MYH1 MYH4


Muscle Fibre Type 
Fibre Type Type I fibres Type II a fibres Type II x fibres Type II b fibres
Contraction time Slow Moderately Fast Fast Very fast
Size of motor neuron Small Medium Large Very large
Resistance to fatigue High Fairly high Intermediate Low
Activity Used for Aerobic Long-term anaerobic Short-term anaerobic Short-term anaerobic
Maximum duration of use Hours <30 minutes <5 minutes <1 minute
Power produced Low Medium High Very high
Mitochondrial density High High Medium Low
Capillary density High Intermediate Low Low
Oxidative capacity High High Intermediate Low
Glycolytic capacity Low High High High
Major storage fuel Triglycerides Creatine phosphate, glycogen Creatine phosphate, glycogen Creatine phosphate, glycogen
Myosin heavy chain,
human genes
MYH7 MYH2 MYH1 MYH4
Links: Muscle Development | Muscle Development Timeline

Abdominal Wall

The data below is from a recent analysis of human and mouse abdominal wall development.[1] Using the human Kyoto Collection embryos.

Abdominal Wall Development
Human Mouse
Carnegie stage days
14 E33 E10.5
17 E42 E11.5
18 E44 E12.5
21 E54 E14.5
23 E58 E15.5


Mouse E Days
Mouse Stages: E1 | E2.5 | E3 | E3.5 | E4.5 | E5.0 | E6.0 | E7.0 | E7.5 | E8.0 | E8.5 | E9.0 | E9.5 | E10 | E10.5 | E11 | E11.5 | E12 | E12.5 | E13 | E13.5 | E14 | E14.5 | E15 | E15.5 | E16 | E16.5 | E17 | E17.5 | E18 | E18.5 | E19 | E20 | Timeline | About timed pregnancy


Species Stage
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Human Days 1 2-3 4-5 5-6 7-12 13-15 15-17 17-19 20 22 24 28 30 33 36 40 42 44 48 52 54 55 58
Mouse Days 1 2 3 4 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 9.5 E10 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5 16
Rat Days 1 3.5 4-5 5 6 7.5 8.5 9 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5 16 16.5 17 17.5
Note these Carnegie stages are only approximate day timings for average of embryos. Links: Carnegie Stage Comparison
References  
Human

R O'Rahilly Early human development and the chief sources of information on staged human embryos. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.: 1979, 9(4);273-80 PubMed 400868


Mouse
The House Mouse: Atlas of Mouse Development by Theiler Springer-Verlag, NY (1972, 1989). | online book
E M OTIS, R BRENT Equivalent ages in mouse and human embryos. Anat. Rec.: 1954, 120(1);33-63 PubMed 13207763


Rat
Witschi, E. (1962) Development: Rat. In: Growth Including Reproduction and Morphological Development. Altman, P. L. , and D. S. Dittmer, ed. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., Washington DC, pp. 304-314.
Francisco J Pérez-Cano, Àngels Franch, Cristina Castellote, Margarida Castell The suckling rat as a model for immunonutrition studies in early life. Clin. Dev. Immunol.: 2012, 2012;537310 PubMed 22899949

Human Detailed

Carnegie stage 14 (E33) the mesoderm of the primary body wall was noncompact and it has coalesced in the ventral midline to create the abdominal cavity in which liver and stomach were seen at low magnification. Development of the CS 14 embryo was similar to the E10.5 mouse embryo and the dermomyotomes that are derived from somites have been formed.

Carnegie stage 16 (E40) the extent or distance of the migration was about 25% of the hemicircumference of the abdominal cavity. As seen in the mouse, the lateral plate mesoderm has become more condensed and thicker in the area around the myoblasts. The primary abdominal wall ventral to this region was thinner and less dense. This suggests that not only myoblasts but also the connective tissue may migrate into the primary body wall or may have active cell proliferation.

Carnegie stage 17 (E42) The histological appearance of the human abdominal wall at CS 17 was strikingly similar to the mouse at E11.5 with cells now having migrated approximately 50% of the distance to the ventral midline. Inner and outer layers were not discernible yet.

Carnegie stage 18 (E44) the separation of the myoblasts into distinct inner and outer layers became evident, and appeared to be equivalent to those in the E12.5 mouse embryo in terms of overall histological appearance and distance migrated by the myoblasts. The myoblasts in both the inner and outer layers began to exhibit unidirectional orientation. The abdominal wall was thicker (500 μm) in the region where secondary structures were forming compared with the primary body wall region (260 μm). In the more dorsally positioned regions, the outermost layer of connective tissue comprised approximately half of this thickness.

Carnegie stage 19 (E48) Segregation of the myoblasts into four distinct muscle groups was evident by CS 19 with unidirectional orientation of myoblasts. The myoblasts migrated over half of the distance to the ventral midline. The abdominal wall remains thickest in the area where the muscles migrated and again the outermost layer of connective tissue comprises approximately half of the total thickness of the abdominal wall in this region. In contrast the primary abdominal wall that is ventral to the migrating myoblasts was noticeably thinner. Unlike the mouse where the rectus is not segregated from the other muscles until reaching the midline, the human rectus was completely separated after migrating over half the distance to the midline.

Carnegie stage 21 (E54) the myoblasts have reached the ventral midline and myotubes were present and oriented uniformly within all muscle groups. The rectus abdominis formed distinct bundles of muscle indicating that development and differentiation of this muscle were more prominent in humans than in mice. Similar to the mouse embryo at E14.5, the connective tissue layers comprised the majority of the thickness of the abdominal wall at CS 21. Furthermore, the outermost layer of connective tissue accounted for the majority of this thickness.

Carnegie stage 23 (E58) the rectus muscle was forming 2 or 3 distinct layers and myotube orientation remained uniform in all muscles. The external oblique and internal oblique started to expand in terms of thickness whereas the transversus remained a thin layer of muscle. The thickness of the connective tissue was reduced similar to that in the mouse at E15.5. The orientation of connective tissue layers in the obliques and transversus abdominis was dorsal to ventral.


International Classification of Diseases - XVII Congenital Malformations - Q79 Congenital malformations of the musculoskeletal system - Q79.2 Exomphalos Omphalocele Excl.: umbilical hernia (K42.-)


Links: Timeline human development | Omphalocele

Historic Limb Data

Manual of Human Embryology by Franz Keibel and Franklin P. Mall (1910)

Upper Limb

Lower Limb

Hip

Links: Musculoskeletal System - Abnormalities


Prenatal

Birth

Postnatal

Mouse Limb Muscle

Mouse limb tissue development.jpg

Change in cell types and tissue formation as a function of mouse developmental stage.[2]


Links: Mouse Development

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Peter F Nichol, Robert F Corliss, Shigehito Yamada, Kohei Shiota, Yukio Saijoh Muscle patterning in mouse and human abdominal wall development and omphalocele specimens of humans. Anat Rec (Hoboken): 2012, 295(12);2129-40 PubMed 22976993 | PMC3976953 | Anat Rec (Hoboken)
  2. Leila Taher, Nicole M Collette, Deepa Murugesh, Evan Maxwell, Ivan Ovcharenko, Gabriela G Loots Global gene expression analysis of murine limb development. PLoS ONE: 2011, 6(12);e28358 PubMed 22174793


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Musculoskeletal System - Muscle Development Timeline. Retrieved September 25, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Musculoskeletal_System_-_Muscle_Development_Timeline

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