Cardiovascular System - Bone Marrow

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Hematopoietic and stromal cell differentiation

Bone marrow lies within the core of many bones and consists of supportive stromal cells, hematopoietic cells (stem, differentiating, and mature blood cells) and adipose tissue.

Bone Marrow Links: mesoderm | somitogenesis | bone | blood | adipose | immune
Historic Embryology - Bone Marrow 
1922 Bone marrow circulation

Some Recent Findings

More recent papers  
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This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.

  • This search now requires a manual link as the original PubMed extension has been disabled.
  • The displayed list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References also appear on this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

More? References | Discussion Page | Journal Searches | 2019 References | 2020 References

Search term: Bone Marrow Embryology | Bone Marrow Development

Older papers  
These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.

See also the Discussion Page for other references listed by year and References on this current page.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Location

Mouse hematopoietic stem cell

Mouse hematopoietic stem cell.gif





Ho YH & Méndez-Ferrer S. (2020). Microenvironmental contributions to hematopoietic stem cell aging. Haematologica , 105, 38-46. PMID: 31806690 DOI.

Han L, Wang B, Wang R, Gong S, Chen G & Xu W. (2019). The shift in the balance between osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells mediated by glucocorticoid receptor. Stem Cell Res Ther , 10, 377. PMID: 31805987 DOI.

Kingery MT, Manjunath AK, Anil U & Strauss EJ. (2019). Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy and Related Bone Marrow-Derived Orthobiologic Therapeutics. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med , 12, 451-459. PMID: 31749105 DOI.

Ham J, Lever L, Fox M & Reagan MR. (2019). In Vitro 3D Cultures to Reproduce the Bone Marrow Niche. JBMR Plus , 3, e10228. PMID: 31687654 DOI.

Bozzano F, Perrone C, Moretta L & De Maria A. (2019). NK Cell Precursors in Human Bone Marrow in Health and Inflammation. Front Immunol , 10, 2045. PMID: 31555276 DOI.

Li Z, Hardij J, Bagchi DP, Scheller EL & MacDougald OA. (2018). Development, regulation, metabolism and function of bone marrow adipose tissues. Bone , 110, 134-140. PMID: 29343445 DOI.

Horowitz MC, Berry R, Holtrup B, Sebo Z, Nelson T, Fretz JA, Lindskog D, Kaplan JL, Ables G, Rodeheffer MS & Rosen CJ. (2017). Bone marrow adipocytes. Adipocyte , 6, 193-204. PMID: 28872979 DOI.


Wiedemann A, Lino AC & Dörner T. (2019). B cell subset distribution in human bone marrow is stable and similar in left and right femur: An instructive case. PLoS ONE , 14, e0212525. PMID: 30794605 DOI.


Drummond WB & Muir R. (1893). On the Structure of the Bone-Marrow in Relation to Blood-Formation. J Anat Physiol , 28, 125-41. PMID: 17232063

Hutchison R & Macleod JJ. (1902). Contribution to our Knowledge of the Chemistry of Red Bone Marrow. J Anat Physiol , 36, 292-5. PMID: 17232518


Thro WC. (1918). Some Unusual Blood Cells in Diseases of Bone Marrow Origin. J Med Res , 38, 385-392.1. PMID: 19972430

Minot GR. (1922). MEGACARYOCYTES IN THE PERIPHERAL CIRCULATION. J. Exp. Med. , 36, 1-7. PMID: 19868650 DOI.

Peabody FW. (1926). A Study of Hyperplasia of the Bone Marrow in Man. Am. J. Pathol. , 2, 487-502.9. PMID: 19969715

Forkner CE. (1929). BLOOD AND BONE MARROW CELLS OF THE DOMESTIC FOWL. J. Exp. Med. , 50, 121-41. PMID: 19869602 DOI.

Sabin FR, Miller FR, Smithburn KC, Thomas RM & Hummel LE. (1936). CHANGES IN THE BONE MARROW AND BLOOD CELLS OF DEVELOPING RABBITS. J. Exp. Med. , 64, 97-120. PMID: 19870526 DOI.

Orr JW & Stickland LH. (1938). The metabolism of bone marrow. Biochem. J. , 32, 567-71. PMID: 16746655 DOI.

Williams RJ. (1939). The lymphoid nodules of human bone marrow. Am. J. Pathol. , 15, 377-384.1. PMID: 19970455

Menkin V. (1943). The Effect of the Leukocytosis-Promoting Factor on the Growth of Cells in the Bone Marrow. Am. J. Pathol. , 19, 1021-9. PMID: 19970728

Menkin V. (1943). The Effect of the Leukocytosis-Promoting Factor on the Growth of Cells in the Bone Marrow. Am. J. Pathol. , 19, 1021-9. PMID: 19970728

KUNTZ A & RICHINS CA. (1945). Innervation of the bone marrow. J. Comp. Neurol. , 83, 213-22. PMID: 21009098 DOI.


  • bone marrow-derived macrophages - (BMDM) are primary macrophages obtained by in vitro differentiation of bone marrow cells in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF or CSF1).
  • bone marrow stromal stem cell - (BMSC) are the adult multipotent cell, that have the potential to differentiate into cell types of mesodermal origin (osteocytes, adipocytes, and chondrocytes).

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2024, June 20) Embryology Cardiovascular System - Bone Marrow. Retrieved from

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© Dr Mark Hill 2024, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G