|Embryology - 1 Jun 2020 Expand to Translate|
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|A personal message from Dr Mark Hill (May 2020)|
|contributors to the site. The good news is Embryology will remain online and I will continue my association with UNSW Australia. I look forward to updating and including the many exciting new discoveries in Embryology!|
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Follicle Granulosa Cells
- 4 Cumulus Granulosa Cells
- 5 Mural Granulosa Cells
- 6 Follicle Growth
- 7 Mouse Granulosa Cells
- 8 Molecular
- 9 Abnormalities
- 10 References
- 11 Additional Images
- 12 Terms
- 13 External Links
- 14 Glossary Links
Surrounding the oocyte as it develops within the ovary follicle are multiple layers of granulosa cells that are bound to the thick specialised extracellular matrix, the zona pellucida. The innermost layer of these cells, the corona radiata, communicate directly with the oocyte by cytoplasmic extensions passing through the zona pellucida. Following release of the oocyte at ovulation, these cells form the granolas layer.
Granulosa cells can also have specific names depending upon location within the ovarian follicle: cumulus oophrous (Latin, cumulus = a little mound; Greek, oo= egg, phorus = carrying) also called cumulus granulosa cells directly around the zone pellucida and released with the oocyte; "corona radiata" forming the initial layer in contact with the zone pellucida; membrana granulosa also called mural granulosa cells forming the layer within the follicle antral wall; discus proligerus can refer to the attachment between cumulus oophrous and membrane granulosa; and mural granulosa cells that line the follicular wall.
In human development, during the first week of development following fertilization the granolsa cell layer and zona pellucida remain surrounding the blastocyst from which it "hatches" to commence implantation.
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.
Search term: Granulosa cell development
|These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.
Follicle Granulosa Cells
|Granulosa cells can also have specific names depending upon location within the follicle.
Cumulus Granulosa Cells
cumulus oophrous (Latin, cumulus = a little mound; Greek, oo = egg, phorus = carrying)
Cumulus granulosa cells lie directly around the oocyte zone pellucida and are released with the oocyte at ovulation. These cells have been shown to exchange biological signals with oocytes through the gap junctions.
Oocyte and Cumulus Granulosa Signaling
Search PubMed term: Cumulus Granulosa development
<pubmed limit=5>Cumulus Granulosa development</pubmed>
Mural Granulosa Cells
Mural Granulosa Cells (MGCs) lining the ovulating follicle remain within the ovary and differentiate to form part of the corpus luteum.
Steroid hormone synthesis by mural granulosa cells is dependent upon the multiligand receptor LOX-1.
|Mural Granulosa Cells||Corpus Luteum Granulosa cells|
Search PubMed term: Mural Granulosa development
<pubmed limit=5>Mural Granulosa development</pubmed>
- Links: Corpus luteum
|Human Ovarian Follicle Classification|
|Class||Alternate nomenclature||Type||Number of Cells||Size (diameter µm)||Size ultrasound (mm)|
|primordial follicle||small||1, 2, 3||25||less than 50|
|26 - 100
101 - 300
|up to 200|
3001 - 500
501 - 1000
1000 - 6000
|less than 18|
|preovulatory follicle||Graafian||8||greater than 1000||greater than 6000||18 – 28|
|Links: ovary | oocyte | menstrual cycle|
Mouse Granulosa Cells
|Granulosa gene expression (sheep)||
Granulosa Cell Markers
In the pig ovary kisspeptin and its receptor are expressed by follicle cells. Kisspeptin, acting through its receptor KISS1R, have a key neuroendocrine role in the regulation of mammalian reproduction. It is not known what specific effect this factor may have on follicle development.
Granulosa cell tumour
An uncommon non-epithelial cancer of the ovary.
Photograph of a granulosa cell tumour
- Zhou HX, Ma YZ, Liu YL, Chen Y, Zhou CJ, Wu SN, Shen JP & Liang CG. (2014). Assessment of mouse germinal vesicle stage oocyte quality by evaluating the cumulus layer, zona pellucida, and perivitelline space. PLoS ONE , 9, e105812. PMID: 25144310 DOI.
- Bøtkjær JA, Pors SE, Petersen TS, Kristensen SG, Jeppesen JV, Oxvig C & Andersen CY. (2019). Transcription profile of the insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway during human ovarian follicular development. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. , , . PMID: 30877600 DOI.
- Wigglesworth K, Lee KB, Emori C, Sugiura K & Eppig JJ. (2015). Transcriptomic diversification of developing cumulus and mural granulosa cells in mouse ovarian follicles. Biol. Reprod. , 92, 23. PMID: 25376232 DOI.
- Gao F, Zhang J, Wang X, Yang J, Chen D, Huff V & Liu YX. (2014). Wt1 functions in ovarian follicle development by regulating granulosa cell differentiation. Hum. Mol. Genet. , 23, 333-41. PMID: 24009315 DOI.
- Peng J, Li Q, Wigglesworth K, Rangarajan A, Kattamuri C, Peterson RT, Eppig JJ, Thompson TB & Matzuk MM. (2013). Growth differentiation factor 9:bone morphogenetic protein 15 heterodimers are potent regulators of ovarian functions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , 110, E776-85. PMID: 23382188 DOI.
- Weitzel JM, Vernunft A, Krüger B, Plinski C & Viergutz T. (2014). Inactivation of the LOX-1 pathway promotes the Golgi apparatus during cell differentiation of mural granulosa cells. J. Cell. Physiol. , 229, 1946-51. PMID: 24710763 DOI.
- Griffin J, Emery BR, Huang I, Peterson CM & Carrell DT. (2006). Comparative analysis of follicle morphology and oocyte diameter in four mammalian species (mouse, hamster, pig, and human). J. Exp. Clin. Assist. Reprod. , 3, 2. PMID: 16509981 DOI.
- Bonnet A, Servin B, Mulsant P & Mandon-Pepin B. (2015). Spatio-Temporal Gene Expression Profiling during In Vivo Early Ovarian Folliculogenesis: Integrated Transcriptomic Study and Molecular Signature of Early Follicular Growth. PLoS ONE , 10, e0141482. PMID: 26540452 DOI.
- Georges A, L'Hôte D, Todeschini AL, Auguste A, Legois B, Zider A & Veitia RA. (2014). The transcription factor FOXL2 mobilizes estrogen signaling to maintain the identity of ovarian granulosa cells. Elife , 3, . PMID: 25369636 DOI.
- Basini G, Grasselli F, Bussolati S, Ciccimarra R, Maranesi M, Bufalari A, Parillo F & Zerani M. (2018). Presence and function of kisspeptin/KISS1R system in swine ovarian follicles. Theriogenology , 115, 1-8. PMID: 29698886 DOI.
- Chronowska E. (2014). High-throughput analysis of ovarian granulosa cell transcriptome. Biomed Res Int , 2014, 213570. PMID: 24711992 DOI.
- Abaid LN, Mosquera-Caro M, Kankus RC & Goldstein BH. (2010). Extraordinarily Prolonged Disease Recurrence in a Granulosa Cell Tumor Patient. Case Rep Oncol , 3, 310-314. PMID: 21060767 DOI.
Senbon S, Hirao Y & Miyano T. (2003). Interactions between the oocyte and surrounding somatic cells in follicular development: lessons from in vitro culture. J. Reprod. Dev. , 49, 259-69. PMID: 14967918
Hatzirodos N, Irving-Rodgers HF, Hummitzsch K, Harland ML, Morris SE & Rodgers RJ. (2014). Transcriptome profiling of granulosa cells of bovine ovarian follicles during growth from small to large antral sizes. BMC Genomics , 15, 24. PMID: 24422759 DOI.
Chen J, Torcia S, Xie F, Lin CJ, Cakmak H, Franciosi F, Horner K, Onodera C, Song JS, Cedars MI, Ramalho-Santos M & Conti M. (2013). Somatic cells regulate maternal mRNA translation and developmental competence of mouse oocytes. Nat. Cell Biol. , 15, 1415-23. PMID: 24270888 DOI.
Search Pubmed: granulosa cell
Search Images: granulosa cell
Search NCBI Bookshelf Granulosa cell
Cat oocyte zona pellucida spermatozoa bound SEM
Hamster oocyte zona pellucida SEM
Pig ZPC deposition in oocyte-cumulus complexes
- acrosome reaction - The chemical change within the spermatozoa following binding to the zona pellucida, that leads to the release of acrosomal enzymatic contents. These enzymes degrade the zona pellucida and allow a spermatozoa to penetrate an oocyte.
- Call–Exner bodies - small histologically eosinophilic fluid-filled spaces between granulosa cells. Named after Emma Louise Call (1847 - 1937) one of the first American women physician and Sigmund Exner (1846 – 1926) an Austrian physiologist.
- cumulus cell - (Latin, cumulus = a little mound; Greek, oo= egg, phorus=carrying) granulosa cells directly around the zone pellucida.
- granulosa cell - A specific cell type that proliferates in association with the oocyte within the developing follicles of the ovary. These cells form the follicle stratum granulosa and are also given specific names based upon their position within the follicle. In the antral follicle, membrana granulosa sits on the follicular basal lamina and lines the antrum as a stratified epithelium. The cumulus oophorus is a column of granulosa cells that attaches the oocyte to the follicle wall. The corona radiata are the granulosa cells that directly surround the oocyte, and are released along with it at ovulation. Following ovulation the corona radiata provide physical protection to the oocyte and granulosa cells within the ovulating follicle contribute to corpus luteum.
- mural granulosa cell - (MGC) granulosa cells that line the follicular wall and have an endocrine function.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, June 1) Embryology Granulosa cell. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Granulosa_cell
- © Dr Mark Hill 2020, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G