Abnormal Development - Zoonotic Infection

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Introduction

Malaria (plasmodium falciparum)
Toxoplasmosis lifecycle

A zoonotic infection (zoonosis) is an animal disease that can be transmitted to humans. This can be through contact with animals (pets, farm animals, wildlife) or their products (milk, meat, waste).


Links: Abnormal Development - Toxoplasmosis | Q Fever


Environmental Links: Introduction | low folic acid | iodine deficiency | Nutrition | Drugs | Australian Drug Categories | USA Drug Categories | thalidomide | herbal drugs | Illegal Drugs | smoking | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | TORCH | viral infection | bacterial infection | fungal infection | zoonotic infection | toxoplasmosis | Malaria | maternal diabetes | maternal hypertension | maternal hyperthermia | Maternal Inflammation | Maternal Obesity | hypoxia | biological toxins | chemicals | heavy metals | air pollution | radiation | Prenatal Diagnosis | Neonatal Diagnosis | International Classification of Diseases | Fetal Origins Hypothesis

Some Recent Findings

  • How does toxoplasmosis affect the maternal-foetal immune interface and pregnancy?[1] "Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite which, depending on the geographical location, can infect between 10% and 90% of humans. Infection during pregnancy may result in congenital toxoplasmosis. The effects on the foetus vary depending on the stage of gestation in which primary maternal infection arises. A large body of research has focused on understanding immune response to toxoplasmosis, although few studies have addressed how it is affected by pregnancy or the pathological consequences of infection at the maternal-foetal interface. There is a lack of knowledge about how maternal immune cells, specifically macrophages, are modulated during infection and the resulting consequences for parasite control and pathology. Herein, we discuss the potential of T. gondii infection to affect the maternal-foetal interface and the potential of pregnancy to disrupt maternal immunity to T. gondii infection."
  • USA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2012[2]"As of September 11, 2012, 48 states have reported West Nile virus infections in people, birds, or mosquitoes. A total of 2,636 cases of West Nile virus disease in people, including 118 deaths, have been reported to CDC. Of these, 1,405 (53%) were classified as neuroinvasive disease (such as meningitis or encephalitis) and 1,231 (47%) were classified as non-neuroinvasive disease."
  • Risk of human infection with Giardia duodenalis from cats in Japan and genotyping of the isolates to assess the route of infection in cats[3] "The number of facilities in which customers make contact with cats before eating and drinking, called 'cat cafés', has recently increased in Tokyo, Japan. In a survey to clarify the possibility of zoonotic transmission in Giardia duodenalis, the infection rates of G. duodenalis in 321 stool samples of cats from 16 cat cafés, 31 pet shops, and the Animal Care and Consultation Center of Tokyo were 19·1% (22/115), 1·2% (1/85), and 2·5% (3/121), respectively. In the molecular analysis of 26 G. duodenalis isolates, 6 samples from 2 cat cafés belonged to the zoonotic genotype assemblage A I, and 20 other samples were of assemblage F. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) genes of the 20 assemblage F isolates revealed 2 major lineages. The 6 assemblage A isolates belonged to the same cluster with regard to the GDH gene; however, 2 of the 6 isolates belonged to a different cluster from the other 4 isolates with regard to the TPI gene. Therefore, a risk of transmission from cats to humans is suggested because of the detection of zoonotic Giardia genotypes in cat cafés."
  • The potential for zoonotic transmission of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. from beef and dairy cattle in Ontario, Canada[4] "The results of this study indicate that although Giardia and Cryptosporidium were identified in a higher overall percentage of the pooled beef cattle manure samples than in dairy cattle, firmly established zoonotic genotypes and species were much more common in dairy cattle than in beef cattle in this region. Dairy cattle, and especially dairy calves, may, therefore, pose a greater risk of infection to humans than beef cattle. However, these results may also provide evidence of potential zooanthroponotic transmission (human to animal)."
More recent papers  
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More? References | Discussion Page | Journal Searches | 2019 References

Search term: Congenital Zoonotic Infection | Zoonotic Infection | Zoonotic Teratogen | Congenital Giardia duodenalis

Older papers  
These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.

See also the Discussion Page for other references listed by year and References on this current page.

Potential Zoonotic Infections

  • Anthrax disease
  • Influenzavirus A
  • Babesiosis
  • Barmah Forest virus
  • Bartonellosis
  • Bilharzia
  • Bolivian hemorrhagic fever
  • Brucellosis
  • Borrelia (Lyme disease and others)
  • Borna virus infection
  • Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine tuberculosis)
  • Campylobacteriosis
  • Chagas disease
  • Chlamydophila psittaci
  • Cholera
  • Cowpox
  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy(TSE) from bovine spongiform encephalopathy]] (BSE) or "mad cow disease"
  • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
  • Cryptosporidiosis
  • Cutaneous larva migrans
  • Dengue fever
  • Ebola
  • Echinococcosis
  • Escherichia coli O157:H7
  • Eastern equine encephalitis virus
  • Western equine encephalitis virus
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
  • Giardia lamblia
  • Hantavirus
  • Hendra virus
  • Henipavirus
  • Korean hemorrhagic fever
  • Kyasanur forest disease
  • Lábrea fever
  • Lassa fever
  • Leishmaniasis
  • Leptospirosis
  • Listeriosis
  • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
  • Marburg virus|Marburg fever
  • Mediterranean spotted fever
  • Herpes B virus
  • Nipah virus
  • Ocular larva migrans
  • Omsk hemorrhagic fever
  • Ornithosis (psittacosis)
  • Orf (animal disease)
  • Oropouche fever
  • Plague (disease)
  • Puumala virus
  • Q-Fever
  • Psittacosis or "parrot fever"
  • Rabies
  • Rift Valley fever
  • Ringworms (Tinea canis)
  • Salmonellosis
  • Streptococcus suis
  • Swine influenza (swine flu)
  • Toxocariasis
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • Trichinosis
  • Tularemia, or "rabbit fever"
  • Typhus (disease) of Rickettsiae
  • Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever
  • Visceral larva migrans
  • West Nile virus
  • Yellow fever

West Nile Virus

West Nile virus EM01.jpg USA map West Nile virus september 2012.jpg

West Nile virus (WNV) activity reported to ArboNET, by state, United States, 2012 (as of September 11, 2012)

  • Since 1999, more than 30,000 people in the United States have been reported as getting sick with West Nile virus. Infected mosquitoes spread West Nile virus (WNV) that can cause serious, life altering disease.
  • As of September 11, 2012, 48 states have reported West Nile virus infections in people, birds, or mosquitoes. A total of 2,636 cases of West Nile virus disease in people, including 118 deaths, have been reported to CDC. Of these, 1,405 (53%) were classified as neuroinvasive disease (such as meningitis or encephalitis) and 1,231 (47%) were classified as non-neuroinvasive disease.[2]
    • Neuroinvasive disease cases - refers to severe cases of disease that affect a person’s nervous system, including encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), meningitis (inflammation of the membrane around the brain) and the spinal cord and acute flaccid paralysis (inflammation of the spinal cord) that can cause a sudden onset of weakness in the limbs and/or breathing muscles.
    • Nonneuroinvasive disease cases - refers to typically less severe cases showing no evidence of neuroinvasion, primarily West Nile fever that is a notifiable disease.

(Information CDC)

West Nile Links: Viral Infection | Zoonotic Infection | West Nile Virus

Hepatozoonosis

Canine Hepatozoonosis[5]


Hepatozoon is a protozoa with over 300 species acting as obligate intraerythrocytic parasites that infect birds, reptiles, amphibians and mammals, in all continents with tropical and subtropical climates. The dog Hepatozoon canis was first described in the early 1900s.


Links: Dog Abnormalities

References

  1. Borges M, Magalhães Silva T, Brito C, Teixeira N & Roberts CW. (2019). How does toxoplasmosis affect the maternal-foetal immune interface and pregnancy?. Parasite Immunol. , 41, e12606. PMID: 30471137 DOI.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD)West Nile information page viewed 11 September, 2012.
  3. Suzuki J, Murata R, Kobayashi S, Sadamasu K, Kai A & Takeuchi T. (2011). Risk of human infection with Giardia duodenalis from cats in Japan and genotyping of the isolates to assess the route of infection in cats. Parasitology , 138, 493-500. PMID: 21040620 DOI.
  4. Dixon B, Parrington L, Cook A, Pintar K, Pollari F, Kelton D & Farber J. (2011). The potential for zoonotic transmission of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. from beef and dairy cattle in Ontario, Canada. Vet. Parasitol. , 175, 20-6. PMID: 20971563 DOI.
  5. O'Dwyer LH. (2011). Brazilian canine hepatozoonosis. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet , 20, 181-93. PMID: 21961746


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, September 24) Embryology Abnormal Development - Zoonotic Infection. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Zoonotic_Infection

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G