|Embryology - 2 May 2016 Translate|
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- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Movies
- 4 Human Zygote Size
- 5 Parental Pronuclei
- 6 Formation of Zygote
- 7 Zygote Protein Expression
- 8 Male Pronucleus Reprogramming
- 9 References
- 10 Glossary Links
The first diploid cell that forms following fertilization by fusion of the haploid oocyte (egg) and spermatozoa (sperm) resulting in the combination of their separate genomes. The first image shows the cell with the 2 pronuclei still present before fusion enclosed within the zona pellucida. In humans, this cell then undergoes a series of mitotic cell divisions, still enclosed within the zona pellucida, during the first few days of development to form 2 blastomeres then a solid cell mass called the morula.
- Zygote Links: Fertilization | Week 1 | Carnegie stage 1 | Morula | Blastocyst | ART | SCNT | Category:Zygote
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Jiankai Wei, Richard Samuel Elliot Glaves, Melony J Sellars, Jianhai Xiang, Philip L Hertzler Expression of the prospective mesoderm genes twist, snail, and mef2 in penaeid shrimp. Dev. Genes Evol.: 2016; PubMed 27129985
Yuting Zhang, Diting Qian, Zhiling Li, Yue Huang, Que Wu, Gaizhen Ru, Man Chen, Bin Wang Oxidative stress-induced DNA damage of mouse zygotes triggers G2/M checkpoint and phosphorylates Cdc25 and Cdc2. Cell Stress Chaperones: 2016; PubMed 27117522
Sandra Bennink, Meike J Kiesow, Gabriele Pradel Malaria parasite development in the mosquito midgut. Cell. Microbiol.: 2016; PubMed 27111866
Xiao-Qian Meng, Yuan-Yuan Dai, Lai-Dong Jing, Jing Bai, Shu-Zhen Liu, Ke-Gang Zheng, Jie Pan Subcellular localization of Pyk2 during oocyte fertilization and early-embryo development in mice. J. Reprod. Dev.: 2016; PubMed 27086609
André Eid, Maria-Elena Torres-Padilla Characterization of non-canonical Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 subunits during early mouse embryogenesis. Epigenetics: 2016; PubMed 27081692
Human Zygote Size
Animation based upon individual images of mouse maternal and paternal genomes.
|Mouse zygote pronuclei|
|Fluorescence||DIC Optics showing pronuclear bodies|
Most ribosomal DNA located around the Nucleolar-Precursor Bodies (NPBs), with some associated with pericentromeric filaments (extending from the NPBs towards the nuclear periphery) as well as rDNA signals joining two NPBs.
Formation of Zygote
- male and female pronuclei, 2 nuclei approach each other and nuclear membranes break down
- DNA replicates, first mitotic division
- sperm contributes centriole which organizes mitotic spindle
Conceptus - term refers to all material derived from this fertilized zygote and includes both the embryo and the non-embryonic tissues (placenta, fetal membranes).
Zygote Protein Expression
The table above shows the pattern of protein expression (as percentages of total) in the mouse zygote according to 14 molecular function categories.
- Links: Germinal vesicle oocyte protein expression | MII oocyte protein expression | Zygote Protein Expression | Mouse Development | Oocyte Development | Zygote
Male Pronucleus Reprogramming
|Mouse zygote paternal genome reprogramming
Mouse zygotes male pronucleus contains 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) thought to be formed by enzymatic oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC).
Mouse zygote mitosis
- Kathy K Niakan, Kevin Eggan Analysis of human embryos from zygote to blastocyst reveals distinct gene expression patterns relative to the mouse. Dev. Biol.: 2013, 375(1);54-64 PubMed 23261930
- Francesco Silvestre, Alessandra Gallo, Annunziata Cuomo, Tiziana Covino, Elisabetta Tosti Role of cyclic AMP in the maturation of Ciona intestinalis oocytes. Zygote: 2011, 19(4);365-71 PubMed 20810008
- Chao-Bo Li, Zhen-Dong Wang, Zhong Zheng, Li-Li Hu, Shu-Qi Zhong, Lei Lei Number of blastomeres and distribution of microvilli in cloned mouse embryos during compaction. Zygote: 2011, 19(3);271-6 PubMed 20735894
- Khursheed Iqbal, Seung-Gi Jin, Gerd P Pfeifer, Piroska E Szabó Reprogramming of the paternal genome upon fertilization involves genome-wide oxidation of 5-methylcytosine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2011, 108(9);3642-7 PubMed 21321204 | PMC2132672 | PNAS
- Alison B Singer, Joseph G Gall An inducible nuclear body in the Drosophila germinal vesicle. Nucleus: 2011, 2(5);403-9 PubMed 21941118 | Nucleus
- Tiphaine Aguirre-Lavin, Pierre Adenot, Amélie Bonnet-Garnier, Gaétan Lehmann, Renaud Fleurot, Claire Boulesteix, Pascale Debey, Nathalie Beaujean 3D-FISH analysis of embryonic nuclei in mouse highlights several abrupt changes of nuclear organization during preimplantation development. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2012, 12;30 PubMed 23095683 | BMC Dev Biol.
- Shufang Wang, Zhaohui Kou, Zhiyi Jing, Yu Zhang, Xinzheng Guo, Mengqiu Dong, Ian Wilmut, Shaorong Gao Proteome of mouse oocytes at different developmental stages. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2010, 107(41);17639-44 PubMed 20876089 | PNAS
- Zygote An international journal dedicated to the rapid publication of original research in early embryology, Zygote covers interdisciplinary studies in animals and humans, from gametogenesis through fertilization to gastrulation.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2016) Embryology Zygote. Retrieved May 2, 2016, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Zygote
- © Dr Mark Hill 2016, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G