|Embryology - 18 Oct 2018 Expand to Translate|
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- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Movies
- 4 Human Zygote Size
- 5 Parental Pronuclei
- 6 Subcortical Maternal Complex
- 7 Formation of Zygote
- 8 Zygote Protein Expression
- 9 References
- 10 Glossary Links
The zygote is the first diploid cell that forms following fertilization by fusion of the haploid oocyte (egg) and spermatozoa (sperm) resulting in the combination of their separate genomes. The first image shows the cell with the 2 pronuclei still present before fusion enclosed within the zona pellucida. These two pronuclei contain the parental genomes and are reprogrammed separately, and also have different epigenetic changes at this early zygote stage.
In humans, zygote stage of development occurs during the first day in week one following fertilization (GA week 3) and is described as Carnegie stage 1. This stage is followed by mitosis to form 2 blastomeres and then a solid cell mass called the morula.
|Zygote Links: zygote Carnegie stage 1 | fertilization | Week 1 | morula | blastocyst | Assisted Reproductive Technology | SCNT | epigenetics | Category:Zygote|
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Jie Xu, Xiaoting Zhang, Yanzhi Luo, Xinyu Wan, Yongtie Yao, Liqiang Zhang, Yunzhen Yu, Taoshan Ai, Qingchao Wang, Zhen Xu IgM and IgD heavy chains of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco): Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis in response to bacterial infection. Fish Shellfish Immunol.: 2018; PubMed 30300742
Catherin Marin-Mogollon, Marga van de Vegte-Bolmer, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Fiona J A van Pul, Jai Ramesar, Ahmad Syibli Othman, Hans Kroeze, Jun Miao, Liwang Cui, Kim C Williamson, Robert W Sauerwein, Chris J Janse, Shahid M Khan The Plasmodium falciparum male gametocyte protein P230p, a paralog of P230, is vital for ookinete formation and mosquito transmission. Sci Rep: 2018, 8(1);14902 PubMed 30297725
A Hassan, V T Okomoda, F A B Sanusi Fertilization, hatching, and embryogenesis of diploid and triploid eggs of Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792). Zygote: 2018;1-7 PubMed 30296962
Ahmed M Elomda, Mohamed F Saad, Ayman M Saeed, Ashraf Elsayed, Ahmed O Abass, Hosam M Safaa, Gamal M K Mehaisen Antioxidant and developmental capacity of retinol on the in vitro culture of rabbit embryos. Zygote: 2018;1-7 PubMed 30289099
Human Zygote Size
- Maternal pronuclei - (oocyte) genome is inherited from the meiosis II oocyte where the chromosomes are condensed in a mitotic‐like state.
- Paternal pronuclei - (spermatozoa) genome is contributed by a compacted sperm chromatin that is remodeled upon fertilization. Chiefly by protamine removal and the original nucleosomal chromatin is established. (More? Male Pronucleus Reprogramming)
Animation based upon individual images of mouse maternal and paternal genomes.
|Mouse zygote pronuclei|
|Fluorescence||DIC Optics showing pronuclear bodies|
Male Pronucleus Reprogramming
|Mouse zygote paternal genome reprogramming
Mouse zygotes male pronucleus contains 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) thought to be formed by enzymatic oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC).
Mouse zygote mitosis
Subcortical Maternal Complex
The Subcortical Maternal Complex (SCMC) is peripheral cellular region identified in mouse oogenesis, but also present in human, required for determining the first cleavage-stages of division. The SCMA functions in: zygotic genome activation, F-actin dynamics, genome stability, organelle organization, and DNA methylation maintenance at imprinted loci.
Most ribosomal DNA located around the Nucleolar-Precursor Bodies (NPBs), with some associated with pericentromeric filaments (extending from the NPBs towards the nuclear periphery) as well as rDNA signals joining two NPBs.
Formation of Zygote
- male and female pronuclei, 2 nuclei approach each other and nuclear membranes break down
- DNA replicates, first mitotic division
- sperm contributes centriole which organizes mitotic spindle
Conceptus - term refers to all material derived from this fertilized zygote and includes both the embryo and the non-embryonic tissues (placenta, fetal membranes).
Zygote Protein Expression
Maternally inherited Yes-associated protein (Yap), a co-activator of TEAD family transcription factors, plays a key role in activating embryonic transcription following fertilization in the mouse. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in the mouse tubal fluid binds to its G-protein coupled receptor at the plasma membrane, and induces the activation of YAP by inhibiting LATS1/2. Hippo
The table above shows the pattern of protein expression (as percentages of total) in the mouse zygote according to 14 molecular function categories.
- Links: Germinal vesicle oocyte protein expression | MII oocyte protein expression | Zygote Protein Expression | mouse | oocyte | zygote
- Ladstätter S & Tachibana-Konwalski K. (2016). A Surveillance Mechanism Ensures Repair of DNA Lesions during Zygotic Reprogramming. Cell , 167, 1774-1787.e13. PMID: 27916276 DOI.
- Mackay DJG & Temple IK. (2017). Human imprinting disorders: Principles, practice, problems and progress. Eur J Med Genet , 60, 618-626. PMID: 28818477 DOI.
- Niakan KK & Eggan K. (2013). Analysis of human embryos from zygote to blastocyst reveals distinct gene expression patterns relative to the mouse. Dev. Biol. , 375, 54-64. PMID: 23261930 DOI.
- Silvestre F, Gallo A, Cuomo A, Covino T & Tosti E. (2011). Role of cyclic AMP in the maturation of Ciona intestinalis oocytes. Zygote , 19, 365-71. PMID: 20810008 DOI.
- Li CB, Wang ZD, Zheng Z, Hu LL, Zhong SQ & Lei L. (2011). Number of blastomeres and distribution of microvilli in cloned mouse embryos during compaction. Zygote , 19, 271-6. PMID: 20735894 DOI.
- Iqbal K, Jin SG, Pfeifer GP & Szabó PE. (2011). Reprogramming of the paternal genome upon fertilization involves genome-wide oxidation of 5-methylcytosine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , 108, 3642-7. PMID: 21321204 DOI.
- Singer AB & Gall JG. (2011). An inducible nuclear body in the Drosophila germinal vesicle. Nucleus , 2, 403-9. PMID: 21941118 DOI.
- Lu X, Gao Z, Qin D & Li L. (2017). A Maternal Functional Module in the Mammalian Oocyte-To-Embryo Transition. Trends Mol Med , 23, 1014-1023. PMID: 28993030 DOI.
- Aguirre-Lavin T, Adenot P, Bonnet-Garnier A, Lehmann G, Fleurot R, Boulesteix C, Debey P & Beaujean N. (2012). 3D-FISH analysis of embryonic nuclei in mouse highlights several abrupt changes of nuclear organization during preimplantation development. BMC Dev. Biol. , 12, 30. PMID: 23095683 DOI.
- Yu C, Ji SY, Dang YJ, Sha QQ, Yuan YF, Zhou JJ, Yan LY, Qiao J, Tang F & Fan HY. (2016). Oocyte-expressed yes-associated protein is a key activator of the early zygotic genome in mouse. Cell Res. , 26, 275-87. PMID: 26902285 DOI.
- Wang S, Kou Z, Jing Z, Zhang Y, Guo X, Dong M, Wilmut I & Gao S. (2010). Proteome of mouse oocytes at different developmental stages. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. , 107, 17639-44. PMID: 20876089 DOI.
- Zygote An international journal dedicated to the rapid publication of original research in early embryology, Zygote covers interdisciplinary studies in animals and humans, from gametogenesis through fertilization to gastrulation.
Yuan P, Zheng L, Liang H, Li Y, Zhao H, Li R, Lai L, Zhang Q & Wang W. (2018). A novel mutation in the TUBB8 gene is associated with complete cleavage failure in fertilized eggs. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. , , . PMID: 29704226 DOI.
Ho JR, Arrach N, Rhodes-Long K, Salem W, McGinnis LK, Chung K, Bendikson KA, Paulson RJ & Ahmady A. (2018). Blastulation timing is associated with differential mitochondrial content in euploid embryos. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. , , . PMID: 29353449 DOI.
Gassler J, Brandão HB, Imakaev M, Flyamer IM, Ladstätter S, Bickmore WA, Peters JM, Mirny LA & Tachibana K. (2017). A mechanism of cohesin-dependent loop extrusion organizes zygotic genome architecture. EMBO J. , 36, 3600-3618. PMID: 29217590 DOI.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, October 18) Embryology Zygote. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Zygote
- © Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G