|Embryology - 31 May 2016 Translate|
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- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Movies
- 4 Human Zygote Size
- 5 Parental Pronuclei
- 6 Formation of Zygote
- 7 Zygote Protein Expression
- 8 Male Pronucleus Reprogramming
- 9 References
- 10 Glossary Links
The first diploid cell that forms following fertilization by fusion of the haploid oocyte (egg) and spermatozoa (sperm) resulting in the combination of their separate genomes. The first image shows the cell with the 2 pronuclei still present before fusion enclosed within the zona pellucida. In humans, this cell then undergoes a series of mitotic cell divisions, still enclosed within the zona pellucida, during the first few days of development to form 2 blastomeres then a solid cell mass called the morula.
- Zygote Links: Fertilization | Week 1 | Carnegie stage 1 | Morula | Blastocyst | ART | SCNT | Category:Zygote
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Matheus Pereira Dos Santos, George Shigueki Yasui, Pedro Luiz Porfírio Xavier, Nadya Soares de Macedo Adamov, Nivaldo Ferreira do Nascimento, Takafumi Fujimoto, José Augusto Senhorini, Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi Morphology of gametes, post-fertilization events and the effect of temperature on the embryonic development of Astyanax altiparanae (Teleostei, Characidae). Zygote: 2016;1-13 PubMed 27220819
Sangho Jeong, Emily Eilbert, Ahmed Bolbol, Wolfgang Lukowitz Going mainstream: how is the body axis of plants first initiated in the embryo? Dev. Biol.: 2016; PubMed 27207388
Aspasia Destouni, Masoud Zamani Esteki, Maaike Catteeuw, Olga Tšuiko, Eftychia Dimitriadou, Katrien Smits, Ants Kurg, Andres Salumets, Ann Van Soom, Thierry Voet, Joris R Vermeesch Zygotes segregate entire parental genomes in distinct blastomere lineages causing cleavage-stage chimerism and mixoploidy. Genome Res.: 2016, 26(5);567-578 PubMed 27197242
K Kishida, H Harayama, F Kimura, T Murakami Individual differences in the distribution of sperm acrosome-associated 1 proteins among male patients of infertile couples; their possible impact on outcomes of conventional in vitro fertilization. Zygote: 2016;1-8 PubMed 27185107
Kiyomasa Nishii, Yasushi Kobayashi, Yosaburo Shibata Absence of connexin43 and connexin45 does not disturb pre- and peri-implantation development. Zygote: 2016, 24(3);457-64 PubMed 27172058
Human Zygote Size
Animation based upon individual images of mouse maternal and paternal genomes.
|Mouse zygote pronuclei|
|Fluorescence||DIC Optics showing pronuclear bodies|
Most ribosomal DNA located around the Nucleolar-Precursor Bodies (NPBs), with some associated with pericentromeric filaments (extending from the NPBs towards the nuclear periphery) as well as rDNA signals joining two NPBs.
Formation of Zygote
- male and female pronuclei, 2 nuclei approach each other and nuclear membranes break down
- DNA replicates, first mitotic division
- sperm contributes centriole which organizes mitotic spindle
Conceptus - term refers to all material derived from this fertilized zygote and includes both the embryo and the non-embryonic tissues (placenta, fetal membranes).
Zygote Protein Expression
Maternally inherited Yes-associated protein (Yap), a co-activator of TEAD family transcription factors, plays a key role in activating embryonic transcription following fertilization in the mouse. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in the mouse tubal fluid binds to its G-protein coupled receptor at the plasma membrane, and induces the activation of YAP by inhibiting LATS1/2.  Developmental Signals - Hippo
The table above shows the pattern of protein expression (as percentages of total) in the mouse zygote according to 14 molecular function categories.
- Links: Germinal vesicle oocyte protein expression | MII oocyte protein expression | Zygote Protein Expression | Mouse Development | Oocyte Development | Zygote
Male Pronucleus Reprogramming
|Mouse zygote paternal genome reprogramming
Mouse zygotes male pronucleus contains 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) thought to be formed by enzymatic oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC).
Mouse zygote mitosis
- Kathy K Niakan, Kevin Eggan Analysis of human embryos from zygote to blastocyst reveals distinct gene expression patterns relative to the mouse. Dev. Biol.: 2013, 375(1);54-64 PubMed 23261930
- Francesco Silvestre, Alessandra Gallo, Annunziata Cuomo, Tiziana Covino, Elisabetta Tosti Role of cyclic AMP in the maturation of Ciona intestinalis oocytes. Zygote: 2011, 19(4);365-71 PubMed 20810008
- Chao-Bo Li, Zhen-Dong Wang, Zhong Zheng, Li-Li Hu, Shu-Qi Zhong, Lei Lei Number of blastomeres and distribution of microvilli in cloned mouse embryos during compaction. Zygote: 2011, 19(3);271-6 PubMed 20735894
- Khursheed Iqbal, Seung-Gi Jin, Gerd P Pfeifer, Piroska E Szabó Reprogramming of the paternal genome upon fertilization involves genome-wide oxidation of 5-methylcytosine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2011, 108(9);3642-7 PubMed 21321204 | PMC2132672 | PNAS
- Alison B Singer, Joseph G Gall An inducible nuclear body in the Drosophila germinal vesicle. Nucleus: 2011, 2(5);403-9 PubMed 21941118 | Nucleus
- Tiphaine Aguirre-Lavin, Pierre Adenot, Amélie Bonnet-Garnier, Gaétan Lehmann, Renaud Fleurot, Claire Boulesteix, Pascale Debey, Nathalie Beaujean 3D-FISH analysis of embryonic nuclei in mouse highlights several abrupt changes of nuclear organization during preimplantation development. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2012, 12;30 PubMed 23095683 | BMC Dev Biol.
- Chao Yu, Shu-Yan Ji, Yu-Jiao Dang, Qian-Qian Sha, Yi-Feng Yuan, Jian-Jie Zhou, Li-Ying Yan, Jie Qiao, Fuchou Tang, Heng-Yu Fan Oocyte-expressed yes-associated protein is a key activator of the early zygotic genome in mouse. Cell Res.: 2016; PubMed 26902285
- Shufang Wang, Zhaohui Kou, Zhiyi Jing, Yu Zhang, Xinzheng Guo, Mengqiu Dong, Ian Wilmut, Shaorong Gao Proteome of mouse oocytes at different developmental stages. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2010, 107(41);17639-44 PubMed 20876089 | PNAS
- Zygote An international journal dedicated to the rapid publication of original research in early embryology, Zygote covers interdisciplinary studies in animals and humans, from gametogenesis through fertilization to gastrulation.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2016) Embryology Zygote. Retrieved May 31, 2016, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Zygote
- © Dr Mark Hill 2016, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G