Difference between revisions of "Menstrual Cycle - Histology"

From Embryology
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** Originally described by Gardner and Dukes (1955).<ref><pubmed>14361525</pubmed></ref>
 
** Originally described by Gardner and Dukes (1955).<ref><pubmed>14361525</pubmed></ref>
 
* clinical features - malodorous, thin homogeneous vaginal discharge with elevated vaginal pH above 4.5.
 
* clinical features - malodorous, thin homogeneous vaginal discharge with elevated vaginal pH above 4.5.
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<gallery>
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File:Bacteria - gram-stained vaginal smear 01.jpg|L. crispatus
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File:Bacteria - gram-stained vaginal smear 02.jpg|L. crispatus
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File:Bacteria - gram-stained vaginal smear 03.jpg|non-L. crispatus with thin lactobacilli
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File:Bacteria - gram-stained vaginal smear 04.jpg|non-L. crispatus with thin lactobacilli
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File:Bacteria - gram-stained vaginal smear 05.jpg|mixture non-L. crispatus with L. crispatus
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File:Bacteria - gram-stained vaginal smear 06.jpg|mixture non-L. crispatus with L. crispatus
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File:Bacteria - gram-stained vaginal smear 07.jpg|irregular-shaped Gram positive rod
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File:Bacteria - gram-stained vaginal smear 08.jpg|irregular-shaped Gram positive rod
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File:Bacteria - gram-stained vaginal smear 09.jpg|mixture Lactobacillus and bacterial vaginosis-associated
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File:Bacteria - gram-stained vaginal smear 10.jpg|mixture Lactobacillus and bacterial vaginosis-associated
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File:Bacteria - gram-stained vaginal smear 11.jpg|bacterial vaginosis
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File:Bacteria - gram-stained vaginal smear 12.jpg|bacterial vaginosis
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</gallery>
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{{Histology vaginal smear}}
  
 
==References==
 
==References==

Revision as of 11:05, 19 November 2011

Introduction

This page presents images from vaginal smears and uterine endometrium dilatation and curettage[1] samples during different phases of the human menstrual cycle.


Menstrual Cycle Links: Introduction | menstrual histology | ovary | corpus luteum | oocyte | uterus | Uterine Gland | estrous cycle | pregnancy test
Historic Embryology - Menstrual 
1839 Corpus Luteum Structure | 1851 Corpus Luteum | 1933 Pap Smear | 1937 Corpus Luteum Hormone | 1942 Human Reproduction Hormones | 1951 Corpus Luteum | 1969 Ultrastructure of Development and Regression | 1969 Ultrastructure during Pregnancy
Histology Links: stains | fixatives | artifacts | menstrual histology | placenta histology | heart histology | liver histology | Pancreas | Gall Bladder | Colon | Renal | Respiratory Histology | Bone | Category:Histology | UNSW Histology
  Historic Histology Textbooks: 1941 Histology] | 1944 Oral Histology
Histology Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | ANAT2241 Support | Histology | Histology Stains | Embryology Glossary
Phase Days (range) Smear Smear Description Uterine Endometrium (D&C)
Menstrual 1 - 4 Click on image to see full size. Both stratum corneum (red) and stratum spinosum (blue) epithelial cells will mostly blood.

Leukocytes and bacteria may also be present.

Human- menstrual uterine endometrium.jpg
Early Proliferative 5 - 9 Smear- early proliferative.jpg Mainly large and small basophilic (blue) stratum spinosum cells.  
Mid Proliferative 9 - 13 Smear- mid-proliferative.jpg Stratum spinosum (blue) increase in size.

Dark precipate outside cells are bacteria.

Human- mid-proliferative uterine endometrium.jpg
Late Proliferative, Ovulatory 13-14 Smear- late-proliferative.jpg mainly stratum corneum (red) which are large and flat.

Appear due to high estrogen levels.

Human- late proliferative uterine endometrium.jpg
Secretory 15 - 22 Smear- secretory.jpg stratum spinosum cells (blue) which are folded or with curled edges.

Appear immediately after ovulation due to increase in progesterone.

Leukocytes (small black cells) becoming more numerous.

Human- secretory uterine endometrium.jpg
Late Secretory, (Ischemic) Premenstrual 23 - 28 Smear- late secretory.jpg stratum spinosum cells (blue) mainly with a few stratum corneum cells (red).

Clustering of cells occurs at this stage.

Both leukocytes and bacteria are prevelant.

Human- late secretory uterine endometrium.jpg


Human vaginal smear histology images in sequence: early proliferative | mid-proliferative | late proliferative | secretory | late secretory

Human Uterus (D and C histology images) in sequence: menstrual | mid-proliferative | late proliferative | secretory | late secretory


See also Uterus Development

Abnormalities

Bacterial Vaginosis

  • The normal vaginal flora (lactobacillus morphotypes) is replaced by a mixed microbial flora consisting of Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis and anaerobes.
    • Originally described by Gardner and Dukes (1955).[2]
  • clinical features - malodorous, thin homogeneous vaginal discharge with elevated vaginal pH above 4.5.
Smear Image Links: L. crispatus | L. crispatus | non-L. crispatus with thin lactobacilli | non-L. crispatus with thin lactobacilli | mixture non-L. crispatus with L. crispatus | mixture non-L. crispatus with L. crispatus | irregular-shaped Gram positive rod | irregular-shaped Gram positive rod | mixture Lactobacillus and bacterial vaginosis-associated | mixture Lactobacillus and bacterial vaginosis-associated | bacterial vaginosis | bacterial vaginosis
Links: Menstrual Cycle - Histology | Histology - Gram Stain | Bacterial Vaginosis | CDC (USA) Fact Sheet - Bacterial Vaginosis

References

  1. <pubmed>19594996</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>14361525</pubmed>

Search Pubmed

Search Pubmed Now: Menstrual Cycle Histology | uterine histology | vaginal smear | pap smear |

External Links

External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.


Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, September 21) Embryology Menstrual Cycle - Histology. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Menstrual_Cycle_-_Histology

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© Dr Mark Hill 2021, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G