Menstrual Cycle - Histology
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During the menstrual cycle, the uterus undergoes a series of histologically recognisable cyclic changes under the influence of changing circulating hormonal levels.
This page presents clinical histology images from vaginal smears and uterine endometrium dilatation and curettage samples during different phases of the human menstrual cycle.
Beneath these clinical images are a number of more detailed uterus histology images.
- Menstrual Cycle Links: Introduction | Menstrual Cycle - Histology | Ovary | Oocyte | Uterus | Uterine Gland | Estrous Cycle | Pregnancy Test
- Histology Links: Stains | Fixatives | Menstrual Cycle | Placenta | Heart | Liver | Pancreas | Gall Bladder | Colon | Renal | Respiratory Histology | Bone | Category:Histology
- Histology Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | ANAT2241 Support | Histology | Histology Stains | Embryology Glossary
|More recent papers|
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Ilan Calderon, Max Cohen, Lena Sagi-Dain, Ofir Artzi, Jacob Bejar, Shlomi Sagi The effect of ozonated sterile saline irrigation on the endometrium - A preliminary study. J Obstet Gynaecol: 2016;1-6 PubMed 26836473
Elif Kervancioglu Demirci, Lois A Salamonsen, Martin Gauster The role of CX3CL1 in fetal-maternal interaction during human gestation. Cell Adh Migr: 2016; PubMed 26745855
Matteo Lambertini, Luca Boni, Andrea Michelotti, Teresa Gamucci, Tiziana Scotto, Stefania Gori, Monica Giordano, Ornella Garrone, Alessia Levaggi, Francesca Poggio, Sara Giraudi, Claudia Bighin, Carlo Vecchio, Mario Roberto Sertoli, Paolo Pronzato, Lucia Del Mastro, GIM Study Group Ovarian Suppression With Triptorelin During Adjuvant Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Long-term Ovarian Function, Pregnancies, and Disease-Free Survival: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA: 2015, 314(24);2632-2640 PubMed 26720025
J Kadlecová, R Hudeček, L Mekiňová, P Ventruba, E Jandáková [Histological types of uterine fibroids in reproductive age and postmenopausal women]. [Histologické typy děložních myomů u pacientek v reprodukčním věku a postmenopauze.] Ceska Gynekol: 2015, 80(5);360-364 PubMed 26606122
Zhijian Peng, Hugang Shen, Jianwei Gu [Clinical observation of breast hyperplasia treated with auricular point sticking therapy and Xiaopijian]. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu: 2015, 35(8);778-80 PubMed 26571890
History of the Pap Smear
(Papanicolaou smear, pap test, cervical smear) The text below is from the ABC - Great Moments In Science.
- "Luckily, we have the famous Pap Smear - an excellent way to find cancer of the cervix before it digs in locally and/or spreads throughout the body. The Pap Smear is named after a certain Dr. Papanicolaou - who did a Pap Smear on his wife virtually every day for 20 years.
- George Nikolas Papanicolaou was born in 1883 in Kymi, a small town overlooking the Aegean Sea on the Island of Euboea in Greece. His father, Nikolas Papanicolaou was both the Major of Kymi and a medical doctor. His older brother, Naso, had studied law, so his father convinced George to continue in the family medical tradition. So George studied medicine, and did well, graduating with a degree in honours in 1904............"
Papanicolaou (1933) Hand coloured photomicrographs from the publication showing the human reproductive cycle as revealed by vaginal smears.
This histology technique was originally described in a publication by George Nikolas Papanicolaou in 1942. There are 5 different stains used in the technique and it has been used for many different human bodily fluids (CSF, semen, aspirations). The original protocol has also been modified several ways (Bismarck brown Y deleted).
Dilation and Curettage
Medical procedure where uterine endometrium is collected by Dilation and Curettage (D&C or DnC). This medical procedure is used to diagnose or treat uterine abnormalities or in association with a miscarriage.
See also Uterus Development
- Uterus Histology Links: Labeled - proliferative phase | Labeled - gland proliferative phase | Labeled - secretory phase | Unlabeled - secretory phase | Unlabeled - late secretory phase | Labeled - gland secretory phase | Menstrual Cycle | Uterine Gland | Uterus Development
- The normal vaginal flora (lactobacillus morphotypes) is replaced by a mixed microbial flora consisting of Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis and anaerobes.
- Originally described by Gardner and Dukes (1955).
- clinical features - malodorous, thin homogeneous vaginal discharge with elevated vaginal pH above 4.5.
- Nugent's criteria - microbiological diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis, by counting bacterial cell types on Gram stained slides of vaginal smears.
Proposed Gram stain based categorisation
- grade I - when only Lactobacillus cell types (large Gram positive rods) were present.
- grade II (intermediate) when both Lactobacillus and Gardnerella or Bacteroides-Prevotella cell types were present.
- grade III (bacterial vaginosis) when Lactobacillus cell types were absent and only Gardnerella, Bacteroides-Prevotella or Mobiluncus cell types were present.
- grade IV when Gram positive cocci were predominantly present.
- Smear Image Links: L. crispatus | L. crispatus | non-L. crispatus with thin lactobacilli | non-L. crispatus with thin lactobacilli | mixture non-L. crispatus with L. crispatus | mixture non-L. crispatus with L. crispatus | irregular-shaped Gram positive rod | irregular-shaped Gram positive rod | mixture Lactobacillus and bacterial vaginosis-associated | mixture Lactobacillus and bacterial vaginosis-associated | bacterial vaginosis | bacterial vaginosis
- Links: Menstrual Cycle - Histology | Histology - Gram Stain | Bacterial Vaginosis | CDC (USA) Fact Sheet - Bacterial Vaginosis
- Papanicolaou GN. The Sexual Cycle in the Human Female as revealed by Vaginal Smears. Am J Anat. 1933;52: 519–637.
- G N Papanicolaou A NEW PROCEDURE FOR STAINING VAGINAL SMEARS. Science: 1942, 95(2469);438-9 PubMed 17842594 | Science
- H L GARDNER, C D DUKES Haemophilus vaginalis vaginitis: a newly defined specific infection previously classified non-specific vaginitis. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.: 1955, 69(5);962-76 PubMed 14361525
- R P Nugent, M A Krohn, S L Hillier Reliability of diagnosing bacterial vaginosis is improved by a standardized method of gram stain interpretation. J. Clin. Microbiol.: 1991, 29(2);297-301 PubMed 1706728 | PMC269757
- Rita Verhelst, Hans Verstraelen, Geert Claeys, Gerda Verschraegen, Leen Van Simaey, Catharine De Ganck, Ellen De Backer, Marleen Temmerman, Mario Vaneechoutte Comparison between Gram stain and culture for the characterization of vaginal microflora: definition of a distinct grade that resembles grade I microflora and revised categorization of grade I microflora. BMC Microbiol.: 2005, 5;61 PubMed 16225680 | PMC1266370 | BMC Microbiol.
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name.
- Medline Plus DnC | D and C - series | D and C video
- Better Health Victoria Dilatation and curettage
- Sociedad Argentina de Citología Papanicolaou staining protocol
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2016) Embryology Menstrual Cycle - Histology. Retrieved February 11, 2016, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Menstrual_Cycle_-_Histology
- © Dr Mark Hill 2016, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G