Some Recent Findings
- Review - The chicken limb - embryology, genetics and teratology "The chick embryo has a long history in investigations of vertebrate limb development because of the ease with which its limbs can be experimentally manipulated. Early studies elucidated the fundamental embryology of the limb and identified the key signalling regions that govern its development. The chick limb became a leading model for exploring the concept of positional information and understanding how patterns of differentiated cells and tissues develop in vertebrate embryos. When developmentally important molecules began to be identified, experiments in chick limbs were crucial for bridging embryology and molecular biology. The embryological mechanisms and molecular basis of limb development are largely conserved in mammals, including humans, and uncovering these molecular networks provides links to clinical genetics. We emphasise the important contributions of naturally occurring chick mutants to elucidating limb embryology and identifying novel developmentally important genes. In addition, we consider how the chick limb has been used to study mechanisms involved in teratogenesis with a focus on thalidomide. These studies on chick embryos have given insights into how limb defects can be caused by both genetic changes and chemical insults and therefore are of great medical significance." More? limb
- Divergent axial morphogenesis and early shh expression in vertebrate prospective floor plate "The notochord has organizer properties and is required for floor plate induction and dorsoventral patterning of the neural tube. This activity has been attributed to sonic hedgehog (shh) signaling, which originates in the notochord, forms a gradient, and autoinduces shh expression in the floor plate. However, reported data are inconsistent and the spatiotemporal development of the relevant shh expression domains has not been studied in detail. We therefore studied the expression dynamics of shh in rabbit, chicken and Xenopus laevis embryos (as well as indian hedgehog and desert hedgehog as possible alternative functional candidates in the chicken). ...While shh expression patterns in rabbit and X. laevis embryos are roughly compatible with the classical view of "ventral to dorsal induction" of the floor plate, the early shh expression in the chick floor plate challenges this model. Intriguingly, this alternative sequence of domain induction is related to the asymmetrical morphogenesis of the primitive node and other axial organs in the chick. Our results indicate that the floor plate in X. laevis and chick embryos may be initially induced by planar interaction within the ectoderm or epiblast. Furthermore, we propose that the mode of the floor plate induction adapts to the variant topography of interacting tissues during gastrulation and notochord formation and thereby reveals evolutionary plasticity of early embryonic induction." Sonic hedgehog
- Skin transcriptome reveals the dynamic changes in the Wnt pathway during integument morphogenesis of chick embryos "Avian species have a unique integument covered with feathers. Skin morphogenesis is a successive and complex process. To date, most studies have focused on a single developmental point or stage. ...Hierarchical clustering showed that E6 to E14 is the critical period of feather follicle morphogenesis. According to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of the DEGs, two kinds of Wnt signaling pathways (a canonical pathway and a non-canonical pathway) changed during feather follicle and feather morphogenesis. The gene expression level of inhibitors and ligands related to the Wnt signaling pathway varied significantly during embryonic development. The results revealed a staggered phase relationship between the canonical pathway and the non-canonical pathway from E9 to E14." Integumentary Development
| More recent papers
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
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References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
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Search term: Chicken Embryology
Xin Cheng, Pei-Zhi Li, Guang Wang, Yu Yan, Ke Li, Beate Brand-Saberi, Xuesong Yang Microbiota-derived lipopolysaccharide retards chondrocyte hypertrophy in the growth plate through elevating Sox9 expression. J. Cell. Physiol.: 2018; PubMed 30264889
N Ziółkowska, B Lewczuk, M Prusik Diurnal and circadian variations in indole contents in the goose pineal gland. Chronobiol. Int.: 2018;1-16 PubMed 30252556
Rebecca Vicente Steijn, David Sedmera, Nico A Blom, Monique Jongbloed, Alena Kvasilova, Ondrej Nanka Apoptosis and epicardial contributions act as complementary factors in remodeling of the atrioventricular canal myocardium and atrioventricular conduction patterns in the embryonic chick heart. Dev. Dyn.: 2018; PubMed 30152577
Reza Mahdavi, Artyom Karlovich Osmanyan, Vladimir Ivanovich Fisinin, Shahab Ghazi Harsini, Anna Leonidovna Arkhipova, Alexander Nikolayevich Shevyakov, Svetlana Nikolaevna Kovalchuk, Gleb Yurievich Kosovsky Impact of mash and crumble diets on intestinal amino acids transporters, intestinal morphology and pancreatic enzyme activity of broilers. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl): 2018; PubMed 30152003
Kento Morita, Yohei Y Yamamoto, Ayaka Hori, Tomohiro Obata, Yuko Uno, Kyosuke Shinohara, Keiichi Noguchi, Kentaro Noi, Teru Ogura, Kentaro Ishii, Koichi Kato, Mahito Kikumoto, Rocio Arranz, Jose M Valpuesta, Masafumi Yohda ##Title## Int J Mol Sci: 2018, 19(8); PubMed 30126249
| Older papers
- FGF8 coordinates tissue elongation and cell epithelialization during early kidney tubulogenesis "When a tubular structure forms during early embryogenesis, tubular elongation and lumen formation (epithelialization) proceed simultaneously in a spatiotemporally coordinated manner. We here demonstrate, using the Wolffian duct (WD) of early chicken embryos, that this coordination is regulated by the expression of FGF8, which shifts posteriorly during body axis elongation. FGF8 acts as a chemoattractant on the leader cells of the elongating WD and prevents them from epithelialization, whereas static ('rear') cells that receive progressively less FGF8 undergo epithelialization to form a lumen. Thus, FGF8 acts as a binary switch that distinguishes tubular elongation from lumen formation. The posteriorly shifting FGF8 is also known to regulate somite segmentation, suggesting that multiple types of tissue morphogenesis are coordinately regulated by macroscopic changes in body growth." Fibroblast Growth Factor | Renal System Development
- 4D fluorescent imaging of embryonic quail development "Traditionally, our understanding of developmental biology has been based on the fixation and study of embryonic samples. Detailed microscopic scrutiny of static specimens at varying ages allowed for anatomical assessment of tissue development. The advent of confocal and two-photon excitation (2PE) microscopy enables researchers to acquire volumetric images in three dimensions (x, y, and z) plus time (t). Here, we present techniques for acquisition and analysis of three-dimensional (3D) time-lapse data. Both confocal microscopy and 2PE microscopy techniques are used. Data processing for tiled image stitching and time-lapse analysis is also discussed. The development of a transgenic Japanese quail system, as discussed here, has provided an embryonic model that is more easily accessible than mammalian models and more efficient to breed than the classic avian model, the chicken."
Taxonomy Id: 9031
Preferred common name: chicken
Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard) Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 2
Other names: dwarf Leghorn chickens (includes), red jungle fowl (includes), chickens (common name), Gallus domestics (misnomer), Gallus galls domesticus (misnomer)
Lineage (abbreviated ): Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Archosauria; Aves; Neognathae; Galliformes; Phasianidae; Phasianinae; Gallus
Chicken stages - Hamburger & Hamilton staged the chicken embryo in 1951. The Hamburger Hamilton Stages are most commonly used series for chicken staging. The original paper had approx 25 citations between 1955 - 59, while in the year 1991 alone there were over 300 citations. Series of Embryonic Chicken Growth. J. Morphology, 88 49 - 92 (1951). Atlas recently republished by J.R. Sanes in Developmental Dynamics 195 229-275 (1993).
|Hamburger Hamilton Stages (1951)
| Hamburger Hamilton Stages
|| Identification of Stages (Chicken Development)
| Before Laying
| Early cleavage
|| 3.5-4.5 hr
|| Shell membrane of egg formed in isthmus of oviduct
| During cleavage
|| Germ wall formed from marginal periblast
| Late cleavage
|| 4.5-24.0 hr
|| Shell of egg formed in uterus
| After Laying
|| Preprimitive streak (embryonic shield)
|| 6-7 hr
|| Initial primitive streak, 0.3-0.5 mm long
|| 12-13 hr
|| Intermediate primitive streak
|| 18-19 hr
|| Definitive primitive streak, ±1.88 mm long
|| 19-22 hr
|| Head process (notochord)
|| 23-25 hr
|| Head fold
|| 23-26 hr
|| 1 somite; neural folds
| 7 to 8-
|| ca. 23-26 hr
|| 1-3 somites; coelom
|| 26-29 hr
|| 4 somites; blood islands
|| 29-33 hr
|| 7 somites; primary optic vesicles
| 9+ to 10-
|| ca. 33 hr
|| 8-9 somites; anterior amniotic fold
|| 33-38 hr
|| 10 somites; 3 primary brain vesicles
|| 40-45 hr
|| 13 somites; 5 neuromeres of hindbrain
|| 45-49 hr
|| 16 somites; telencephalon
|| 48-52 hr
|| 19 somites; atrioventricular canal
| 13+ to 14-
|| ca. 50-52 hr
|| 20-21 somites; tail bud
|| 50-53 hr
|| 22 somites; trunk flexure; visceral arches I and II, clefts 1 and 2
| 14+ to 15-
|| ca. 50-54 hr
|| 23 somites; premandibular head cavities
|| 50-55 hr
|| 24-27 somites; visceral arch III, cleft 3
|| 51-56 hr
|| 26-28 somites; wing bud; posterior amniotic fold
|| 52-64 hr
|| 29-32 somites; leg bud; epiphysis
|| 3 da
|| 30-36 somites extending beyond level of leg bud; allantois
|| 3.0-3.5 da
|| 37- 40 somites extending into tail; maxillary process
|| 3.0-3.5 da
|| 40-43 somites; rotation completed; eye pigment
|| 3.5 da
|| 43-44 somites; visceral arch IV, cleft 4
|| 3.5-4.0 da
|| Somites extend to tip of tail
|| 4 da
|| Dorsal contour from hindbrain to tail is a curved line
|| 4.5 da
|| Toe plate
|| 4.5-5.0 da
|| Elbow and knee joints
|| 5 da
|| 1st 3 toes
|| 5.0-5.5 da
|| 5.5-6.0 da
|| 3 digits, 4 toes
|| 6.0-6.5 da
|| Rudiment of 5th toe
|| 6.5-7.0 da
|| Feather germs; scleral papillae; egg tooth
|| 7.0-7.5 da
|| Web between 1st and 2nd digits
|| 7.5 da
|| Anterior tip of mandible has reached beak
|| 7.5-8.0 da
|| Web on radial margin of wing and 1st digit
|| 8 da
|| Nictitating membrane
|| 8.5-9.0 da
|| Phalanges in toes
|| 10 da
|| Length of 3rd toe from tip to middle of metatarsal joint = 5.4 ±0.3 mm; length of beak from anterior angle of nostril to tip of bill = 2.5mm; primordium of comb; labial groove; uropygial gland
|| 11 da
|| Length of 3rd toe = 7.4 ±0.3mm; length of beak = 3.0 mm
|| 12 da
|| Length of 3rd toe = 8.4 ± 0.3 mm; length of beak = 3.1 mm
|| 13 da
|| Length of 3rd toe = 9.8 ± 0.3 mm; length of beak = 3.5 mm
|| 14 da
|| Length of beak = 4.0 mm; length of 3rd toe = 12.7 ± 0.5 mm
|| 15 da
|| Length of beak from anterior angle of nostril to tip of upper bill = 4.5 mm; length of 3rd toe = 14.9 ± 0.8 mm
|| 16 da
|| Length of beak = 4.8 mm; length of 3rd toe = 16.7 ± 0.8 mm
|| 17 da
|| Length of beak = 5.0 mm; length of 3rd toe = 18.6 ± 0.8 mm
|| 18 da
|| Length of beak = 5.7 mm; length of 3rd toe = 20.4 ± 0.8 mm
|| 19-20 da
|| Yolk sac half enclosed in body cavity; chorio-allantoic membrane contains less blood and is "sticky" in living embryo
|| 20-21 da
|| Newly-hatched chick
Hamburger V. and Hamilton HL. A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. (1951) J Morphol. 88(1): 49-92. PMID 24539719 PDF
Original 1951 paper (and all data) was republished in 1992.
V Hamburger, H L Hamilton A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. 1951. Dev. Dyn.: 1992, 195(4);231-72 PubMed 1304821
Note that there was also an earlier Witschi staging, and a 1900 staging series by Franz Keibel and Karl Abraham, and an earlier (1883) series by Foster, Balfour, Sedgwick, and Heape.
Normal Plates of the Development of the Chicken Embryo (1900)
- Links: Chicken Stages | Hamburger Hamilton | Witschi | 1900 | 1883 | PDF Poster- Hamburger Hamilton Stages | 2006 reproduction of the original paper
- Links: Movies
Other Chicken Atlases
Vertebrate and Invertebrate Embryos (7th Edition) G.C. Schoenwolf, Prentice Hall, New Jersey
An Atlas of Embryology (1975) W.H. Freeman and B. Bracegirdle, Heinemann Educational Books, UK.
This is an ATLAS (no description of development) , basically reprinted from the original 1963 edition.
Photos with labelled diagrams covering Amphioxus (worm) Frog, Chicken.
An Atlas for Staging Mammalian and Chick Embryos (1987) H. Bultler and B.H. Juurlink, CRC Press Inc., Florida
This ATLAS is not a complete series of development but has interesting comparisons of species.
Mostly photos of embryos with a few drawn diagrams and a series of staging correlation graphs.
Birds and Dinosaurs? as quoted in a Curent Biology review "...abundant and ever increasing evidence places birds as one surviving lineage of the diverse clade Dinosauria"
The first draft of the chicken genome was publicly released in March, 2004. There are a number of sites that have begun looking into establishing chicken genomics partly due to its powerful history as a model of vertebrate development that is easy to observe, manipulate and is also cheap. (see also NIH Proposal for Chicken Genomics | NCBI Chicken Genome Resources)
A summary of chicken genome resources has recently been identified in a review in Developmental Dynamics by Antin PB and Konieczka JH.
Chicken Sex Determination
In chicken development sex determination depends on a ZZ male/ZW female mechanism.
This differs from mammalian sex determination which is based upon testis expression of an Sry gene in somatic supporting Sertoli cells.
In the gonad, the coelomic epithelium contributes only to non-steroidogenic interstitial cells and nephrogenous mesenchyme contributes both Sertoli cells and steroidogenic cells.
Primordial Germ Cell Migration Model
|HH12–13 - yolk sac circulation courses in loop (red arrows) to enter the embryo via the heart. The majority of PGCs (green dots) localized axially at the border between the area opaca and pellucida, where the sinus terminalis converged in the anterior vitelline veins.
||HH14–16 - PGCs (green dots) circulated effectively towards the embryo via the sinus terminalis and the anterior vitelline veins towards the heart. Then PGCs traffic via the aorta to the caudal part of the embryo and become lodged in the genital ridges.
Note these are Hamburger Hamilton Stages of chicken development, see also Heart 3D reconstruction.
Chicken (day 2, Stage 12)
Chicken (day 3, Stage 16)
Chicken (day 4, Stage 21)
Chicken (day 5, Stage 25)
Chicken Cardiac Stages
- HH 8 (26–29 hours, 4–6 somites)
- HH 9 (29–33 hours, 7–9 somites) - Cardiac neural crest cells begin the process of EMT and emigrate from the neural tube.
- HH 10–11 (33–45 hours, 10–15 somites) - Primary heart tube
- HH 12-13- (45–49 hours, 16–19 somites) - dextral-looping phase of looping completed at stage 12.
- HH 13+ (50–52 hours, 20–21 somites) - c-shaped heart loop transformed into the s-shaped heart loop. Cardiac neural crest has stopped producing cells.
| Gene expression
|| Somite timing
Chick somitogenesis oscillator
Chicken body elongation model
Limb Hairy2 Expression Model
Hairy2 is a "molecular oscillator" involved in both somite and limb development.
Chicken stage 21 to 27 wing bud Tbx2 and Tbx3 expression
The following gene expression data is from a study of different head regions during development.
- Frontonasal Prominence - CASH1/ASCL1, POSTN, OGN, CYP26A1, NR2E1, and SCARA5.
- Olfactory epithelium SP8, EYA2, and SIX3
- Maxillary/Trigeminal Ganglion - SOX10, TAGLN3.
- Mandibular - DLX1, HAND2 (highest), LHX8, MSX2, PITX2, and TWIST2.
- Mandibular/maxillary prominences differentially expressed - BETA3, HAND2, and MSX2.
Processes in chicken embryo skin development.
Three different processes in chicken embryo skin development were analyzed: Micro-patterning (E6–E8), intra-bud morphogenesis (E9–E10) and follicle morphogenesis (After E11). Histological sections of three stages of chicken skin during embryonic development.
The Elements of Embryology - Volume 1 by Foster, M., Balfour, F. M., Sedgwick, A., & Heape, W. (1883)
The History of the Chick: Egg structure and incubation beginning | Summary whole incubation | First day | Second day - first half | Second day - second half | Third day | Fourth day | Fifth day | Sixth day to incubation end
Fig. 1. Diagrammatic section of an unincubated fowl's egg
Fig. 3. Section of a blastoderm of a fowl's egg at the commencement of incubation
Fig. 27. Embryo of the chick between thirty and thirty-six hours, viewed from above as an opaque object.
Fig. 28. an embryo chick of about thirty-six hours, viewed from below as a transparent object.
Fig. 29. Diagrammatic longitudinal section through the axis of an embryo.
Fig. 30. Transverse section through the posterior part of the head of an embryo chick of thirty hours.
Fig. 31. Two sections of a thirty-six hours' embryo heart shortly after its formation. a is the anterior section.
Fig. 32. Transverse section at the end of the second day through the bulbus arteriosus. (Copied from His.)
Fig. 33. Surface view from below of the posterior end pellucid area of a thirty-six hours' chick.
Elements of Embryology - Volume 1 - Figures
- ↑ Hamburger V & Hamilton HL. (1992). A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. 1951. Dev. Dyn. , 195, 231-72. PMID: 1304821 DOI.
- ↑ Davey MG, Towers M, Vargesson N & Tickle C. (2018). The chick limb: embryology, genetics and teratology. Int. J. Dev. Biol. , 62, 85-95. PMID: 29616743 DOI.
- ↑ Kremnyov S, Henningfeld K, Viebahn C & Tsikolia N. (2018). Divergent axial morphogenesis and earlyshhexpression in vertebrate prospective floor plate. Evodevo , 9, 4. PMID: 29423139 DOI.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 Gong H, Wang H, Wang Y, Bai X, Liu B, He J, Wu J, Qi W & Zhang W. (2018). Skin transcriptome reveals the dynamic changes in the Wnt pathway during integument morphogenesis of chick embryos. PLoS ONE , 13, e0190933. PMID: 29351308 DOI.
- ↑ Atsuta Y & Takahashi Y. (2015). FGF8 coordinates tissue elongation and cell epithelialization during early kidney tubulogenesis. Development , 142, 2329-37. PMID: 26130757 DOI.
- ↑ Canaria CA & Lansford R. (2011). 4D fluorescent imaging of embryonic quail development. Cold Spring Harb Protoc , 2011, 1291-4. PMID: 22046043 DOI.
- ↑ Keibel F. and Abraham K. Normal Plates of the Development of the Chicken Embryo (Gallus domesticus). (1900) Vol. 2 in series by Keibel F. Normal plates of the development of vertebrates (Normentafeln zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbelthiere) Fisher, Jena., Germany.
- ↑ Foster M. Balfour FM. Sedgwick A. and Heape W. The Elements of Embryology (1883) Vol. 1. (2nd ed.). London: Macmillan and Co.
- ↑ Clarke J & Middleton K. (2006). Bird evolution. Curr. Biol. , 16, R350-4. PMID: 16713939 DOI.
- ↑ Lindow BE & Dyke GJ. (2006). Bird evolution in the Eocene: climate change in Europe and a Danish fossil fauna. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc , 81, 483-99. PMID: 16893476 DOI.
- ↑ Antin PB & Konieczka JH. (2005). Genomic resources for chicken. Dev. Dyn. , 232, 877-82. PMID: 15739221 DOI.
- ↑ De Melo Bernardo A, Sprenkels K, Rodrigues G, Noce T & Chuva De Sousa Lopes SM. (2012). Chicken primordial germ cells use the anterior vitelline veins to enter the embryonic circulation. Biol Open , 1, 1146-52. PMID: 23213395 DOI.
- ↑ Martinsen BJ. (2005). Reference guide to the stages of chick heart embryology. Dev. Dyn. , 233, 1217-37. PMID: 15986452 DOI.
- ↑ Tenin G, Wright D, Ferjentsik Z, Bone R, McGrew MJ & Maroto M. (2010). The chick somitogenesis oscillator is arrested before all paraxial mesoderm is segmented into somites. BMC Dev. Biol. , 10, 24. PMID: 20184730 DOI.
- ↑ Olivera-Martinez I, Harada H, Halley PA & Storey KG. (2012). Loss of FGF-dependent mesoderm identity and rise of endogenous retinoid signalling determine cessation of body axis elongation. PLoS Biol. , 10, e1001415. PMID: 23118616 DOI.
- ↑ Sheeba CJ, Andrade RP & Palmeirim I. (2012). Joint interpretation of AER/FGF and ZPA/SHH over time and space underlies hairy2 expression in the chick limb. Biol Open , 1, 1102-10. PMID: 23213390 DOI.
- ↑ Fisher M, Downie H, Welten MC, Delgado I, Bain A, Planzer T, Sherman A, Sang H & Tickle C. (2011). Comparative analysis of 3D expression patterns of transcription factor genes and digit fate maps in the developing chick wing. PLoS ONE , 6, e18661. PMID: 21526123 DOI.
- ↑ Buchtová M, Kuo WP, Nimmagadda S, Benson SL, Geetha-Loganathan P, Logan C, Au-Yeung T, Chiang E, Fu K & Richman JM. (2010). Whole genome microarray analysis of chicken embryo facial prominences. Dev. Dyn. , 239, 574-91. PMID: 19941351 DOI.
Korn MJ & Cramer KS. (2007). Windowing chicken eggs for developmental studies. J Vis Exp , , 306. PMID: 18989413 DOI.
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