Chicken Development

From Embryology
(Redirected from Chicken)
Embryology - 13 Jun 2024    Facebook link Pinterest link Twitter link  Expand to Translate  
Google Translate - select your language from the list shown below (this will open a new external page)

العربية | català | 中文 | 中國傳統的 | français | Deutsche | עִברִית | हिंदी | bahasa Indonesia | italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | မြန်မာ | Pilipino | Polskie | português | ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ | Română | русский | Español | Swahili | Svensk | ไทย | Türkçe | اردو | ייִדיש | Tiếng Việt    These external translations are automated and may not be accurate. (More? About Translations)


Chicken embryo (day 12)

The chicken (taxon -Gallus gallus) embryo develops and hatches in 20 to 21 days and has been extensively used in embryology studies. Historically, the chicken embryo was one of the first embryos studied, readily available and easy to incubate, embryo development can be directly observed by cutting a small window in the egg shell. A key to this model organism study was the establishment of a staging atlas by Hamburger & Hamilton in 1951[1], which allowed specifc developmental landmarks to be seen and correlated with experimental manipulations of development. This much cited paper included images of all key stages and was more recently republished in the journal Developmental Dynamics (1993), for a new generation of avian researchers. Probably just as important has been the recent chicken genome sequencing, providing a resource to extend our knowledge of this excellent developmental model.

Fertilized eggs can be easily maintained in humidified incubators and during early stages of development the embryo floats on to of the egg yolk that it is using for nutrition. As the embryo grows it sinks into, or below the, yolk. The regular appearance of somites allowed early experimenters to acurately stage the embryo. The embryo was accessible and easy to manipulate (limb grafts/removal etc) that were informative about developmental processes. Chicken cells and tissues (neural ganglia/fragments) are also easy to grow in tissue culture. The discovery that quail cells have a different nuclear appearance meant that transplanted cells (chick/quail chimeras) could be tracked during development. For example, LeDourian's studies showed how neural crest cells migrate widely throughout the embryo.

This collapsible and sortable table compares the chicken incubation period with other bird species.
Avian Incubation Periods  
Bird Days
Budgerigar 18
Chicken 21
Duck 28
Finch 14
Goose 28
Guinea fowl 28
Muscovy duck 35
Parrot 26
Pheasant 24
Pigeon 18
Quail 16
Swan 35
Turkey 28

Chicken Links: Introduction | Chicken stages | Hamburger Hamilton Stages | Witschi Stages | Placodes | Category:Chicken
Historic Chicken Embryology  
1883 History of the Chick | 1900 Chicken Embryo Development Plates | 1904 X-Ray Effects | 1910 Somites | 1914 Primordial Germ Cells

1919 Lillie Textbook | 1920 Chick Early Embryology | 1933 Neural | 1939 Sternum | 1948 Limb | Movie 1961 | Historic Papers

Animal Development: axolotl | bat | cat | chicken | cow | dog | dolphin | echidna | fly | frog | goat | grasshopper | guinea pig | hamster | horse | kangaroo | koala | lizard | medaka | mouse | opossum | pig | platypus | rabbit | rat | salamander | sea squirt | sea urchin | sheep | worm | zebrafish | life cycles | development timetable | development models | K12
Historic Embryology  
1897 Pig | 1900 Chicken | 1901 Lungfish | 1904 Sand Lizard | 1905 Rabbit | 1906 Deer | 1907 Tarsiers | 1908 Human | 1909 Northern Lapwing | 1909 South American and African Lungfish | 1910 Salamander | 1951 Frog | Embryology History | Historic Disclaimer

Some Recent Findings

  • Review - The chicken limb - embryology, genetics and teratology[2] "The chick embryo has a long history in investigations of vertebrate limb development because of the ease with which its limbs can be experimentally manipulated. Early studies elucidated the fundamental embryology of the limb and identified the key signalling regions that govern its development. The chick limb became a leading model for exploring the concept of positional information and understanding how patterns of differentiated cells and tissues develop in vertebrate embryos. When developmentally important molecules began to be identified, experiments in chick limbs were crucial for bridging embryology and molecular biology. The embryological mechanisms and molecular basis of limb development are largely conserved in mammals, including humans, and uncovering these molecular networks provides links to clinical genetics. We emphasise the important contributions of naturally occurring chick mutants to elucidating limb embryology and identifying novel developmentally important genes. In addition, we consider how the chick limb has been used to study mechanisms involved in teratogenesis with a focus on thalidomide. These studies on chick embryos have given insights into how limb defects can be caused by both genetic changes and chemical insults and therefore are of great medical significance." More? limb
  • Divergent axial morphogenesis and early shh expression in vertebrate prospective floor plate[3] "The notochord has organizer properties and is required for floor plate induction and dorsoventral patterning of the neural tube. This activity has been attributed to sonic hedgehog (shh) signaling, which originates in the notochord, forms a gradient, and autoinduces shh expression in the floor plate. However, reported data are inconsistent and the spatiotemporal development of the relevant shh expression domains has not been studied in detail. We therefore studied the expression dynamics of shh in rabbit, chicken and Xenopus laevis embryos (as well as indian hedgehog and desert hedgehog as possible alternative functional candidates in the chicken). ...While shh expression patterns in rabbit and X. laevis embryos are roughly compatible with the classical view of "ventral to dorsal induction" of the floor plate, the early shh expression in the chick floor plate challenges this model. Intriguingly, this alternative sequence of domain induction is related to the asymmetrical morphogenesis of the primitive node and other axial organs in the chick. Our results indicate that the floor plate in X. laevis and chick embryos may be initially induced by planar interaction within the ectoderm or epiblast. Furthermore, we propose that the mode of the floor plate induction adapts to the variant topography of interacting tissues during gastrulation and notochord formation and thereby reveals evolutionary plasticity of early embryonic induction." Sonic hedgehog
  • Skin transcriptome reveals the dynamic changes in the Wnt pathway during integument morphogenesis of chick embryos[4] "Avian species have a unique integument covered with feathers. Skin morphogenesis is a successive and complex process. To date, most studies have focused on a single developmental point or stage. ...Hierarchical clustering showed that E6 to E14 is the critical period of feather follicle morphogenesis. According to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of the DEGs, two kinds of Wnt signaling pathways (a canonical pathway and a non-canonical pathway) changed during feather follicle and feather morphogenesis. The gene expression level of inhibitors and ligands related to the Wnt signaling pathway varied significantly during embryonic development. The results revealed a staggered phase relationship between the canonical pathway and the non-canonical pathway from E9 to E14." Integumentary Development
More recent papers  
Mark Hill.jpg
PubMed logo.gif

This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.

  • This search now requires a manual link as the original PubMed extension has been disabled.
  • The displayed list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References also appear on this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

More? References | Discussion Page | Journal Searches | 2019 References | 2020 References

Search term: Chicken Embryology | Chicken Development

Older papers  
These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.

See also the Discussion Page for other references listed by year and References on this current page.

  • MORN5 Expression during Craniofacial Development and Its Interaction with the BMP and TGFβ Pathways[5] "MORN5 (MORN repeat containing 5) is encoded by a locus positioned on chromosome 17 in the chicken genome. The MORN motif is found in multiple copies in several proteins including junctophilins or phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase family and the MORN proteins themselves are found across the animal and plant kingdoms. MORN5 protein has a characteristic punctate pattern in the cytoplasm in immunofluorescence imaging. Previously, MORN5 was found among differentially expressed genes in a microarray profiling experiment of the chicken embryo head. Here, we provided in situ hybridization to analyse, in detail, the MORN5 expression in chick craniofacial structures. The expression of MORN5 was first observed at stage HH17-18 (E2.5). MORN5 expression gradually appeared on either side of the primitive oral cavity, within the maxillary region. At stage HH20 (E3), prominent expression was localized in the mandibular prominences lateral to the midline. From stage HH20 up to HH29 (E6), there was strong expression in restricted regions of the maxillary and mandibular prominences. The frontonasal mass (in the midline of the face) expressed MORN5, starting at HH27 (E5). The expression was concentrated in the corners or globular processes, which will ultimately fuse with the cranial edges of the maxillary prominences. MORN5 expression was maintained in the fusion zone up to stage HH29. In sections MORN5 expression was localized preferentially in the mesenchyme. Previously, we examined signals that regulate MORN5 expression in the face based on a previous microarray study. Here, we validated the array results with in situ hybridization and QPCR. MORN5 was downregulated 24 h after Noggin and/or RA treatment. We also determined that BMP pathway genes are downstream of MORN5 following siRNA knockdown. Based on these results, we conclude that MORN5 is both regulated by and required for BMP signaling. The restricted expression of MORN5 in the lip fusion zone shown here supports the human genetic data in which MORN5 variants were associated with increased risk of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate." DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2016.00378
  • FGF8 coordinates tissue elongation and cell epithelialization during early kidney tubulogenesis[6] "When a tubular structure forms during early embryogenesis, tubular elongation and lumen formation (epithelialization) proceed simultaneously in a spatiotemporally coordinated manner. We here demonstrate, using the Wolffian duct (WD) of early chicken embryos, that this coordination is regulated by the expression of FGF8, which shifts posteriorly during body axis elongation. FGF8 acts as a chemoattractant on the leader cells of the elongating WD and prevents them from epithelialization, whereas static ('rear') cells that receive progressively less FGF8 undergo epithelialization to form a lumen. Thus, FGF8 acts as a binary switch that distinguishes tubular elongation from lumen formation. The posteriorly shifting FGF8 is also known to regulate somite segmentation, suggesting that multiple types of tissue morphogenesis are coordinately regulated by macroscopic changes in body growth." Fibroblast Growth Factor | Renal System Development
  • 4D fluorescent imaging of embryonic quail development[7] "Traditionally, our understanding of developmental biology has been based on the fixation and study of embryonic samples. Detailed microscopic scrutiny of static specimens at varying ages allowed for anatomical assessment of tissue development. The advent of confocal and two-photon excitation (2PE) microscopy enables researchers to acquire volumetric images in three dimensions (x, y, and z) plus time (t). Here, we present techniques for acquisition and analysis of three-dimensional (3D) time-lapse data. Both confocal microscopy and 2PE microscopy techniques are used. Data processing for tiled image stitching and time-lapse analysis is also discussed. The development of a transgenic Japanese quail system, as discussed here, has provided an embryonic model that is more easily accessible than mammalian models and more efficient to breed than the classic avian model, the chicken."

Gallus gallus

Taxonomy Id: 9031

Preferred common name: chicken

Rank: species

Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard) Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 2

Other names: dwarf Leghorn chickens (includes), red jungle fowl (includes), chickens (common name), Gallus domestics (misnomer), Gallus galls domesticus (misnomer)

Lineage (abbreviated ): Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Archosauria; Aves; Neognathae; Galliformes; Phasianidae; Phasianinae; Gallus

Chicken Stages

Chicken stages - Hamburger & Hamilton staged the chicken embryo in 1951. The Hamburger Hamilton Stages are most commonly used series for chicken staging. The original paper had approx 25 citations between 1955 - 59, while in the year 1991 alone there were over 300 citations. Series of Embryonic Chicken Growth. J. Morphology, 88 49 - 92 (1951). Atlas recently republished by J.R. Sanes in Developmental Dynamics 195 229-275 (1993).

Hamburger Hamilton Stages (1951)  
Hamburger Hamilton Stages
Identification of Stages   (Chicken Development)
Before Laying
Early cleavage
3.5-4.5 hr Shell membrane of egg formed in isthmus of oviduct
During cleavage
Germ wall formed from marginal periblast
Late cleavage
4.5-24.0 hr Shell of egg formed in uterus
After Laying
Preprimitive streak (embryonic shield)
6-7 hr Initial primitive streak, 0.3-0.5 mm long
12-13 hr Intermediate primitive streak
18-19 hr Definitive primitive streak, ±1.88 mm long
19-22 hr Head process (notochord)
23-25 hr Head fold
23-26 hr 1 somite; neural folds
7 to 8-
ca. 23-26 hr 1-3 somites; coelom
26-29 hr 4 somites; blood islands
29-33 hr 7 somites; primary optic vesicles
9+ to 10-
ca. 33 hr 8-9 somites; anterior amniotic fold
33-38 hr 10 somites; 3 primary brain vesicles
40-45 hr 13 somites; 5 neuromeres of hindbrain
45-49 hr 16 somites; telencephalon
48-52 hr 19 somites; atrioventricular canal
13+ to 14-
ca. 50-52 hr 20-21 somites; tail bud
50-53 hr 22 somites; trunk flexure; visceral arches I and II, clefts 1 and 2
14+ to 15-
ca. 50-54 hr 23 somites; premandibular head cavities
50-55 hr 24-27 somites; visceral arch III, cleft 3
51-56 hr 26-28 somites; wing bud; posterior amniotic fold
52-64 hr 29-32 somites; leg bud; epiphysis
3 da 30-36 somites extending beyond level of leg bud; allantois
3.0-3.5 da 37- 40 somites extending into tail; maxillary process
3.0-3.5 da 40-43 somites; rotation completed; eye pigment
3.5 da 43-44 somites; visceral arch IV, cleft 4
3.5-4.0 da Somites extend to tip of tail
4 da Dorsal contour from hindbrain to tail is a curved line
4.5 da Toe plate
4.5-5.0 da Elbow and knee joints
5 da 1st 3 toes
5.0-5.5 da Beak
5.5-6.0 da 3 digits, 4 toes
6.0-6.5 da Rudiment of 5th toe
6.5-7.0 da Feather germs; scleral papillae; egg tooth
7.0-7.5 da Web between 1st and 2nd digits
7.5 da Anterior tip of mandible has reached beak
7.5-8.0 da Web on radial margin of wing and 1st digit
8 da Nictitating membrane
8.5-9.0 da Phalanges in toes
10 da Length of 3rd toe from tip to middle of metatarsal joint = 5.4 ±0.3 mm; length of beak from anterior angle of nostril to tip of bill = 2.5mm; primordium of comb; labial groove; uropygial gland
11 da Length of 3rd toe = 7.4 ±0.3mm; length of beak = 3.0 mm
12 da Length of 3rd toe = 8.4 ± 0.3 mm; length of beak = 3.1 mm
13 da Length of 3rd toe = 9.8 ± 0.3 mm; length of beak = 3.5 mm
14 da Length of beak = 4.0 mm; length of 3rd toe = 12.7 ± 0.5 mm
15 da Length of beak from anterior angle of nostril to tip of upper bill = 4.5 mm; length of 3rd toe = 14.9 ± 0.8 mm
16 da Length of beak = 4.8 mm; length of 3rd toe = 16.7 ± 0.8 mm
17 da Length of beak = 5.0 mm; length of 3rd toe = 18.6 ± 0.8 mm
18 da Length of beak = 5.7 mm; length of 3rd toe = 20.4 ± 0.8 mm
19-20 da Yolk sac half enclosed in body cavity; chorio-allantoic membrane contains less blood and is "sticky" in living embryo
20-21 da Newly-hatched chick

Hamburger V. and Hamilton HL. A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. (1951) J Morphol. 88(1): 49-92. PMID 24539719 PDF

Original 1951 paper (and all data) was republished in 1992. <pubmed>1304821</pubmed> PDF

Note that there was also an earlier Witschi staging, and a 1900 staging series by Franz Keibel and Karl Abraham[8], and an earlier (1883) series by Foster, Balfour, Sedgwick, and Heape.[9]

Normal Plates of the Development of the Chicken Embryo (1900)

Links: Chicken Stages | Hamburger Hamilton | Witschi | 1900 | 1883 | PDF Poster- Hamburger Hamilton Stages | 2006 reproduction of the original paper

Chicken Movies

Chicken movie 1961.jpg
 ‎‎Chicken (1961)
Page | Play
Mesoderm migration movie 1 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Mesoderm Move
Page | Play
Chicken Embryo Somite1-icon.jpg
 ‎‎Chicken Somite
Page | Play
Chick Heart 001-icon.jpg
 ‎‎Normal Heart
Page | Play
Chick Heart 002-icon.jpg
 ‎‎Abnormal Heart 1
Page | Play
Chick Heart 002-icon.jpg
 ‎‎Abnormal Heart 2
Page | Play
 ‎‎GIT Motility
Page | Play
Neural crest migration Chicken Head (movies overview)
 ‎‎Neural Crest 1
Page | Play
 ‎‎Neural Crest 2
Page | Play
 ‎‎Neural Crest 3
Page | Play
 ‎‎Neural Crest 4
Page | Play
 ‎‎Neural Crest 5
Page | Play
 ‎‎Neural Crest 6
Page | Play
 ‎‎Neural Crest 7
Page | Play
Chicken Placode
Chicken Placode Movie 6 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Placode 6
Page | Play
Chicken Placode Movie 1 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Placode 1
Page | Play
Chicken Placode Movie 2 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Placode 2
Page | Play
Chicken Placode Movie 3 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Placode 3
Page | Play
Chicken Placode Movie 4 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Placode 4
Page | Play
Chicken Placode Movie 5 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Placode 5
Page | Play
Chicken Placode Movie 7 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Placode 7
Page | Play
Chicken Placode Movie 8 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Placode 8
Page | Play
Chicken Placode Movie 9 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Placode 9
Page | Play
Links: Movies

Other Chicken Atlases

Vertebrate and Invertebrate Embryos (7th Edition) G.C. Schoenwolf, Prentice Hall, New Jersey

An Atlas of Embryology (1975) W.H. Freeman and B. Bracegirdle, Heinemann Educational Books, UK.

This is an ATLAS (no description of development) , basically reprinted from the original 1963 edition.

Photos with labelled diagrams covering Amphioxus (worm) Frog, Chicken.

An Atlas for Staging Mammalian and Chick Embryos (1987) H. Bultler and B.H. Juurlink, CRC Press Inc., Florida

This ATLAS is not a complete series of development but has interesting comparisons of species.

Mostly photos of embryos with a few drawn diagrams and a series of staging correlation graphs.

Bird Evolution

Birds and Dinosaurs? as quoted in a Curent Biology review "...abundant and ever increasing evidence places birds as one surviving lineage of the diverse clade Dinosauria"[10][11]

Chicken Genomics

The first draft of the chicken genome was publicly released in March, 2004. There are a number of sites that have begun looking into establishing chicken genomics partly due to its powerful history as a model of vertebrate development that is easy to observe, manipulate and is also cheap. (see also NIH Proposal for Chicken Genomics | NCBI Chicken Genome Resources)

A summary of chicken genome resources has recently been identified in a review in Developmental Dynamics by Antin PB and Konieczka JH.[12]

Chicken Sex Determination

In chicken development sex determination depends on a ZZ male/ZW female mechanism.

This differs from mammalian sex determination which is based upon testis expression of an Sry gene in somatic supporting Sertoli cells.

In the gonad, the coelomic epithelium contributes only to non-steroidogenic interstitial cells and nephrogenous mesenchyme contributes both Sertoli cells and steroidogenic cells.


Chicken primordial germ cell migration model.jpg

Primordial Germ Cell Migration Model[13]

HH12–13 - yolk sac circulation courses in loop (red arrows) to enter the embryo via the heart. The majority of PGCs (green dots) localized axially at the border between the area opaca and pellucida, where the sinus terminalis converged in the anterior vitelline veins. HH14–16 - PGCs (green dots) circulated effectively towards the embryo via the sinus terminalis and the anterior vitelline veins towards the heart. Then PGCs traffic via the aorta to the caudal part of the embryo and become lodged in the genital ridges.

Chicken Heart

Note these are Hamburger Hamilton Stages of chicken development, see also Heart 3D reconstruction.

Chicken Cardiac Stages

From review[14]

  • HH 8 (26–29 hours, 4–6 somites)
  • HH 9 (29–33 hours, 7–9 somites) - Cardiac neural crest cells begin the process of EMT and emigrate from the neural tube.
  • HH 10–11 (33–45 hours, 10–15 somites) - Primary heart tube
  • HH 12-13- (45–49 hours, 16–19 somites) - dextral-looping phase of looping completed at stage 12.
  • HH 13+ (50–52 hours, 20–21 somites) - c-shaped heart loop transformed into the s-shaped heart loop. Cardiac neural crest has stopped producing cells.

Chicken Somitogenesis

Somitogenesis 01 icon.jpg
Page | Play
Chicken Embryo Somite1-icon.jpg
 ‎‎Chicken Somite
Page | Play
Gene expression Somite timing


Chick somitogenesis oscillator[15]

Chicken body elongation model.jpg

Chicken body elongation model[16]

Chicken Limb

Limb hairy2 expression model.jpg

Limb Hairy2 Expression Model[17]

Hairy2 is a "molecular oscillator" involved in both somite and limb development.

Chicken limb gene expression 03.jpg

Chicken stage 21 to 27 wing bud Tbx2 and Tbx3 expression[18]

Chicken Head

A recent study of chicken mandible development[5] has shown MORN5 (MORN repeat containing 5, on chromosome 17, was expressed in chick craniofacial structures from stage HH17-18 (E2.5). At stage HH20 (E3) expression was localized in the mandibular prominences lateral to the midline. and from stage HH20 up to HH29 (E6), there was strong expression in restricted regions of the maxillary and mandibular prominences. DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2016.00378

The following gene expression data is from a study of different head regions during development.[19]

  • Frontonasal Prominence - CASH1/ASCL1, POSTN, OGN, CYP26A1, NR2E1, and SCARA5.
    • Olfactory epithelium SP8, EYA2, and SIX3
  • Maxillary/Trigeminal Ganglion - SOX10, TAGLN3.
  • Mandibular - DLX1, HAND2 (highest), LHX8, MSX2, PITX2, and TWIST2.
    • Mandibular/maxillary prominences differentially expressed - BETA3, HAND2, and MSX2.

Chicken Skin

Chicken skin timeline 01.jpg

Processes in chicken embryo skin development.[4]

Three different processes in chicken embryo skin development were analyzed: Micro-patterning (E6–E8), intra-bud morphogenesis (E9–E10) and follicle morphogenesis (After E11). Histological sections of three stages of chicken skin during embryonic development.

Historic Studies

The Elements of Embryology - Volume 1 by Foster, M., Balfour, F. M., Sedgwick, A., & Heape, W. (1883)

The History of the Chick: Egg structure and incubation beginning | Summary whole incubation | First day | Second day - first half | Second day - second half | Third day | Fourth day | Fifth day | Sixth day to incubation end

Keibel F. and Abraham K. Normal Plates of the Development of the Chicken Embryo (Gallus domesticus). (1900) Vol. 2 in series by Keibel F. Normal plates of the development of vertebrates (Normentafeln zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbelthiere) Fisher, Jena., Germany.

Lillie FR. The development of the chick. (1908) New York.

Elements of Embryology - Volume 1 - Figures

Other Avian Models


The domestic pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica) has an average egg development 18 days. A recent paper describes pigeon development and staging.[20]


Nicole Le Douarin
Nicole Le Douarin

Quail average egg development 15-16 days. The quail historically was used extensively by Nicole Le Douarin in chimera studies with chicken, particularly for neural crest development. See also the quail anatomy portal (For review username: demo, password: quail123).[21]

  • Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica).

Links: Nicole Le Douarin | Quail Gastrulation ECM Movie | quail anatomy portal

Animal Development: axolotl | bat | cat | chicken | cow | dog | dolphin | echidna | fly | frog | goat | grasshopper | guinea pig | hamster | horse | kangaroo | koala | lizard | medaka | mouse | opossum | pig | platypus | rabbit | rat | salamander | sea squirt | sea urchin | sheep | worm | zebrafish | life cycles | development timetable | development models | K12
Historic Embryology  
1897 Pig | 1900 Chicken | 1901 Lungfish | 1904 Sand Lizard | 1905 Rabbit | 1906 Deer | 1907 Tarsiers | 1908 Human | 1909 Northern Lapwing | 1909 South American and African Lungfish | 1910 Salamander | 1951 Frog | Embryology History | Historic Disclaimer


  1. Hamburger V & Hamilton HL. (1992). A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. 1951. Dev. Dyn. , 195, 231-72. PMID: 1304821 DOI.
  2. Davey MG, Towers M, Vargesson N & Tickle C. (2018). The chick limb: embryology, genetics and teratology. Int. J. Dev. Biol. , 62, 85-95. PMID: 29616743 DOI.
  3. Kremnyov S, Henningfeld K, Viebahn C & Tsikolia N. (2018). Divergent axial morphogenesis and earlyshhexpression in vertebrate prospective floor plate. Evodevo , 9, 4. PMID: 29423139 DOI.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Gong H, Wang H, Wang Y, Bai X, Liu B, He J, Wu J, Qi W & Zhang W. (2018). Skin transcriptome reveals the dynamic changes in the Wnt pathway during integument morphogenesis of chick embryos. PLoS ONE , 13, e0190933. PMID: 29351308 DOI.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Cela P, Hampl M, Fu KK, Kunova Bosakova M, Krejci P, Richman JM & Buchtova M. (2016). MORN5 Expression during Craniofacial Development and Its Interaction with the BMP and TGFβ Pathways. Front Physiol , 7, 378. PMID: 27630576 DOI.
  6. Atsuta Y & Takahashi Y. (2015). FGF8 coordinates tissue elongation and cell epithelialization during early kidney tubulogenesis. Development , 142, 2329-37. PMID: 26130757 DOI.
  7. Canaria CA & Lansford R. (2011). 4D fluorescent imaging of embryonic quail development. Cold Spring Harb Protoc , 2011, 1291-4. PMID: 22046043 DOI.
  8. Keibel F. and Abraham K. Normal Plates of the Development of the Chicken Embryo (Gallus domesticus). (1900) Vol. 2 in series by Keibel F. Normal plates of the development of vertebrates (Normentafeln zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbelthiere) Fisher, Jena., Germany.
  9. Foster M. Balfour FM. Sedgwick A. and Heape W. The Elements of Embryology (1883) Vol. 1. (2nd ed.). London: Macmillan and Co.
  10. Clarke J & Middleton K. (2006). Bird evolution. Curr. Biol. , 16, R350-4. PMID: 16713939 DOI.
  11. Lindow BE & Dyke GJ. (2006). Bird evolution in the Eocene: climate change in Europe and a Danish fossil fauna. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc , 81, 483-99. PMID: 16893476 DOI.
  12. Antin PB & Konieczka JH. (2005). Genomic resources for chicken. Dev. Dyn. , 232, 877-82. PMID: 15739221 DOI.
  13. De Melo Bernardo A, Sprenkels K, Rodrigues G, Noce T & Chuva De Sousa Lopes SM. (2012). Chicken primordial germ cells use the anterior vitelline veins to enter the embryonic circulation. Biol Open , 1, 1146-52. PMID: 23213395 DOI.
  14. Martinsen BJ. (2005). Reference guide to the stages of chick heart embryology. Dev. Dyn. , 233, 1217-37. PMID: 15986452 DOI.
  15. Tenin G, Wright D, Ferjentsik Z, Bone R, McGrew MJ & Maroto M. (2010). The chick somitogenesis oscillator is arrested before all paraxial mesoderm is segmented into somites. BMC Dev. Biol. , 10, 24. PMID: 20184730 DOI.
  16. Olivera-Martinez I, Harada H, Halley PA & Storey KG. (2012). Loss of FGF-dependent mesoderm identity and rise of endogenous retinoid signalling determine cessation of body axis elongation. PLoS Biol. , 10, e1001415. PMID: 23118616 DOI.
  17. Sheeba CJ, Andrade RP & Palmeirim I. (2012). Joint interpretation of AER/FGF and ZPA/SHH over time and space underlies hairy2 expression in the chick limb. Biol Open , 1, 1102-10. PMID: 23213390 DOI.
  18. Fisher M, Downie H, Welten MC, Delgado I, Bain A, Planzer T, Sherman A, Sang H & Tickle C. (2011). Comparative analysis of 3D expression patterns of transcription factor genes and digit fate maps in the developing chick wing. PLoS ONE , 6, e18661. PMID: 21526123 DOI.
  19. Buchtová M, Kuo WP, Nimmagadda S, Benson SL, Geetha-Loganathan P, Logan C, Au-Yeung T, Chiang E, Fu K & Richman JM. (2010). Whole genome microarray analysis of chicken embryo facial prominences. Dev. Dyn. , 239, 574-91. PMID: 19941351 DOI.
  20. Rodrigues T, Brodier L & Matter JM. (2020). Investigating Neurogenesis in Birds. Methods Mol. Biol. , 2092, 1-18. PMID: 31786777 DOI.
  21. Ruparelia AA, Simkin JE, Salgado D, Newgreen DF, Martins GG & Bryson-Richardson RJ. (2014). The quail anatomy portal. Database (Oxford) , 2014, bau028. PMID: 24715219 DOI.



Korn MJ & Cramer KS. (2007). Windowing chicken eggs for developmental studies. J Vis Exp , , 306. PMID: 18989413 DOI.

Search Pubmed

Search Pubmed: chicken development

Additional Images

External Links

External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.

  • e-Chick Atlas

The e-Chick Atlas of Anatomy Explore the 3-D anatomical atlas of Chick embryo development.

  • Nicole Le Douarin pioneered the use of quail-chick chimeras to study the developmental fate of cells in the bird embryo. The videotape Nicole Le Douarin gave us permission to digitize is titled, "Quail-Chick Chimeras in Development of the Nervous System and Immune System" and it was made in 1987. These digital video sequences and still images come from the first part of her videotape. These chimeras were a key to our understanding cell migration (eg neural crest) in the embryo.
    • Quicktime movie sequence 1 (477k) showing newly hatched quail-chick chimeras; white feathers are chick and dark, pigmented feathers are quail.
    • Quicktime movie sequence 2 (1.3 MB) Sequence showing the preparation of the chick host; removing a portion of host's neural tube and neural crest.
    • Quicktime movie sequence 3 (1.4 MB) Sequence showing the removal and "cleaning off" of donor quail neural tube and neural crest.
    • Quicktime movie sequence 4 (1.5 MB) Sequence showing transplantation and grafting of donor quail neural tube and neural crest into the chick host; at the end of this sequence, you see the host chick embryo 5 hours later with its healed in graft.

Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2024, June 13) Embryology Chicken Development. Retrieved from

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2024, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G